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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2018

Meraiah Foley, Marian Baird, Rae Cooper and Sue Williamson

The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneur-mothers experience independence in the transition to entrepreneurship, and whether they perceive independence as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how entrepreneur-mothers experience independence in the transition to entrepreneurship, and whether they perceive independence as an agentic, opportunity-maximisation motive or a constrained, necessity-driven response.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a qualitative and interpretive approach, the authors analysed interviews with 60 entrepreneur-mothers to refine conceptual understanding of independence.

Findings

The authors find that entrepreneur-mothers experience independence not as an opportunity, but as a functional necessity in managing the temporal and perceived moral demands of motherhood. The authors assert that there is a fundamental difference between wanting independence to pursue a more autonomous lifestyle, and needing independence to attend to family obligations, a difference that is not adequately captured in the existing conceptualisation of independence. Consequently, the authors propose the classification of “family-driven entrepreneurship” to capture the social and institutional factors that may disproportionately push women with caregiving responsibilities towards self-employment.

Practical implications

This paper proposes that a new category of entrepreneurial motivation be recognised to better account for the social and institutional factors affecting women’s entrepreneurship, enabling policymakers to more accurately position and support entrepreneur-mothers.

Social implications

The authors challenge the existing framing of independence as an agentic opportunity-seeking motive, and seek to incorporate family dynamics into existing entrepreneurial models.

Originality/value

This paper delivers much-needed conceptual refinement of independence as a motivator to entrepreneurship by examining the experiences of entrepreneur-mothers, and proposes a new motivational classification, that of family-driven entrepreneurship to capture the elements of agency and constraint embedded in this transition.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Nam Hoai Tran and Chi Dat Le

The purpose of this paper is to thoroughly investigate the interplay between institutions, foreign direct investment (FDI) and entrepreneurship in the context of emerging…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to thoroughly investigate the interplay between institutions, foreign direct investment (FDI) and entrepreneurship in the context of emerging markets (EMs).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors argue that the impact of FDI on entrepreneurial activity depends on different natures of capital flow and entrepreneurial motivation and relates to the quality of institutional environment. First, the roles of inward and outward FDI are examined in connection with the new firm creation by opportunity- and necessity-motivated entrepreneurs. Second, the integrated influences of (inward/outward) FDI and governance quality (GQ) on (opportunity/necessity) entrepreneurship are tested. This nexus of relationships is analyzed through segmented regressions using the GEM data of 39 EMs over the 2004–2015 period.

Findings

It is evidenced that the quality of governance infrastructure affects the relationship between FDI and entrepreneurship: in emerging countries with low GQ, opportunity entrepreneurship is stimulated by inward FDI and diminished by outward FDI; and in emerging countries with high GQ, necessity entrepreneurship is discouraged by inward FDI and promoted by outward FDI.

Practical implications

This research has implications for the institutional context-based execution of public policy in emerging economies. As the entrepreneurial effects of inward and outward FDI are pronounced differently under the two types of entrepreneurship and the two extremes of GQ, public policy makers who recognize the catalytic role of FDI in domestic business development should take the distinct institutional context of their country into consideration.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the extant literature on international entrepreneurship in emerging economies by making a breakdown on the roles played by different types of FDI in the entrepreneurial activity, analyzing the mediating effects of GQ on the relationship between inward/outward FDI and entrepreneurship, and interpreting the capital and institutional determinants of entrepreneurship in terms of entrepreneurial motivations by opportunity and necessity.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Aron Perenyi, Roxanne Zolin and Alex Maritz

Why is self-employment an attractive option for certain seniors and what drives seniors into business start-ups? In this study, the motivations and preferences of senior…

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1438

Abstract

Purpose

Why is self-employment an attractive option for certain seniors and what drives seniors into business start-ups? In this study, the motivations and preferences of senior entrepreneurs in Australia, to become self-employed, by means of business start-ups, are explored. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical basis for policy implications.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods study is conducted. Members of the National Senior’s Association in Australia were interviewed and surveyed. The semi-structured interviews identified the key factors influencing senior entrepreneurs in relation to self-employment and entrepreneurial choices at a later career stage. The survey collected information on intentionality, motivation, skills, opportunities, success, satisfaction, participation, barriers, benefits, education and training, and perceptions of policy support for senior entrepreneurs.

Findings

Respondents gave an account of the prevalence of pull factors motivating their choice of an entrepreneurial career. Multivariate statistical analysis of survey responses showed that senior entrepreneurs are more driven by opportunity than necessity and are primarily internally motivated.

Research limitations/implications

Results of this study suggest a weak link between motivation by others and the act of start-up, but this may also imply that those seniors who are more likely to become entrepreneurs are more likely to ignore the impulses from their social context. This requires further investigation to ensure a robust identification of drivers and an elimination of contextual effects. Further research is suggested to compose a relevant model structure in different contexts and a representative sample to confirm the model outcomes.

Originality/value

This is the first mixed methods study of the antecedents of senior entrepreneurs’ start-up intentions in Australia. The study also uses entrepreneurial activity as opposed to intention as its dependent variable, which allows for a more accurate evaluation of antecedents to the senior entrepreneurship phenomenon.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Robert W. Fairlie and Frank M. Fossen

A proposed explanation for why business creation is often found to increase in recessions is that there are two components to entrepreneurship – “opportunity” and…

Abstract

A proposed explanation for why business creation is often found to increase in recessions is that there are two components to entrepreneurship – “opportunity” and “necessity” – the latter of which is mostly counter-cyclical. Although there is some agreement on the conceptual distinction between these two factors driving entrepreneurship, there is little consensus in the literature on empirical definitions. The goal of this chapter is to propose an operational definition of opportunity versus necessity entrepreneurship based on the entrepreneur's prior work status (i.e., based on previous unemployment) that is straightforward, based on objective information, and empirically feasible using many large, nationally representative datasets. We then explore the validity of the definitions with theory and empirical evidence. Using datasets from the United States and Germany, we find that 80–90% of entrepreneurs are opportunity entrepreneurs. Applying our proposed definitions, we document that opportunity entrepreneurship is generally pro-cyclical and necessity entrepreneurship is strongly counter-cyclical both at the national levels and across local economic conditions. We also find that opportunity vs necessity entrepreneurship is associated with the creation of more growth-oriented businesses. The operational definitions of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship proposed here may be useful for distinguishing between the two types of entrepreneurship in future research.

Details

Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Rodrigo Basco

The purpose of this paper is to compare the post-entry firm behavior of firms owner-managed by entrepreneurs who entered for family-oriented vs opportunity-oriented reasons.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the post-entry firm behavior of firms owner-managed by entrepreneurs who entered for family-oriented vs opportunity-oriented reasons.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the institutional logics perspective, the author argues that firms under the influence of opportunity-oriented or family-oriented owner-managers may differ in their internal practices, purpose, strategies, and performance. The author follows an inductive research methodology strategy by performing multivariate analyses with a sample of 1,733 Chilean firms to explore the preliminary conjectures.

Findings

Firms owner-managed by entrepreneurs who entered for a family-oriented reason finance their investment with firm resources, are less dependent on one customer and are willing to put forth less innovation effort than firms owner-managed by entrepreneurs who entered for an opportunity-oriented reason. No differences were found in terms of employee productivity. Additionally, the results show that young firms owner-managed by opportunity-oriented entrepreneurs have higher growth ratios than young firms owner-managed by family-oriented entrepreneurs. Inversely, old firms owner-managed by entrepreneurs who entered for an opportunity-oriented reason grow much less than old firms owner-managed by entrepreneurs who entered for a family-oriented reason.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature at the intersection of family business and entrepreneurship by addressing the calls made by Aldrich and Cliff (2003) and Discua Cruz and Basco (2018) to better understand the family’s influence on entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Entrepreneurship for Deprived Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-988-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

George Boak and Mac Stephenson

The purpose of this article is to introduce the Management Learning Contract as an effective method of developing the skills of individual managers. Part I will describe…

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to introduce the Management Learning Contract as an effective method of developing the skills of individual managers. Part I will describe the origins and potential of the contract methods. Part II will provide a practical guide to application.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Josep Llados-Masllorens and Elisabet Ruiz-Dotras

This study aims to determine the contribution of financial skills to entrepreneurial intentions among women involved in university education.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the contribution of financial skills to entrepreneurial intentions among women involved in university education.

Design/methodology/approach

Clustering and logistic regression analyses were used to infer the determinants and motivators of entrepreneurial intention in a sample of women students at a Spanish online university.

Findings

Financial and numerical skills could play a significant role in boosting entrepreneurial culture, overcoming reticence and increasing awareness of business opportunities, particularly when women are motivated to increase their autonomy and income. The study offers meaningful implications for policymakers.

Research limitations/implications

Further research will be needed before these conclusions may be inferred to other settings and circumstances. Comparison with a similar sample of potential male entrepreneurs may also be necessary to deduce the influence of gender.

Practical implications

The introduction of certain financial content into the education system by governments and policymakers would produce remarkable results on entrepreneurship intention among women.

Social implications

Relational capital and positive social influences also contribute to mitigating the effects of risk aversion, one of the main barriers for potential female entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

The role of financial literacy in entrepreneurial intention among women has scarcely been addressed in academic research. The literature also has paid little attention to the analysis of what motivates women into entrepreneurship, and whether women who decide to embark on a business venture show different profiles. The aim of this study is to contribute to closing these gaps, exploring the effect of cognitive skills, personality traits, contextual factors and motivations.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Abetare Domi and Besnik Krasniqi

This study analyses small-firm responses to an economic crisis, based on an empirical investigation in the post-conflict economy of Kosovo. Although the recent financial…

Abstract

This study analyses small-firm responses to an economic crisis, based on an empirical investigation in the post-conflict economy of Kosovo. Although the recent financial crisis affected all economies, we can expect differences in its effects across economies depending on their level of economic development, relative exposure to the crisis, as well as differences in entrepreneurial responses to adapt to the crisis. Kosovo makes a unique case to investigate the impact of the crisis on firm adaptive strategies to overcome or cope with the crisis. Drawing on data from in-depth, multiple case studies show that small firms during the crisis have successfully chosen to diversify and expand into new areas of business in order to compensate for low demand. By contrast, cost reduction was not a successful strategic response. The study demonstrates that although crisis affects many small firms, they show underlying resilience and a high level of adaptability and flexibility.

Details

Societal Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-471-7

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Sanya Ojo

This study aims to discover how ethnic entrepreneurs actually understand the performance of their business through clarification of key indicators they use in evaluating…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discover how ethnic entrepreneurs actually understand the performance of their business through clarification of key indicators they use in evaluating business success and failure.

Design/methodology/approach

The attribution of success and failure in business was investigated through in-depth interviews, bolstered by the self-determination theory, with some UK’s Black African entrepreneurs.

Findings

Findings suggest that ethnic entrepreneurs’ attribution of success and failure is not only subjectively constructed but also enacted through cultural symbolism. The combination of cultural and personal values provoked attitudinal idiosyncrasy that construes business failure as success.

Originality/value

The result offers valuable knowledge to academics/practitioners researching success and failure factors in the ethnic entrepreneurship field.

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