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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Rajiv P. Dant, Audhesh K. Paswan and John Stanworth

Franchising has long been seen as an avenue into small business. For some, it offers opportunities to build up franchise systems, as franchisors, by cloning small business…

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1452

Abstract

Franchising has long been seen as an avenue into small business. For some, it offers opportunities to build up franchise systems, as franchisors, by cloning small business success in exchange for a royalty. For many others, as franchisees, it offers opportunities for self‐employment, combining elements of the independence normally associated with self‐employment allied with the security derived from association with a tried‐and‐tested business system. However, there is an ongoing debate, the ownership redirection thesis, which suggests that franchise systems will only characteristically seek to involve franchisees in their business growth strategies during the early phases of business development. Thereafter, when finance, human capital and local market intelligence resources are no longer at a premium, the thesis predicts, franchisors will reduce their dependence on franchising with franchisees the prime casualties. Assesses the available evidence on the ownership redirection thesis and offers some fresh data on the issue.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Johanna Nählinder, Malin Tillmar and Caroline Wigren

The purpose of this study is to discuss the theory of gender bias in innovation studies, to illustrate the gender bias of innovation studies by using empirical means and…

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1638

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss the theory of gender bias in innovation studies, to illustrate the gender bias of innovation studies by using empirical means and to suggest what is needed to reduce such bias. Previous studies on innovation have primarily focussed on male-dominated industries. These studies have been biased and hence unable to capture the range of innovations covered by theoretical definitions.

Design/methodology/approach

An innovation survey was conducted among entrepreneurs in the traditionally “female-labelled” health-care industry, avoiding the “male-labelled” concept of innovation itself in the questionnaire. The authors endeavoured to ascertain whether there is a significant difference between males and females in terms of innovativeness. Quantitative analyses were used to analyse the results and draw comparisons with an ordinary innovation survey.

Findings

Using a gender-aware operationalisation of innovation, no significant difference in innovativeness was found between men and women. This suggests that more attention is needed to correct the prevailing gender bias in innovation studies. A research model is presented to further understand the gender-biased operationalisations of innovation. Each of its three dimensions has a clear impact upon perceived innovativeness: the gender-label of the sector studied, the gender-neutrality of the operationalisation used in the study and the gender of the actors involved. All dimensions should be taken into account in future innovation studies that aim for gender neutrality.

Practical implications

Operationalisations for measuring innovations are usually biased. Therefore, women appear less innovative, which, in turn, leads to less visibility.

Originality/value

Gender perspectives are very seldom employed in innovation studies. In quantitative studies of this sort, it is even rarer. Our empirical evidence from the quantitative study shows the urgency of the need to broaden the concept both in academic, political and public debates. This is not the least for efficiency reasons in resource allocation and public policy.

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International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Walter Amedzro St-Hilaire

The article broaches the important topic of the relationships between governance operationalizations and productivity at the start-up level. It proposes a new approach to…

Abstract

Purpose

The article broaches the important topic of the relationships between governance operationalizations and productivity at the start-up level. It proposes a new approach to reconnect the contingency factors to the optimization of productivity. This helps us to identify the changing characteristics that influence the determinants of decisions, actions and management of the technological projects of the mainly innovative enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses techniques that effectively solve unobserved endogeneity and heterogeneity problems in enterprises: an empirical–structural design. With this method, this study enables rich empirical conceptualization and helps with extending theory. However, there is a need to further the research by taking into account the system analysis and the complexity of the research object: one of the options might be to explore a possible follow-up of the research through drawing on ethnostatistics and qualimetrics.

Findings

The analysis reveals that the phenomenon of technological project productivity in operational governance context is thus manifested by the coexistence of the applied governance configuration variables, the contingency factors operationalization, the optimizing productivity mechanisms and this with the secular innovation and stagnation and stagnation. Ceteris paribus, the governance operationalizations have an important role in the productivity of technological projects of the innovative enterprises.

Originality/value

This research is the first to mobilize as major determinants of the operationalization of governance, the oversight of the capital, the dividend strategy and the system control, the managerial follow-up, the detection of opportunistic behaviours and the application of governing incentives (among others) as governance configuration variables in order to highlight their interactions with productivity in the innovative firm technological projects. For this reason alone, the paper will be referenced by other authors in the future.

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Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Ulla Hakala, Sonja Lätti and Birgitta Sandberg

Brand heritage is acknowledged as one of the future priorities in branding research. Adopting it in an international context is challenging. In order to maximise its use…

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8910

Abstract

Purpose

Brand heritage is acknowledged as one of the future priorities in branding research. Adopting it in an international context is challenging. In order to maximise its use it is necessary to know how strong it and the target country's cultural heritage are. Accordingly, the aim of the study is to construct a pioneering operationalisation of both brand and cultural heritage.

Design/methodology/approach

The study begins with a discussion on the focal concepts. Definitions are proposed and suggestions for operationalisation put forward. Thereafter, the concepts are applied in an analysis of brand heritage in different countries.

Findings

It is suggested that brand heritage is a mixture of the history as well as the consistency and continuity of core values, product brands, and visual symbols. A country's cultural heritage could be conceived of as homogeneity and endurance.

Research limitations/implications

The preliminary operationalisation of the concept needs to be further tested. Nevertheless, the clarification and suggestions offered here should open up opportunities for further research.

Practical implications

The exploitation of brand heritage in international markets is likely to be further accentuated. The operationalisations generated are easy for practitioners to apply, enabling companies to better evaluate what brand heritage means for them and to effectively plan its use in an international setting.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to suggest operationalisations of brand heritage and cultural heritage.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Dushar Kamini Dayarathna, Peter John Dowling and Timothy Bartram

This paper aims to examine the implications of high performance work system (HPWS) strength from a managerial perspective and the impact of economic, cultural, political…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the implications of high performance work system (HPWS) strength from a managerial perspective and the impact of economic, cultural, political, legal and technological factors on the operationalization of HPWSs in the banking industry in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study were collected from three licensed commercial banks in Sri Lanka. This research used a case study approach for data collection with archival analysis of records and semi-structured interviews with the CEO, head of HR, two board members and three focus groups (top, middle and lower level managers across various functional areas) in each bank which altogether covers 66 key informants.

Findings

The findings supported the research proposition that to gain positive outcomes on organizational effectiveness, there should be a strong HPWS, resulting in a positive attitudinal climate among employees. Further, the findings provide evidence of the global applicability of HPWSs, although more research is needed to clearly specify the contextual boundaries of HPWS effectiveness.

Originality/value

Contemporary research provides ample evidence to endorse the contribution of high performance work systems toward organizational effectiveness. However, there is a dearth of literature on how high performance work systems are operationalized across the management hierarchy and support the achievement of organizational effectiveness. Few studies have been conducted on high performance work system strength and organizational effectiveness in emerging economies.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Carolin Scheiben and Lisa Carola Holthoff

The chapter investigates factors shaping convenience orientation in the 21st century as well as present-day barriers to the consumption of food and non-food convenience products.

Abstract

Purpose

The chapter investigates factors shaping convenience orientation in the 21st century as well as present-day barriers to the consumption of food and non-food convenience products.

Methodology/approach

A qualitative research approach with two kinds of data triangulation is used. Multiple key informants (marketing managers and consumers) allow a consideration from different angles and multiple methodologies (in-depth and focus group interviews) help to gain deeper insights into the topic.

Findings

Convenience orientation comprises dimensions that were previously not considered in marketing research. In addition to the known factors time and effort saving, consumers buy convenience products because of the flexibility they provide. Moreover, concerns for health, environment, and quality are important barriers that prevent consumers from buying and consuming convenience products.

Research limitations/implications

Our results suggest that factors increasing and decreasing convenience consumption depend at least partly on the product category. Future research should integrate various other product groups to further explore domain-specific convenience orientation.

Practical implications

The conceptualization of convenience orientation offers important implications for new product development as well as for the design of the marketing mix. For instance, existing barriers could be overcome by improving transparency or meeting environmental concerns.

Originality/value

The chapter reveals the factors shaping the consumption of convenience products. The presented findings are important to academics researching convenience consumption and practitioners producing and distributing convenience products.

Details

Qualitative Consumer Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-491-0

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Špela Orehek and Gregor Petrič

The concept of information security culture, which recently gained increased attention, aims to comprehensively grasp socio-cultural mechanisms that have an impact on…

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1170

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of information security culture, which recently gained increased attention, aims to comprehensively grasp socio-cultural mechanisms that have an impact on organizational security. Different measurement instruments have been developed to measure and assess information security culture using survey-based tools. However, the content, breadth and face validity of these scales vary greatly. This study aims to identify and provide an overview of the scales that are used to measure information security culture and to evaluate the rigor of reported scale development and validation procedures.

Design/methodology/approach

Papers that introduce a new or adapt an existing scale of information security culture were systematically reviewed to evaluate scales of information security culture. A standard search strategy was applied to identify 19 relevant scales, which were evaluated based on the framework of 16 criteria pertaining to the rigor of reported operationalization and the reported validity and reliability of the identified scales.

Findings

The results show that the rigor with which scales of information security culture are validated varies greatly and that none of the scales meet all the evaluation criteria. Moreover, most of the studies provide somewhat limited evidence of the validation of scales, indicating room for further improvement. Particularly, critical issues seem to be the lack of evidence regarding discriminant and criterion validity and incomplete documentation of the operationalization process.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers focusing on the human factor in information security need to reach a certain level of agreement on the essential elements of the concept of information security culture. Future studies need to build on existing scales, address their limitations and gain further evidence regarding the validity of scales of information security culture. Further research should also investigate the quality of definitions and make expert assessments of the content fit between concepts and items.

Practical implications

Organizations that aim to assess the level of information security culture among employees can use the results of this systematic review to support the selection of an adequate measurement scale. However, caution is needed for scales that provide limited evidence of validation.

Originality/value

This is the first study that offers a critical evaluation of existing scales of information security culture. The results have decision-making value for researchers who intend to conduct survey-based examinations of information security culture.

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Martin Müller and Huguette Aust

This paper aims to present an in‐depth review on the latest state of empirical research in transaction cost economics (TCE), focusing on single‐industry studies. The…

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1030

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an in‐depth review on the latest state of empirical research in transaction cost economics (TCE), focusing on single‐industry studies. The intensely discussed subject of operationalization of transaction costs is critically assessed, and a concept of how to increase the quality of findings in empirical studies is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was obtained by a literature research and review in high‐class media and submitted to in‐depth quantitative and qualitative analysis such as content analysis.

Findings

The findings are in part unexpected and substantially contribute to research: applicability of TCE to a broad range of industries is found, the majority being large industries with important markets. Most studies support TCE statements, some suggesting theory extension by complementary aspects. Operationalization of transaction costs remains a field requiring further research.

Research limitations/implications

First, this article is condensed and therefore limited to single‐industry studies within TCE, understanding “industry” as a specialized field of activity. The question of industry boundaries may be a base for future research. Second, the subject of operationalization of transaction costs still requires further research.

Practical implications

Decision makers can continue to use TCE for various applications such as strategic alliance, vertical integration, governance choice, make‐or‐buy or contract choice questions. A shortcoming in most articles reviewed is the presentation of the industry's characteristics. Authors need to consider them in order to increase the qualitative level of single‐industry studies.

Originality/value

This paper provides significant insight into the field of single‐industry TCE studies. As a result of penetrating research in high‐class media and in‐depth analysis, the paper provides highly structured and intensely examined statements on existing literature and related findings, which support TCE statements and will lead current disputes in the literature to a further stage.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 111 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Safal Batra, Sunil Sharma, Mukund Dixit and Neharika Vohra

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a multi-dimensional second-order operationalization of strategic planning, to advance the understanding of this construct.

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1286

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a multi-dimensional second-order operationalization of strategic planning, to advance the understanding of this construct.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on the strategic planning construct were collected using survey questionnaire administered to 123 small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) in India.

Findings

The findings clearly reveal that the strategic planning construct can be effectively operationalized as a second-order multi-dimensional construct.

Research limitations/implications

Data for this study have been collected primarily from SMEs of manufacturing firms. Further investigation in other kinds of firms may help in the enhancement of the construct.

Originality/value

Scholars have long called for using second-order constructs in strategy research. Operationalizing multi-dimensional constructs as unidimensional leads to inaccurate results and interpretations. By demonstrating a second-order operationalization of strategic planning, the authors illustrate better ways of operationalizing a construct. At the same time, this operationalization should help in better understanding of the implications of strategic planning on firm performance.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

James P. Spillane, Eric M. Camburn, James Pustejovsky, Amber Stitziel Pareja and Geoff Lewis

This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school – the…

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2050

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school – the leader‐plus aspect of a distributed perspective, which it aims to investigate.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the entailments of the distributed perspective for collecting and analyzing data on school leadership and management. It considers four different operationalizations of the leader‐plus aspect of the distributed perspective and examines the results obtained from these different operationalizations. The research reported in this paper is part of a larger study, an efficacy trial of a professional development program intended to prepare principals to improve their practice. The study involved a mixed method design. For the purpose of this paper a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, including an experience sampling method (ESM) principal log, a principal questionnaire (PQ), and a school staff questionnaire (SSQ) was used.

Findings

While acknowledging broad similarities among the various approaches, the different approaches also surfaced some divergence that has implications for thinking about the epistemological and methodological challenges in measuring leadership from a distributed perspective. Approaches that focus on the lived organization as distinct from the designed organization, for example, unearth the role of individuals with no formal leadership designations in leading and managing the school.

Research limitations/implications

Limited by the data set, the paper focuses on only four operationalizations of the leader plus aspect of the distributed perspective rather than taking a more comprehensive look at how the leader plus aspect might be operationalized.

Originality/value

The primary value of this paper is that it will prompt scholars to think about the entailments of different ways of operationalizing the leader plus aspect when using a distributed perspective.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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