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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Marijn Janssen, Ricardo Matheus, Justin Longo and Vishanth Weerakkody

Many governments are working toward a vision of government-wide transformation that strives to achieve an open, transparent and accountable government while providing…

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Abstract

Purpose

Many governments are working toward a vision of government-wide transformation that strives to achieve an open, transparent and accountable government while providing responsive services. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of transparency-by-design to advance open government.

Design/methodology/approach

The opening of data, the deployment of tools and instruments to engage the public, collaboration among public organizations and between governments and the public are important drivers for open government. The authors review transparency-by-design concepts.

Findings

To successfully achieve open government, fundamental changes in practice and new research on governments as open systems are needed. In particular, the creation of “transparency-by-design” is a key aspect in which transparency is a key system development requirement, and the systems ensure that data are disclosed to the public for creating transparency.

Research limitations/implications

Although transparency-by-design is an intuitive concept, more research is needed in what constitutes information and communication technology-mediated transparency and how it can be realized.

Practical implications

Governments should embrace transparency-by-design to open more data sets and come closer to achieving open government.

Originality/value

Transparency-by-design is a new concept that has not given any attention yet in the literature.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Dan Wu, Hao Xu, Wang Yongyi and Huining Zhu

Currently, countries worldwide are struggling with the virus COVID-19 and the severe outbreak it brings. To better benefit from open government health data in the fight…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, countries worldwide are struggling with the virus COVID-19 and the severe outbreak it brings. To better benefit from open government health data in the fight against this pandemic, this study developed a framework for assessing open government health data at the dataset level, providing a tool to evaluate current open government health data's quality and usability COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the review of the existing quality evaluation methods of open government data, the evaluation metrics and their weights were determined by 15 experts in health through the Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process. The authors tested the framework's applicability using open government health data related to COVID-19 in the US, EU and China.

Findings

The results of the test capture the quality difference of the current open government health data. At present, the open government health data in the US, EU and China lacks the necessary metadata. Besides, the number, richness of content and timeliness of open datasets need to be improved.

Originality/value

Unlike the existing open government data quality measurement, this study proposes a more targeted open government data quality evaluation framework that measures open government health data quality on a range of data quality dimensions with a fine-grained measurement approach. This provides a tool for accurate assessment of public health data for correct decision-making and assessment during a pandemic.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2021

Si Li and Yi Chen

This paper explains the formation of government resistance to open data based on the cognition of stakeholders in Chinese context.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explains the formation of government resistance to open data based on the cognition of stakeholders in Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting grounded theory, this study interviewed 22 stakeholders to collect data. Through continuous coding, this study identified the main categories and then constructed theoretical models.

Findings

This study identified and explained five main categories that relate to resistance: practice, perception, organizational culture, motivation and resistance strategies. Then, a framework was developed that conceptualizes the government' resistance to open data. Based on the division of the forms of motivation, there are three paths through which government departments resist open data, namely, avoiding disadvantages to the organization, being unwilling to increase the workload and being unwilling to take the initiative.

Originality/value

This paper reveals the internal logic of government departments' resistance to open data and provides a process explanation beyond causality. It also provides a reference for other countries in the same preliminary stage as China with respect to open data implementation.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Han Zhang, Ying Bi, Fei Kang and Zhong Wang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors influencing the behaviors of government officials during the implementation of open government data (OGD). By…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors influencing the behaviors of government officials during the implementation of open government data (OGD). By identifying and understanding the key factors that determine government officials' adoption of OGD in China, this study can create a valuable reference for other countries and their decision-making regarding government implementation of OGD.

Design/methodology/approach

This research collected data by in-depth interviews with government officials in Chinese OGD departments. Through these interviews, the authors consulted 15 administrators from departments that are responsible for the information tasks in Beijing and other cities on their opinions about OGD. The authors also interviewed senior executives from information technology (IT) companies, as well as open data policy scholars from big data alliance and research institutions.

Findings

This paper provides insights about how to promote government officials in OGD implementation, including (1) strengthen social supervision for the environment, through developing and publishing OGD technology roadmaps, then attracting the public to actively participate in the implementing of OGD; (2) establish an OGD assessment mechanism for government officials, with bonus motivations, position promotion incentives, as well as spiritual incentives via regional or sector rankings; (3) alleviate the risks of officials' OGD decisions in actual practice, using the institution construction of OGD to guide its direction and strengthen security protection.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study how government officials' behavior can be motivated on OGD implementation.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Maxat Kassen

The peer-to-peer perspective on open data is an interesting topic to research, taking into account that data-driven innovations and related startups are often developed…

Abstract

Purpose

The peer-to-peer perspective on open data is an interesting topic to research, taking into account that data-driven innovations and related startups are often developed independently by civic and private stakeholders in a highly collaborative manner and are tentatively beginning to directly compete with traditional e-government solutions, providing arguably better services to citizens and businesses. In this regard, the paper aims to further debate on the potential of such independent data-driven collaboration not only to transform the traditional mechanisms of public sector innovations but also provide more democratic ways to ensure greater transparency of government and its responsibility before the society.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a cross-country case study, resorting to the content analysis of three demonstrative cases in the development of open data-driven projects, which specifically promote peer-to-peer communication between its stakeholders. In this regard, the case study itself relies heavily on the analysis of rich empirical data that the author collected during his field studies in the Northern European region in 2015–2017, particularly in Estonia, Finland and Sweden. The practical research itself consists of three major parts, which reflect peer-to-peer perspectives of correspondingly civic, public and private stakeholders through manifested examples of related independent projects in the area.

Findings

The paper's results demonstrate that the use of peer-to-peer mechanisms in advancing related public sector reforms allows to transform the traditional understanding of e-government phenomena in a conceptually new way. E-government or its last more political interpretation – from the perspective of its peers could be regarded not necessarily as a platform to provide digital public services but as a source of raw material for various third party projects in, respectively, civic, government and business peer-to-peer dimensions of such reforms. As a result, open data provides an interesting playground to change the very nature of public sector innovations in the area.

Research limitations/implications

The choice of countries for research was motivated by purposive and convenience sampling because all these countries are situated in one region, have both similarities and differences in historical, political and socioeconomic backgrounds and, therefore, provide an ideal playground to investigate open data as a context dependable phenomenon. In this regard, the unique political and socioeconomic contexts of these countries provide an interesting playground to debate on the potential of social democracy, egalitarian society and social equality, i.e. public values that are deeply embedded into the fabric of societies there, to benefit the open data movement in a fundamental manner.

Practical implications

This paper reports on unique practical approaches for peer-to-peer collaboration and cooperation in advancing open data-driven platforms among stakeholders. The results of the case studies in three Nordic countries, which are currently among global leaders in advancing the concept of open government, are presented in an intrinsically illustrative manner, which could help practitioners and policymakers to understand better the potential of such a peer-to-peer perspective on open data. In this regard, the models proposed, of citizen-to-citizen, business-to-business, government-to-government interactions, could be interesting to a wide audience of e-government stakeholders in many nations.

Social implications

The paper also enters into philosophical debates about societal implications of digital peer-to-peer data-driven communication among people. Recent efforts to digitize almost every part of social life, starting from popularization of solutions for distant work and ending to online access to various public services, incentivize individual members of civil society to communicate in an inherently peer-to-peer way. This fact will definitely increase the demand for related digital services. Social distancing in a digital context will allow to paradoxically emancipate technically savvy and entrepreneurial people in creating new services, including using open data, which could meet the demand.

Originality/value

The research is intrinsically of an empirical character because recent e-government reforms in the public sector in many countries, including in the open data area, provide rich practical knowledge to test the limits of new technologies to advance society in socioeconomic and, more importantly, political development. In this regard, this paper provides the first research in analyzing open data from a unique peer-to-peer perspective with an ultimate goal of the whole investigation to draw the attention of other e-government scholars and initiate debates on the collaborative nature of the phenomena to empower civil society and ensure transparency of government.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Katherine Mary Chorley

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges that open government data initiatives present to records management within the public sector in England and to…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges that open government data initiatives present to records management within the public sector in England and to identify areas of practice and policy that will need to be developed to ensure compliance with such environments.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of current literature underpins the analysis of data collected through an anonymised case study of a National Health Service (NHS) hospital trust. Data were collected through a qualitative research in the form of semi-structured interviews with information professionals at the case study site. Additionally, a short descriptive online survey was distributed to the members of a specialist interest group, the Health Archives and Records Group.

Findings

Open government data presents a series of interconnected practical challenges to records management at a local level as the open government data environment continues to develop. These practical challenges overshadow a number of technical challenges, such as ensuring the accuracy and integrity of proactively published data.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this research is the small number of interviews conducted during data collection, which limits its capacity to present more generalised findings.

Originality/value

The case study of an individual NHS hospital trust allows for a specific insight into the challenges that open government data presents to records management within a single operational unit.

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Stuti Saxena

With the ongoing drives towards Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives across the globe, governments have been keen on pursuing their OGD policies to ensure transparency…

Abstract

Purpose

With the ongoing drives towards Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives across the globe, governments have been keen on pursuing their OGD policies to ensure transparency, collaboration and efficiency in administration. As a developing country, India has recently adopted the OGD policy (www.data.gov.in); however, the percolation of this policy in the States has remained slow. This paper aims to underpin the “asymmetry” in OGD framework as far as the Indian States are concerned. Besides, the study also assesses the contribution of “Open Citizens” in furthering the OGD initiatives of the country.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory qualitative following a case study approach informs the present study using documentary analysis where evidentiary support from five Indian States (Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal, Sikkim and Gujarat) is being drawn to assess the nature and scope of the OGD framework. Further, conceptualization for “Open Citizen” framework is provided to emphasize upon the need to have aware, informed and pro-active citizens to spearhead the OGD initiatives in the country.

Findings

While the National OGD portal has a substantial number of data sets across different sectors, the States are lagging behind in the adoption and implementation of OGD policies, and while Telangana and Sikkim have been the frontrunners in adoption of OGD policies in a rudimentary manner, others are yet to catch up with them. Further, there is “asymmetry” in terms of the individual contribution of the government bodies to the open data sets where some government bodies are more reluctant to share their datasets than the others.

Practical implications

It is the conclusion of the study that governments need to institutionalize the OGD framework in the country, and all the States should appreciate the requirement of adopting a robust OGD policy for furthering transparency, collaboration and efficiency in administration.

Social implications

As an “Open Citizen”, it behooves upon the citizens to be pro-active and contribute towards the open data sets which would go a long way in deriving social and economic value out of these data sets.

Originality/value

While there are many studies on OGD in the West, studies focused upon the developing countries are starkly lacking. This study plugs this gap by attempting a comparative analysis of the OGD frameworks across Indian States. Besides, the study has provided a conceptualization of “Open Citizen” (OGD) which may be tapped for further research in developing and developed countries to ascertain the linkage between OGD and OC.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Juyeon Ham, Yunmo Koo and Jae-Nam Lee

To create the expected value and benefits through open data, appropriate provision and usage of data are required simultaneously. However, the level of provision and usage…

Abstract

Purpose

To create the expected value and benefits through open data, appropriate provision and usage of data are required simultaneously. However, the level of provision and usage of open data differs from country to country. Moreover, previous research on open data has only focused on either open data provision or usage. To fill the research gap, the purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to understand the current status of the provision and usage of open data; second, to identify patterns in the provision and usage of open data; and third, to provide appropriate future directions and guidelines for the transformation paths of each pattern.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed the data collected from open data portals of 13 countries that provide information on the provision and usage of open data together.

Findings

The authors identified four patterns of the provision and usage of open data, namely, availability-driven, government-driven, market-driven and interaction-driven patterns. Furthermore, three strategic paths of transformation reach a high level of open data provision and usage, namely, data provision-focused, data usage-focused and balanced transformation paths.

Originality/value

This study provides a foundation that enables researchers to build a holistic theory that can integrate fragmented and incomplete knowledge of open data and usage, particularly in the context of government.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Rui Pedro Lourenço, Suzanne Piotrowski and Alex Ingrams

This paper aims to analyse extant literature on open data, distinguish and categorize the strands of public accountability research and use the results to provide better…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse extant literature on open data, distinguish and categorize the strands of public accountability research and use the results to provide better clarity in the concept of open data-driven public accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic review of 135 open data articles and 155 accountability articles from the e-government reference library. A multi-stage analysis results in 12 articles which are categorized using Bovens’ (2007) accountability theory of information, discussion and consequences. Conceptual development, using the literature analysis, forms the final section of the paper.

Findings

Research demonstrates that a range of open data topics has been advanced. However, just 12 articles exist that simultaneously address open data and accountability theory. Of the total 155 public accountability articles, the preponderant focus is on the information (N = 25) and discussion (N = 7) stages of the accountability process. Just one article focuses on the complete accountability process. To address this problem, the characterization of open (government) data-driven public accountability establishes conceptual crispness and clarity.

Originality/value

Public accountability theory on open government has become overshadowed by social and economic value perspectives. This paper clarifies and advances the open data-driven public accountability perspective. It takes stock of public accountability research, delimits the key issues and questions and highlights the next steps needed for developing scholarship.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Maxat Kassen

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the promising potential of open data in Kazakhstan to boost public sector innovations and trace the emergence of the related civic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the promising potential of open data in Kazakhstan to boost public sector innovations and trace the emergence of the related civic engagement initiatives in order to understand how it affects the democratization of political communication processes in a typical developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study research which begins with a brief history of the official open data project and then investigates various political and socioeconomic drivers, corresponding regulatory acts, the leading role of the key stakeholders and policy entrepreneurs in the diffusion of the open data movement as well as the main challenges associated with the advance of the open government concept in Kazakhstan, while various independent open data-driven projects provide a rich empirical basis for the analysis.

Findings

Open data provides new opportunities to promote civic engagement and e-participation but does not affect the fundamentals of the political system nor advances democratic institutions in a typical developing country. The traditional directives could paradoxically be effective in advancing open data even in a less collaborative political culture. The unitary administrative context is conducive for the development of the ICT-driven public sector initiatives as a single platform. The existence of independent developers is crucial in promoting various open data-driven projects and sharing related expertise. The open data movement creates a favorable atmosphere for the participation of the non-governmental sector in the sphere.

Research limitations/implications

This case study is primarily focused on the analysis of the open data movement at the national level of government, taking into account the unitary structure of the public administration system existing in Kazakhstan, which apparently has a crucial fundamental effect on the realization of any e-government system in this country. In this respect, the main limitation of the research is that the possible existence of various open data-driven projects at the local levels that hypothetically may have a different set of political and socioeconomic drivers and challenges was excluded from the final equation, which provides a new window for the future research in the area.

Practical implications

The results of the research could be used by e-government practitioners and policymakers in evaluating and improving the operation of the open data-driven projects in many developing countries.

Social implications

The author of the paper tried to develop a universal framework of the case study research that could be used in investigating the open data phenomenon not only in Kazakhstan but also in the context of other developing and transitional countries, especially in analyzing the apparitional emergence of the unique networking activities among the key stakeholders of the open data movement, i.e. policymakers, NGOs, businesses, developers, mass media and citizens. In addition, the results of the analysis could be used in testing the political and socioeconomic implications of the highly centralized e-government approach in the realization of the open data concept in a number of other typical unitary states.

Originality/value

In scientific works, the open data phenomenon is usually analyzed in the context of the most developed and democratic countries of the world with a vast majority of case studies being focused only on North America and Europe, forgetting that it is a global trend. In contrast to the traditional trends in the academic literature, the author of the paper studies the realization of the concept in an unusual context, resorting to the case study of a typical emerging and post-totalitarian nation such as Kazakhstan and focusing on the analysis of the key drivers and challenges in the diffusion of the open data concept in an attempt to answer the ultimate question: whether it is really harnessed by the members of civil society to promote civic engagement and e-participation.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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