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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

David L. Gray

Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.Methodology/approachAnderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003

Abstract

Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.

Methodology/approachAnderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003) laid important groundwork for the study of asymmetric cost behavior or cost stickiness. The authors found that a firm’s selling, general, and administrative costs (SG&A) costs increase more with a sales increase than those expenses decrease with an equivalent sales decline. Their findings provided avenues for many studies with differing focal variables; however, extant research has not explored the degree of cost stickiness associated with operating lease expenses. Recognizing the nature and magnitude of operating leases and the competitive and changing environment for retailers, this study adapts Anderson et al.’s (2003) model to provide insights into operating lease stickiness. The study uses archival financial data from 1997 through 2016 for specialty retail firms in testing the lease cost stickiness hypotheses.

Findings – The results of this study supported the hypotheses that operating lease expenses exhibit stickiness behavior and are relatively stickier than future lease commitments for retail firms.

Originality/value – By focusing on retail firms and related lease expenses, this study provides insights into the increasingly competitive retailer environment. This article’s findings will enhance understanding of how specialty retail firms’ managers react to reduced revenues. Finally, given recent authoritative pronouncements affecting accounting for leases and the significance of leasing transactions, research providing insights into cost behavior and managerial actions stands to make an important contribution to literature and practice.

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Grzegorz Mazurek, Anna Miotk and Artur Maciorowski

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are…

Abstract

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are currently enjoying a period of fast and stable growth. This is manifested by the growing number of both Internet users and companies which – to an ever-increasing extent – use the Internet as a form of communication (both internal and external), promotion, sales etc. Expenditures on Internet advertising are growing continuously and now constitute more than 25% of all advertising expenditure. A natural consequence of this development is the need for the standardisation and organisation of the world of the Internet. These activities will result in a greater awareness of the benefits which this medium provides, increasing the possibilities of its use, and – most importantly – the opportunity to evaluate the return on investments made on the Internet. Nowadays, it is clear that many companies are striving to increase the quality of their activities on the Internet or to improve the effectiveness of such activities. As a consequence, the number of companies that look for indices which would enable the making of more precise and effective decisions in the scope of online operations is growing.

This chapter is dedicated to the phenomenon of the increasing role of the Internet in business, including the scale of its use by Polish and international companies. We present the most commonly used measures of marketing activities on the Internet and in social media. This group includes the indices which make it possible to determine whether a company actually needs a website. Other measures allow for the improvement in the effectiveness of the activity on the Internet, whereas others specify the costs of activities on the Internet and often serve as the basis for settlements between a company and advertising agencies or companies specialising in website design. It is worth emphasising that the Paid, Earned, Shared, Owned (PESO) model, worked out by Don Bartholomew,1 is the basis for creation and description of indices concerning social media. This model has gained certain popularity in the social media industry. It does not, however, specify how individual indices should be named and calculated. It maps already existing indices and adapts them to specific levels of marketing communication measurement. All the measures indicated by the author of the model have been grouped into five major areas: exposure, engagement, brand awareness, action and recommendations. This model– similarly to all models of performance measurement – inspired by the sales funnel concept, adjusts certain standard indices and proposals of measurements for specific levels. Additionally, the measures are divided into four types, depending on who the owner of the content is: Paid (P) – refers to all forms of paid content; Owned (O) – all websites and web properties controlled by a company or brand; Earned (E) – the contents about a given brand created spontaneously by Internet users; and Shared (S) – the contents shared by Internet users.

Details

Mastering Market Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-835-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Ali Mohammadi and Parastoo Taherkhani

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationship between organizational capital and the subsets of organizational capital (intellectual capital (IC)) cost and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the relationship between organizational capital and the subsets of organizational capital (intellectual capital (IC)) cost and cost stickiness.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is causal correlational research. The data related to the company’s financial statements were collected using the Rahavard Novin Software and www.rdis.ir. In this study, panel data were run with the use of Eviews 8, in order to test the hypotheses. The ordinary least-squares method is used in this study to estimate the parameters of the model.

Findings

The results obtained from the study show that there is a significant relationship between organizational capital and cost stickiness. However, there is no significant difference between high and low rank in terms of organizational capital and cost stickiness. In addition, there is a significant difference between IC and cost stickiness. Moreover, there is no significant difference between the components of IC and cost stickiness. Also, IC has an effect on the intensity of the relationship between organizational capital and cost stickiness.

Originality/value

This study explores the relationship between organizational capital and the subsets of IC and cost stickiness. Independent variables used in this study include organizational capital, IC and its components in the Pulic model, i.e. the efficiency of capital employed, the efficiency of human capital and the efficiency of structural capital.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Mahdi Salehi, Nasrin Ziba and Ali Daemi Gah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial reporting and cost stickiness in companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial reporting and cost stickiness in companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Data of all Iranian manufacturing listed companies gathered for testing hypotheses during 2010–2016 and R statistical software are employed in order to analyzing data.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that there is a significant relationship between administrative, sale, material, labor and overhead costs and the financial reporting qualities of the companies under study.

Originality/value

The study focuses on relationship between financial reporting and cost stickiness in companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange, which is the first study of its type in Iran.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Bolesław Kołodziejczyk, Dmytro Osiichuk and Paweł Mielcarz

Relying on a unique proprietary Polish office market space database, the paper attempts to quantify the impact of buildings' age on the financial performance of real estate assets.

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on a unique proprietary Polish office market space database, the paper attempts to quantify the impact of buildings' age on the financial performance of real estate assets.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel econometric modeling was utilized to disentangle the impact of buildings' functional obsolescence and technical deterioration on their long-term financial performance.

Findings

In line with casual empiricism, our findings show a negative associative link between properties' age and potential lease revenue. The concomitant stickiness of service charges presages a possible long-term deterioration of financial outcomes of real estate investments. While older buildings generally have higher occupancy rates, the absorption rates are found to be negatively affected by the properties' age. On the bright side, the elasticity of vacancy rate with respect to rental rates is found to decrease as buildings get older. Further, the rent differential is confirmed to be more pronounced in higher age properties hinting at an existing potential for price discrimination, which may at least partially compensate for stagnant rents.

Originality/value

Our empirical results confirm the properties' age to be a statistically significant factor in shaping the long-term performance of real estate assets, which should be better accounted for in financial projections for real estate developments.

Details

Property Management, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Abstract

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-913-0

Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2015

Sarah Kaplan

This chapter reports on the “CEO’s-eye-view” of the 1990 financial crisis at Citibank using unique data from CEO John Reed’s private archives. This qualitative analysis…

Abstract

This chapter reports on the “CEO’s-eye-view” of the 1990 financial crisis at Citibank using unique data from CEO John Reed’s private archives. This qualitative analysis sheds light on questions that have perennially plagued executives and intrigued scholars: How do organizations change routines in order to overcome inertia in the face of radical change in the environment? And, specifically, what is the role of the CEO in this process? Inertial behavior in such circumstances has been attributed to ingrained routines that are based on cognitive and motivational truces. Routines are performed because organizational participants find them to cohere to a particular cognitive frame about what should be done (the cognitive dimension) and to resolve conflicts about what gets rewarded or sanctioned (the motivational dimension). The notion of a “truce” explains how routines are “routinely” activated. Routines are inertial because the dissolution of the truce would be inconsistent with frames held by organizational participants and fraught with the risk of unleashing unmanageable conflict among interests in the organization. Thus, the challenge for the CEO in making intended change is both to break the existing truce and to remake a new one. In this study, I uncover how the existing organizational truce led to the crisis at Citibank, why Reed’s initial attempts to respond failed, and how he ultimately found ways to break out of the old truce and establish new routines that helped the bank survive. These findings offer insight into the cognitive and motivational microfoundations of macro theories about organizational response to radical change.

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Cognition and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-946-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Samuel Garrido

In formulating his theory of land rent, Ricardo did not take into account the fact that in the Europe of his time relationships between landlords and tenants were often…

Abstract

In formulating his theory of land rent, Ricardo did not take into account the fact that in the Europe of his time relationships between landlords and tenants were often regulated by customs that kept rents below marginal product, sometimes even in the long term. Since all those customs had a number of points in common, understanding the logic governing one of them can be a very useful way to gain an overall understanding of the phenomenon. This chapter analyses a case of such customs in the area of market-gardens surrounding the city of Valencia, eastern Spain. Here, tenants were by custom the owners of the improvements they carried out, agricultural efficiency increased, and land rents stagnated. The chapter addresses issues such as cooperation among large groups of people, definition of rights and the creation of property rights by means of social conventions that clashed with law.

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Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-557-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Andreas Pfnuer and Stefan Armonat

A great number of German companies are suffering an acute financial crisis. Financial optimisation of the substantial property holdings owned by German companies offers an…

Abstract

A great number of German companies are suffering an acute financial crisis. Financial optimisation of the substantial property holdings owned by German companies offers an opportunity to reduce costs and to free up capital. However, the demands on property for operational purposes create difficulties when optimisation is carried out exclusively for financial objectives. In this paper it will be shown, by means of an empirical investigation of real estate directors and financial managers of the leading German undertakings, that companies are failing to take the decisive step towards optimisation. The reason for this lies in inadequate internal preparations, manifested in the lack of a linkage between real estate strategy and corporate strategy. Property rights‐oriented analyses of real estate assets create new scope to refinance existing holdings, without sacrificing the important requirements of the units occupying them. This paper discusses the essential steps to a solution and explains the potentials that can be enhanced by a structured financial optimisation of property holdings.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2022

Basim Alzugaiby

The existing literature, generally based on US data, provides little evidence that supports whether managerial ability directly links to corporate risk-taking. Hence, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing literature, generally based on US data, provides little evidence that supports whether managerial ability directly links to corporate risk-taking. Hence, this study aims to expand the limited extent by investigating the impact of managerial ability on risk-taking across Saudi firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study mainly uses a panel fixed-effects model, including firm-year and firm-industry, to analyse a sample of Saudi non-financial firms from the period 2008 – 2018. In the empirical analysis, the managerial ability is lagged by one year to mitigate endogeneity concerns that may arise from reverse causality. To avoid omitted variables bias, this study includes several firm-level control variables.

Findings

The empirical results show that the relationships between managerial ability and firm risk-taking measures are negative and statistically significant with the standard deviation of return on assets (sROA) and leverage; positive and statistically significant with the Z-score. These results indicate that firms managed by high-ability executives have the propensities to take less risk. The main results remain robust to additional sensitivity analyses including an alternative measure for managerial ability, an alternative proxy for risk-taking using logistic regression analysis, using financial crises as dummy variables, and using a cross-lagged panel model with fixed effects for endogeneity concerns.

Practical implications

When evaluating firms, all market and society participants including researchers, regulators, supervisors, policymakers, and boards ought to pay close attention to managerial ability as one of the main factors affecting risk-taking.

Originality/value

Previously, closely related studies, focussing on the US market, mainly find that managers with high ability are receptive to risk-taking. This paper offers further international insight into the relevant literature by providing evidence that capable managers are inclined to take low risks.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 48 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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