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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Yuka Fujimoto, Charmine E.J. Härtel and Günter F. Härtel

Detrimental effects of diversity in workgroups has frequently been observed but research identifying the factors that lead to negative or positive effects in heterogeneous…

Abstract

Detrimental effects of diversity in workgroups has frequently been observed but research identifying the factors that lead to negative or positive effects in heterogeneous groups is lacking. The Perceived Dissimilarity Openness Moderator Model provides one explanation of the process by which diversity influences group affective, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes. Specifically the model identifies individual, group, and organizational openness as moderating the effects of diversity in workgroups. In this paper evidence is provided from a field study that increased openness to perceived dissimilarity leads to better outcomes in newly formed groups. This study also constitutes a significant building block toward the development of theory concerning the moderating variables of the relationship between diversity and group processes, and outcomes of organizations.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Publication date: 7 May 2019

Jacob Lauring, Jan Selmer and Karsten Jonsen

We aim to explore whether demographic groups of varying status positions differ in terms of their perception of work group members’ openness to deep-level and…

Abstract

Purpose

We aim to explore whether demographic groups of varying status positions differ in terms of their perception of work group members’ openness to deep-level and surface-level diversity. We also explore the effect that task group conflict and relational group conflict have on perceptions of openness to diversity.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Quantitative analysis of responses from 489 academics in multicultural university departments is applied. A comparison is made of different demographic groups based on age, nationality, and seniority with regard to perceptions of work group members’ openness to diversity. Specifically, we focused on perceptions of the work group’s openness to value dissimilarity (deep-level) and openness to visible dissimilarity (surface-level).

Findings

We found that there are indeed differences between demographic groups with regard to perceptions of the work group’s openness to value dissimilarities. No significant differences could be found in relation to openness to visual dissimilarities for any of the demographic sub-samples. We also found that there were differential effects of contextual adverse circumstances in the form of relational group conflict and task group conflict on the perceptions of the two types of work group openness to diversity.

Practical Implications

The knowledge that different demographical groups perceive their peers’ openness to diversity differently is an important insight when decisions regarding diversity issues have to be taken.

Originality/Value

Few studies have focused on perceptions of diversity. This is an important omission because individuals often act upon their perceptions, rather than on objective reality.

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Jakob Lauring and Jan Selmer

Post‐secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and…

Abstract

Purpose

Post‐secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international university departments in Denmark. The authors set out to investigate the relationship between different types of staff diversity and openness to diversity in terms of linguistic, visible, value, and informational heterogeneity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses responses from 489 staff members from diverse university departments to a self‐report electronic survey.

Findings

It was found that diversity‐related internationalization (cultural and linguistic) was generally positively related to favorable diversity attitudes. Inherent demographic diversity (age and gender), on the other hand, was unrelated or negatively associated with positive diversity attitudes.

Originality/value

Few studies deal with the role of staff diversity and no prior studies the authors know of have examined the link between diversity types and openness to diversity.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Simon Andrew Moss, Gretchen Ennis, Kerstin Z. Zander, Timothy Bartram and Darren Hedley

To enhance their innovation and reputation, many organizations introduce programs that are intended to attract, retain and support diverse communities. Yet, these programs…

Abstract

Purpose

To enhance their innovation and reputation, many organizations introduce programs that are intended to attract, retain and support diverse communities. Yet, these programs are often unsuccessful, partly because explicit references to diversity tend to evoke defensive reactions in employees from the dominant culture. To circumvent this problem, the purpose of this paper is to explore the hypothesis that individuals tend to be more receptive to diversity whenever they experience meaning in life. Furthermore, four workplace characteristics – informational justice, a manageable workload, equality in status and a compelling vision of the future – should foster this meaning in life.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess these possibilities, 177 employees completed a survey that assessed workplace practices, meaning in life and openness to diversity.

Findings

The results showed that informational justice, a manageable workload and a compelling vision were positively associated with openness to other cultures, constituencies and perspectives, and these relationships were partly or wholly mediated by meaning in life.

Originality/value

These findings imply that leaders might be able to foster an openness to diversity, but without explicit references to this diversity, circumventing the likelihood of defensive reactions. Specifically, a program that simultaneously encourages transparent communication, diminishes workload and clarifies the vision or aspirations of the future may represent an inexpensive but powerful means to foster an openness to diversity.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2020

Mohammad Shahin Alam and DuckJung Shin

This study developed and tested a moderated mediation model on workplace diversity management. The analysis examined whether diversity management affects job satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

This study developed and tested a moderated mediation model on workplace diversity management. The analysis examined whether diversity management affects job satisfaction via perceived discrimination, depending on employees' openness to experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Building upon the assumptions of social identity theory, social cognitive theory and Big-Five theory, this study proposed and tested a model that analyzes the process through which diversity management influences perceived visible diversity discrimination and job satisfaction, depending on employees' openness to experience.

Findings

This study found support for the proposed moderated mediation model, which suggests that diversity management interacts with employees' openness to experience personality to influence their job satisfaction through perceived visible diversity discrimination. The results indicated that diversity management increased employees' job satisfaction in the workplace and that the relationship between diversity management and job satisfaction was further mediated by employees' perceptions of being discriminated against because of their age, gender and racial identities. The effect of diversity management on job satisfaction through perceived visible diversity discrimination was stronger when employees had high levels of openness to experience.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that the diversity management is an important organizational intervention to improve job satisfaction by providing a scientific explanation of its underlying psychological process and identifying the factors associated with the process, such as personality and perception of being discriminated.

Originality/value

This study contributes to extend the diversity management literature by applying the assumptions of social identity theory, social cognitive theory and Big-Five theory together to identify the relationship between diversity management and job satisfaction and the effect of perceived discrimination and openness to experience in the relationship.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Jakob Lauring and Jan Selmer

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency as group‐level antecedents for positive dissimilarity attitudes by use of questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic culturally diverse departments.

Findings

The results showed that communication frequency has strong positive relationships with three variables depicting positive dissimilarity attitudes, namely openness to linguistic, visible and informational diversity. Contradicting our predictions, language diversity had positive associations with all variables portraying positive dissimilarity attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail.

Originality/value

Few prior studies have dealt with the relations between language, communication and dissimilarity attitudes.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Mark E. Moore

The purpose of this research paper is to examine the effect of gender openness on female student representation within sport management preparation programs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to examine the effect of gender openness on female student representation within sport management preparation programs.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was sent to 172 undergraduate and graduate sport management preparation programs within North America and 72 completed surveys were returned. These data were used to test confirmatory factor and structural equation models at the undergraduate (n=47) and graduate levels (n=47).

Findings

Results show that gender openness progresses sequentially and is an effect of programmatic size.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitation of this research investigation was the utilization of a cross‐sectional design given the topic sensitivity. Despite its cross‐sectional focus, the study offers important insight about gender openness and inclusion for female students within sport management education.

Originality/value

This study utilized a non‐standard approach by examining programs relative to gender openness in sequence as they relate to women in management education. This refreshed approach should be valued by scholars and practitioners alike.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2017

Wencang Zhou, Yanli Zhang and Yali Shen

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore the contingency effects of personality composition on the shard leadership and entrepreneurial team performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore the contingency effects of personality composition on the shard leadership and entrepreneurial team performance relationship and second, to examine different contingency effects that team personality mean score and team personality diversity have on the shared leadership – entrepreneurial team performance relationship, using the person-team fit theory and the Big-5 framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 200 entrepreneurial teams in a technology incubator founded in 2009 in eastern China. Data were collected through an online survey.

Findings

Team conscientiousness level and team openness to experience diversity were found to interact with shared leadership to influence team effectiveness in a supplementary way, such that the relationship between shared leadership and team effectiveness will be stronger when the team’s mean score on conscientiousness level is high and diversity score on openness to experience is low. Another finding from this study is that team diversity scores on emotional stability and agreeableness interact with shared leadership in a complementary way; that is, the higher the diversity score, the better influence shared leadership has on team effectiveness.

Practical implications

First, this study provides policy implications for government agencies, foundations, and universities who provide support for start-ups in incubators. These institutions should know the importance of entrepreneurial team composition and team process to start-up performance and should provide entrepreneurial teams support in team development. Second, the study provides entrepreneurs with implications regarding team member selection.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to study the interaction between personality composition and shared leadership and its impact on new venture performance. These findings advance the literature on moderators of shared leadership by demonstrating that team personality composition on conscientiousness, openness to experience, emotional stability, and agreeableness moderates the relationship between shared leadership and entrepreneurial team performance.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2019

The researchers wanted to find out if leaders could promote diversity in the workplace without even speaking about it. Their theory was that creating a more open…

Abstract

Purpose

The researchers wanted to find out if leaders could promote diversity in the workplace without even speaking about it. Their theory was that creating a more open, empathetic and positive environment reduced bias against minorities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors asked 177 recruits to fill in questionnaires online. They analyzed the data to respond to two hypotheses. The first was that “informational justice, manageable job demands, equality in status and a clear vision of the future should foster openness to diversity”. The second hypothesis was split into two. One part suggested that meaning in life mediated relationships between workplace practices and openness to diversity. And hypothesis 2B suggested the same for clarity of the future.

Findings

After analyzing their data, the researchers said the results vindicated Hypothesis One. Hypothesis 2A, concerning meaning in life, was also confirmed. However, 2B, concerning future clarity, was not significantly associated with openness to diversity.

Originality/value

The value is in showing managers and leaders that there are effective alternatives to 'diversity' initiatives, which are often unpopular with dominant groups and promote defensive attitudes. Concentrating on improving the general culture of the workplace decreases suspicion towards minorities.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2019

Poonam Mishra and Amitabh Deo Kodwani

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between relationship conflict and the perception of organization politics (POP) and the moderating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between relationship conflict and the perception of organization politics (POP) and the moderating role of employee engagement. The study hypothesizes that the conflict results in the presence of POP only for those employees who are relatively less engaged with the organization. The paper further explores the mediating role of perceived politics between the relationship conflict and job-related outcome variables including openness to diversity, turnover intent and perception of justice. In sum, the authors contend that employee engagement will act as a moderator between relationship conflict and POP, and POP further will act as a mediator between relationship conflict and its job-related outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive study was carried on to conduct this research. Data were collected at two different points of time from the employees of two public sector undertakings (n=206). About 80 questionnaires were not returned by the respondents, reducing the sample size to be 126. Of these, 115 were usable, resulting in a 55.83 percent response rate. SEM was employed to test the hypotheses with the help of Smart PLS 3.0. A two-step process was followed to test the hypothesized model. Testing the significance of proposed relationships in the structural model was followed by the evaluation of the measurement model.

Findings

The results of the study highlighted a positive association between the relationship conflict and POP. A moderating effect of employee engagement on relationship conflict and perceived organizational politics (POP) was observed. Further, POP was found to have a positive relationship with the intention to leave and a negative relationship with openness to diversity and perception of justice was observed. POP mediated the relationship between relationship conflict with the intention to leave and the perception of justice.

Research limitations/implications

The very first limitation of the present study is its cross-sectional design. Since the data were gathered from the same respondents, the causal relationships between variables are subject to biases (Bobko and Stone-Romero, 1998). Further, the data were gathered with the help of self-report questionnaires, and the findings of this study might have been influenced by the social desirability response bias (Podsakoff et al., 2003). Hence, future work should focus on using a combination of sources for data collection. This study also proposes a possible role of emotional intelligence in employee engagement and their POP, which can be tested in future studies.

Practical implications

The study suggests that relationship conflict leads to POP, which eventually results in adverse job-related outcomes. In order to control the negative effects of politics perception, organizations should undertake conflict prevention and conflict management techniques. To further reduce the level of POP, organizations shall take steps to better engage their employees because even when the level of relationship conflict is high, people perceive less politics if they are highly engaged with the organization.

Originality/value

The study is an original work carried out to understand the relationship between relationship conflict and the POP, and the moderating role of employee engagement.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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