Search results

1 – 10 of over 3000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Charles Chidozie Nnaji

This paper examined the current status of municipal solid waste management across Nigeria. The core aspects covered are generation, characterization, collection…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examined the current status of municipal solid waste management across Nigeria. The core aspects covered are generation, characterization, collection, scavenging, open dumping, disposal and environmental implications of poor solid waste management. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of the current state of municipal solid waste management in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was executed by a combination of an extensive literature search and field study. Solid waste generation rates for 31 Nigerian cities were obtained from literature. In addition, characteristics of municipal solid waste from 26 Nigerian cities were also obtained from literature. Other aspects such as characterization of solid waste obtained from final dumpsite and heavy metals accumulation in solid waste dumpsites were undertaken first hand.

Findings

Solid waste generation rate was found to vary from 0.13 kg/capita/day in Ogbomosho to 0.71 kg/capita/day in Ado-Ekiti. Factors affecting solid waste generation rates were identified. Typically, food waste was found to constitute close to 50 percent of overall municipal solid waste in Nigerian cities. This study shows that the rate of generation of plastics, water proof materials and diapers has assumed an upward trend. Due to the dysfunctional state of many municipal waste management authorities, many cities have been overrun by open dumps. For instance, more than 50 percent of residents of Maiduguri in northern Nigeria and Ughelli in southern Nigeria dispose of their waste in open dumps. Indiscriminate disposal of waste has also resulted in the preponderance of toxic heavy metals in agricultural soils and consequent bioaccumulation in plants as well as groundwater contamination.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this research is municipal waste management authorities do not have relevant data. Hence, there was heavy reliance on published materials. The status of waste management in Nigeria is very deplorable and therefore poses serious threats to public and environmental health. There is urgent need for both government and individuals to adopt holistic and sustainable waste management strategies in order to safeguard public/environmental health.

Practical implications

Findings from this paper can form a veritable resource for the formulation and implementation of sustainable municipal solid waste management framework and strategies in Nigeria.

Originality/value

While most studies on municipal solid waste management in Nigeria are focussed on selected cities of interest, this particular study cuts across most cities of Nigeria in order to present a broader and holistic view of municipal solid waste management in Nigeria. The paper has also unraveled core municipal solid waste management challenges facing Nigerian cities.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

S. Saxena, R.K. Srivastava and A.B. Samaddar

This paper aims to describe the present waste management scenario in the city of Allahabad listing the gaps in the waste management system.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the present waste management scenario in the city of Allahabad listing the gaps in the waste management system.

Design/methodology/approach

The research work was divided into three stages. The first stage was the collection of background data regarding municipal solid waste management systems such as waste generation, waste collection, treatment and disposal methods. The second stage involved data organization and data analysis. The third stage provided the conceptual framework that has been developed for MSW management, and finally a sustainable and suitable waste management option was provided for improving the MSW management in Allahabad.

Findings

The existing solid waste management approach in the city is highly unprofessional and lacking in scientific methodologies. There is neither proper collection nor proper treatment and disposal of waste. Most of the waste is dumped in low lying areas leading to pollution of land, air and water due to leachate generation.

Practical implications

There is need to develop a correct and detailed database of waste generation, collection and treatment system in various wards of Allahabad so that required manpower, equipments and other services can be estimated for designing a proper waste collection, treatment and disposal system. No site for engineered landfill has been identified as per the site selection criteria provided by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. The suggestions in this paper have been made on the basis of data collected, actual observations and analysis.

Originality/value

The work identifies the gap in the present solid waste management system of Allahabad City.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Martin Oteng-Ababio

The purpose of this paper is to interrogate the fate of landfills as waste disposal option in Accra. This becomes imperative since for a long time, efficient disposal of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to interrogate the fate of landfills as waste disposal option in Accra. This becomes imperative since for a long time, efficient disposal of waste remains a neglected issue and potential source environmental hazard.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted content analysis of literature, in-depth interview schedules with key stakeholders and direct field observations.

Findings

Landfills in Accra are in a state of ambivalence due to mismanagement. Improper designing and siting of dumpsites, often in close proximity to water sources and human settlements have created aesthetic and odour nuisances and increase health risks, attracting the wrath, disaffection and distrust of residents.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides an insight into broader issues of landfills and demonstrates Accra's vulnerability to health hazard due to improper waste disposal, which becomes apparent with the least downpour and the subsequent flooding which exposes most drains as de facto receptacles for waste.

Practical implications

From all indications, Accra appears to be on the brink of a landfill void. Though this issue has been an open secret since 2000, it remains unattended to till date and calls for an immediate, well-planned and concerted attention.

Originality/value

This paper adopts qualitative research techniques to delve into a subject matter whose implication has citywide consequences. The method allows for in-depth assessment of the intent and commitment of all key stakeholders, which brings to the fore that landfills will no longer be the cheapest or simplest waste disposal option.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

THE COMPLEXITY of modern pressurisation and air conditioning systems for jet aircraft have led increasingly to the practice of selecting a single contractor to design and…

Abstract

THE COMPLEXITY of modern pressurisation and air conditioning systems for jet aircraft have led increasingly to the practice of selecting a single contractor to design and integrate all of the components into a compatible system tailored to the mission requirements of the aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Charles Geisler and Ben Currens

Recreancy is a concept that received William R. Freudenburg’s studied attention. Freudenburg moved beyond its conventional meaning – shirking duty – to a larger realm of…

Abstract

Recreancy is a concept that received William R. Freudenburg’s studied attention. Freudenburg moved beyond its conventional meaning – shirking duty – to a larger realm of irresponsibility by public actors who breach a societal trust they assume. This research focuses on the issue of “Peak Farmland,” a rendering of global carrying capacity that, we suggest, qualifies for what Freudenburg called “privileged discourse” and possibly recreancy. Scholars identified with dematerialized progress argue that finite farmland in the face of increasing population will improve human welfare and spare land for nature. This iconoclasm presents an arena for testing academic probity with respect to global food security. After an overview of past carrying capacity debates, we summarize the “Peak Farmland” position of the dematerialization school and suggest an important blind spot: the dematerialization of the global land base itself. Gathering the results of multiple studies on land loss, we offer evidence that the world’s warehouse of productive land is not just peaking but eroding on a grand scale. Ignoring this form of dematerialization while proclaiming nearly unlimited carrying capacity for Earth’s denizens strains the meaning of responsible scholarship.

Details

William R. Freudenburg, A Life in Social Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-734-4

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Jaemin Lee and Youngjeen Cho

The purpose of this paper is to examine zeroing jurisprudence under the WTO’s Anti-Dumping Agreement and to see if the jurisprudence can still be applied to situations of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine zeroing jurisprudence under the WTO’s Anti-Dumping Agreement and to see if the jurisprudence can still be applied to situations of targeted dumping where dumping takes place in a specific region, at specific timing, or for specific consumer groups.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the prior decisions of the WTO panels and the Appellate Body relating to the zeroing practice. It categorizes the key elements of these prior decisions where the zeroing practice has been found WTO-inconsistent. While there has been no specific dispute addressing targeted dumping per se, this paper proves that core elements of the zeroing practice have been anatomized and dissected by the panels and the Appellate Body in prior proceedings. The paper then analyzes whether these key elements still exist in the specific context of targeted dumping and thus whether application of zeroing is still prohibited in targeted dumping situations.

Findings

The existing jurisprudence on zeroing from previous WTO disputes should apply to targeted dumping situations as well. Unbridled application of zeroing in the targeted dumping situations will effectively nullify the existing zeroing jurisprudence accumulated through a decade of WTO disputes. If unchecked, this calculation methodology in the context of targeted dumping may open the back door wide open for “zeroing” negative anti-dumping margins. The paper concludes that the existing jurisprudence on zeroing stands for the proposition that zeroing in targeted dumping should also be prohibited.

Originality/value

This paper examines the legality of the zeroing practice in targeted dumping situations, which has been one of the most controversial issues among WTO members for the past several years. The analyses and discussions contained in this paper will provide legal guideline to evaluate zeroing in targeted dumping within the WTO framework. The outcome of the research will provide a platform for continued research and discussion in this area.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Adun Janyalertadun, Chumsunti Santaweesuk and Sompop Sanongraj

This paper aims to present the production of waste plastic oil from landfill waste plastics, the performance and emissions of a compression ignition (CI) engine, using…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the production of waste plastic oil from landfill waste plastics, the performance and emissions of a compression ignition (CI) engine, using waste plastic oil, were tested and compared with using diesel oil. The physical characteristics, gross calorific value (MJ/kg), kinematic viscosity cst @40°C, specific gravity @15.6°C, cetane index, flash point and distillation temperature @90 per cent are determined. The experimental CI engine is a four-stroke, direct injection, single cylinder, 709 C.C. and has been tested with in-brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake conversion efficiency, brake-specific energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

The results show that the characteristics of liquid fuel from landfill plastics (LFLP3) are similar to diesel oil. The CI engine was able to run with LFLP3. The efficiency was slightly higher than that of diesel fuel, whereas the BSFC was lower. The exhaust-gas emission average for LFLP3 was reduced compared to diesel oil operation.

Findings

The efficiency of the CI engine using LFLP3 is slightly higher than diesel fuel at all load conditions. In this study, LFLP3 was a lower pollutant than diesel fuel. Environmental values and energy consumption are important when reviewing the ignition of any fuel in a combustion chamber.

Originality/value

The efficiency of the CI engine using LFLP3 is slightly higher than diesel fuel at all load conditions. In this study, LFLP3 was a lower pollutant than diesel fuel. Environmental values and energy consumption are important when reviewing the ignition of any fuel in a combustion chamber.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Rojas-Trejos Carlos Alberto and González-Velasco Julián

Waste production is one of the most important problems that humankind faces. Human-based activities generate diverse waste types that have to be treated and disposed…

Abstract

Waste production is one of the most important problems that humankind faces. Human-based activities generate diverse waste types that have to be treated and disposed differently. This results in the need to build more facilities to manage the waste and to avoid further environmental damage. Colombia established a successful policy to close open dumps and to control pollution. Notwithstanding the advances that have been made in final disposal, it is necessary to extend the life of the final disposal sites and increase the closure of open landfills. Valle del Cauca is the third most populated Colombian province, and it is also considered the third province that generates more waste. This chapter addresses the problem of locating solid waste disposal centers in Valle del Cauca by applying the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with fuzzy logic, a multicriteria method that compares opinions of a decision-making group. Additionally, each potential location area is characterized by considering industrial and environmental issues, societal dynamics, infrastructure and topography, costs, and taxes. After applying a variant of AHP, the decision-making group was able to find that Jamundi is the best location to open the disposal center. The method shows strong potential to identify and prioritize alternative locations for a diverse group of stakeholders. Most importantly, the methodology lets us structure better qualitative and quantitative data, as well as to link multiple levels to avoid choosing locations that will affect society, environment, and other stakeholders, without considering the trade-offs among diverse criteria considering benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (BOCR).

Details

Supply Chain Management and Logistics in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-804-4

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2007

Robert D. Bullard

This chapter chronicles some of the early years of the author growing up in the racially segregated South Alabama and its influence on his thinking about race…

Abstract

This chapter chronicles some of the early years of the author growing up in the racially segregated South Alabama and its influence on his thinking about race, environment, social equity, and government responsibility and his journey to becoming an environmental sociologist, scholar, and activist. Using an environmental justice paradigm, he uncovers the underlying assumptions that contribute to and produce unequal protection. The environmental justice paradigm provides a useful framework for examining and explaining the spatial relation between the health of marginalized populations and their built and natural environment, and government response to natural and man-made disasters in African American communities. Clearly, people of color communities have borne a disproportionate burden and have received differential treatment from government in its response to health threats such as childhood lead poisoning, toxic waste and contamination, industrial accidents, hurricanes, floods and related weather-related disasters, and a host of other man-made disasters. The chapter brings to the surface the ethical and political questions of “who gets what, why, and how much” and why some communities get left behind before and after disasters strike.

Details

Equity and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1417-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Kapil Dev Sharma and Siddharth Jain

Due to the increasing population and prosperity, the generation rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has increased significantly, resulting in serious problems on public…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the increasing population and prosperity, the generation rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) has increased significantly, resulting in serious problems on public health and the environment. Every single person in the world is affected by the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) issue. MSWM is reaching a critical level in almost all areas of the world and seeking the development of MSW strategies for a sustainable environment. This paper aims to present the existing global status of MSW generation, composition, management and related problems.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 59 developed and developing countries have been grouped based on their gross national income to compare the status of various MSWM technologies among them. A total of 19 selection criteria have been discussed to select appropriate MSWM technology(s) for a city/town, which affects their applicability, operational suitability and performance. All risks and challenges arising during the life cycle of the waste to energy (WtE) project have also been discussed. This paper also gives a comparative overview of different globally accepted MSWM technologies and the present market growth of all WtE technologies.

Findings

It was found that most developed countries have effectively implemented the solid waste management (SWM) hierarchy and are now focusing heavily on reducing, reusing and recycling of MSW. On the other hand, SWM has become very serious in low-income and low-middle-income countries because most of the MSW openly dumps and most countries are dependent on inadequate waste infrastructure and the informal sector. There are also some other major challenges related to effective waste policies, availability of funds, appropriate technology selection and adequacy of trained people. This study clears the picture of MSW generation, composition, management strategies and policies at the worldwide context. This manuscript could be valuable for all nations around the world where effective MSWM has not yet been implemented.

Originality/value

This study clears the picture of solid waste generation, composition, management strategies and policies at the worldwide context. This manuscript could be valuable for all nations around the world where effective MSWM has not yet been implemented. In this study, no data was generated. All supporting data were obtained from previously published papers in journals, the outcomes of the international conferences and published reports by government organizations.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000