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Examines the influence of several size‐related factors on retailmanagement′s choice of the organization′s functional division structureand multiunit operating system based…
Examines the influence of several size‐related factors on retail management′s choice of the organization′s functional division structure and multiunit operating system based on data collected from a sample of retail department store personnel managers in the United States. Suggests that the retail organization′s size and the number of functional divisions employed are directly related. After nearly two‐thirds of a century, department stores continue to use the basic functional‐division organization developed by Paul Mazur which has been modified into a model that includes: merchandising, publicity and promotion, store operations, finance and control, and personnel. The study further reveals a link between the organization′s size and retail management′s choice of a multiunit operating system. Implications are provided to assist management in evaluating the appropriateness of the firm′s functional division structure and operating system in response to several key factors.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
The ongoing availability of existing industrial systems/machines depends to a great extent on the form and level of product support. Product support, or the after sale…
The ongoing availability of existing industrial systems/machines depends to a great extent on the form and level of product support. Product support, or the after sale service of a product, is important because it assures the expected function of the product in its operational phase. Product support is affected by a number of factors, including system reliability and maintainability characteristics and the operating environment. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of time independent external factors of industrial systems on product support requirements and spare parts need.
This paper, after discussing the factors influencing product support, describes a method to estimate spare part requirements based on estimation of the actual reliability of a product under the influence of the product‐operating environment using a proportional hazard model. A spare parts estimation software, Spare Management Software (SMS), is used to check the results. Then a case study addresses the management of the spare parts inventory based on the geographical location and required performance of the product.
The lack of good support and critical spare parts can cause the untimely stoppage of a machine/system. The forecasting of product support and spare parts requirements based on the reliability and maintainability characteristics of systems/components, along with influencing environmental factors, is one of the most effective strategies for preventing unplanned stoppages. The operating environment of a system/machine has a considerable influence on the performance of the system and its technical characteristics, such as its reliability, maintainability, and, consequently, availability. Therefore, the system operating environment should be considered when the required support and spare parts estimation is under review.
In this research, the focus is on the estimation of the number of spare parts required. Only non‐repairable components/parts in repairable systems are studied. In other words, the paper considers one‐component systems or a single component within a larger system. The operation and maintenance phases are dealt with in the study, along with the external operating environment and time independent influencing factors.
The introduced method for spare parts estimation will enable management to improve system availability and production line efficiency while minimizing total production costs. Consequently, the plant life cycle cost will be minimized by releasing the tied‐up costs incurred when stocking extra parts for a long time.
The paper provides a new outlook on product support and spare parts forecasting by taking the actual system operating environment into consideration. It helps managers and engineers to be realistic and act pragmatically while running and analyzing technical/industrial systems.
The purpose of this paper is to explain how the system science and cybernetics in Stafford Beer's viable system model (VSM) will help management structure and manage their company to achieve on‐going success in a fast‐changing world.
The author worked with Stafford Beer in the 1970s, applying his VSM in the corporation he then worked for and has used the VSM ideas in work with companies in 16 countries, always with success. The VSM instructs in how to structure and how to manage. For what to manage the author used Peter Drucker's key performance areas, and has more than 50 years of experience working in these areas.
The author has found, during his long career in industry and in consulting, that the VSM is the best available guide for structuring and managing a business enterprise for success in turbulent times.
In the 1950s, Ralph Cordiner “decentralized” General Electric into 120 businesses, pioneering a new, better way to structure and manage a corporation. After 50 years, we have the next revolutionary advance in management, the system science and cybernetics in Stafford's VSM. The VSM includes information and environments in structure, enabling companies to change as appropriate for achieving on‐going success in a world of huge and fast‐growing variety.
The paper shows how a simple form of the VSM includes all the system science company management needs to structure and manage their company for enduring success in fast‐changing times.
A substantial body of research employs agency theory and transaction costs analysis to explain ownership decisions in distribution channels. Agency theory identifies…
A substantial body of research employs agency theory and transaction costs analysis to explain ownership decisions in distribution channels. Agency theory identifies factors that prompt firms to favor behavior‐based contracting over outcome‐based agreements. Transaction cost economics is a complementary framework which maintains that the organizational form in a location should be the one that economizes on production and transaction costs. Prior research illustrates that independent variables (e.g. proximity to highways, dedicated assets) outlined in these theories provide a partial explanation for ownership decisions. Nevertheless, scant research has analyzed whether factors outlined in agency theory and transaction cost analysis are employed by executives when making ownership decisions. The purpose of this study is to investigate managerial rationales underlying plural contractual networks.
Involvement in the effective design and use of computer‐basedinformation systems is essential for the manager of the 1990s. To bemost effective, systems must be designed…
Involvement in the effective design and use of computer‐based information systems is essential for the manager of the 1990s. To be most effective, systems must be designed for the requirements of the manager‐user. Too often there is a communication gap between managers who are too busy, uninterested or unwilling to become directly involved, on the one hand, and on the other, the consultant who is more usually engrossed in the special nature of the system. The author aims to provide an up‐to‐date and integrated treatment of organisation and management, as well as to emphasise the utilisation of management information systems to improve the art of managing.