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Article

Juyeon Ham, Yunmo Koo and Jae-Nam Lee

To create the expected value and benefits through open data, appropriate provision and usage of data are required simultaneously. However, the level of provision and usage

Abstract

Purpose

To create the expected value and benefits through open data, appropriate provision and usage of data are required simultaneously. However, the level of provision and usage of open data differs from country to country. Moreover, previous research on open data has only focused on either open data provision or usage. To fill the research gap, the purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to understand the current status of the provision and usage of open data; second, to identify patterns in the provision and usage of open data; and third, to provide appropriate future directions and guidelines for the transformation paths of each pattern.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed the data collected from open data portals of 13 countries that provide information on the provision and usage of open data together.

Findings

The authors identified four patterns of the provision and usage of open data, namely, availability-driven, government-driven, market-driven and interaction-driven patterns. Furthermore, three strategic paths of transformation reach a high level of open data provision and usage, namely, data provision-focused, data usage-focused and balanced transformation paths.

Originality/value

This study provides a foundation that enables researchers to build a holistic theory that can integrate fragmented and incomplete knowledge of open data and usage, particularly in the context of government.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 119 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article

Stuti Saxena

While “transparency-by-design” serves as the antecedent of any Open Government Data (OGD) initiative (Janssen et al., 2017), its logical objective would be the extent to…

Abstract

Purpose

While “transparency-by-design” serves as the antecedent of any Open Government Data (OGD) initiative (Janssen et al., 2017), its logical objective would be the extent to which datausage” is facilitated. This paper aims to underscore the significance, drivers and barriers to ensure “usage” of data sets conceding that re-use of data sets is one of the key objectives of any OGD initiative.

Design/methodology/approach

With a documentary analysis approach, the OGD initiative of Sri Lanka is investigated for the present purpose. Furthermore, the theoretical model of citizen engagement in OGD suggested by Sieber and Johnson (2015) is being referred to appreciate the extent to which the usage of data sets is facilitated via the OGD platform.

Findings

There are drivers as well as barriers as far as facilitating the usage of the data sets in the Sri Lankan OGD initiative is concerned. For instance, some of the drivers are the provision of suggesting data sets or the possibility of referring to data sets which are historical in nature. However, there are countless barriers to usage than the drivers. For instance, there is absence of metadata in the data sets; the data sets are not updated regularly; there are historical data; the formats of the data sets are limited in nature and are not user-friendly; there is no facility of conducting data visualization or analytics, and there is no collaborative approach towards building further the OGD initiative.

Research limitations/implications

As only one case study is probed in the paper, further research is warranted to undertake a comparative approach by taking two or more case studies into consideration.

Practical implications

This study holds relevance for Sri Lankan Government and other stakeholders (policy makers, citizens, developers and the like) so far as furthering of user engagement in OGD initiative is concerned.

Social implications

Facilitating more usage by citizens would increase their engagement, and they might derive value out of the data sets. At the same time, the government’s objective of ensuring increased usage of the data sets would be better realized.

Originality/value

“Transparency-by-design” approach had its focus on the publishing phase of OGD, and this paper seeks to provide its logical conclusion by emphasizing upon “usage by stakeholders” because by opening data sets, the government has the target to ensure that these open data sets are being used and re-used. Therefore, it is the outcome which is being discussed with the support of a case study set in the background of Sri Lanka’s Open Data initiative. Besides, this is the first study which probes the OGD initiatives of Sri Lanka – therein lies the major contribution of the study.

Details

Information and Learning Science, vol. 118 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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Article

Stuti Saxena and Irfan Muhammad

Open government data (OGD) is making available data freely to all by the government with the aim to ensure accountability and transparency in government besides generating…

Abstract

Purpose

Open government data (OGD) is making available data freely to all by the government with the aim to ensure accountability and transparency in government besides generating public value by its usage. OGD is an emerging government initiative in Pakistan, and there is a lot of potential for harnessing OGD for spearheading innovation and improvising services in different economic sectors. This paper aims to seek to investigate the usage of OGD in private sector and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Documentary analysis is conducted to review the national OGD portal of Pakistan. Besides, structured interviews were conducted with 49 senior management representatives from private sector and NGOs to solicit their perspectives regarding the usage of OGD for professional purposes. Also, questions were posed regarding the challenges in harnessing OGD for professional purposes.

Findings

OGD has immense usage for private sector and NGOs; however, more initiatives are required on the part of the government to open their data sets. Further, involvement of stakeholders from the private sector and NGOs and other interested partners is required for an optimum usage of OGD in different economic sectors of Pakistan.

Research limitations/implications

As the research focuses on private sector and NGOs in Pakistan, the study requires a more broad-based approach to take into account the perspectives of different users. Further research is required to appreciate the role of contextual factors in determining the usage of OGD in Pakistan.

Practical implications

Government should be more forthcoming in its OGD initiatives and encourage collaboration from citizens, businesses, voluntary organizations and the like.

Social implications

Working professionals from different economic sectors should tap OGD for generating value by improvising their services.

Originality/value

The study is the first one to be conducted in Pakistan about the OGD initiatives of the country. Soliciting views from the key management representatives in the private sector and NGOs, the paper contributed to the extant OGD literature which is more supply-focused and not demand-driven. While conceding that there are ample usages of OGD for the different economic sectors, the paper underlines the need for refining the OGD initiatives of Pakistan.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

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Article

Agus Hermanto, Solimun Solimun, Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes, Wahyono Wahyono and Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

Open government data (OGD) is making data available free to all by the government with the aim of ensuring accountability and transparency in government besides generating…

Abstract

Purpose

Open government data (OGD) is making data available free to all by the government with the aim of ensuring accountability and transparency in government besides generating public value by its usage. OGD is an emerging government initiative in Indonesia and there is potential for harnessing OGD for spearheading innovation and improvising services in different economic sectors. This paper aims to investigate the usage of OGD in the private sector and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

Documentary analysis was conducted to review the national OGD portal of Indonesia. Structured interviews were conducted with 49 senior management representatives from the private sector and NGOs to solicit their perspectives regarding the usage of OGD for professional purposes. Also, questions were posed regarding the challenges in harnessing OGD for professional purposes.

Findings

OGD has immense potential for private sector and NGOs; however, more initiatives are required on the part of the government to open their data sets. Further, involvement of stakeholders from the private sector and NGOs and other interested partners is required for an optimum usage of OGD in different economic sectors of Indonesia.

Research limitations/implications

As the research focuses on the private sector and NGOs in Indonesia, the study requires a more broad-based approach to consider the perspectives of different users. Further research is required to appreciate the role of contextual factors in determining the usage of OGD in Indonesia.

Originality/value

The study is one of the first to be conducted in Indonesia about the OGD initiatives of the country. Soliciting views from the key management representatives in the private sector and NGOs, the paper contributes to the extant OGD literature, which is more supply-focused and not demand-driven. While conceding that there are ample usages of OGD for the different economic sectors, the paper underlines the need for refining the OGD initiatives of Indonesia.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

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Article

Engida H. Gebre and Esteban Morales

This paper aims to examine the nature and sufficiency of descriptive information included in open datasets and the nature of comments and questions users write in relation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the nature and sufficiency of descriptive information included in open datasets and the nature of comments and questions users write in relation to specific datasets. Open datasets are provided to facilitate civic engagement and government transparency. However, making the data available does not guarantee usage. This paper examined the nature of context-related information provided together with the datasets and identified the challenges users encounter while using the resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors extracted descriptive text provided together with (often at the top of) datasets (N = 216) and the nature of questions and comments users post in relation to the dataset. They then segmented text descriptions and user comments into “idea units” and applied open-coding with constant comparison method. This allowed them to come up with thematic issues that descriptions focus on and the challenges users encounter.

Findings

Results of the analysis revealed that context-related descriptions are limited and normative. Users are expected to figure out how to use the data. Analysis of user comments/questions revealed four areas of challenge they encounter: organization and accessibility of the data, clarity and completeness, usefulness and accuracy and language (spelling and grammar). Data providers can do more to address these issues.

Research limitations/implications

The purpose of the study is to understand the nature of open data provision and suggest ways of making open data more accessible to “non expert users”. As such, it is not focused on generalizing about open data provision in various countries as such provision may be different based on jurisdiction.

Practical implications

The study provides insight about ways of organizing open dataset that the resource can be accessible by the general public. It also provides suggestions about how open data providers could consider users' perspectives including providing continuous support.

Originality/value

Research on open data often focuses on technological, policy and political perspectives. Arguably, this is the first study on analysis of context-related information in open-datasets. Datasets do not “speak for themselves” because they require context for analysis and interpretation. Understanding the nature of context-related information in open dataset is original idea.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 121 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

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Article

Stuti Saxena and Marijn Janssen

This paper aims to examine the use and acceptance of open government data (OGD) of different stakeholder groups in India.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the use and acceptance of open government data (OGD) of different stakeholder groups in India.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an empirical investigation among 244 respondents in India, the paper deploys path analysis via LISREL. The conceptual construction of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) framework is used to assess the behavioral intention to use and accept OGD. Multiple regression analysis informs the relationship of demographic variables with the behavioral intention to use and accept OGD.

Findings

Path analysis showed that there is an increased use and acceptance of OGD among the respondents. Multiple regression analysis shows that men are more likely to use open data sets than women. Individual differences are found among the respondents with regard to OGD usage. Thus, while men may tap open data sets in line with their purposes and professional backgrounds, women are likely to tap the data sets even for non-professional purposes. Furthermore, the respondents who are younger in age are more behaviorally inclined to accepting and using OGD than their older counterparts.

Practical implications

The Indian government needs to popularize and familiarize OGD initiatives among the people to a greater extent. The utilitarian value of OGD may be provided when data sets are more user-friendly, frequently updated and accurate. This would facilitate in better provision of public services besides appreciating the public sentiment. Further, with increased interaction between citizens and the government, public accountability and transparency may be better realized.

Social implications

The study shows that different groups of people are engaging in tapping information through government websites and related portals. Societal influence was found to be an important factor which predicts the acceptance and usage of OGD. An infrastructure can help to enable the use of OGD.

Originality/value

Hitherto, studies have focused on OGD initiatives in the developed countries, but extant literature is scarce on developing countries. Therefore, this study seeks to fill the literature gap by probing OGD use and acceptance among different stakeholder groups in India.

Details

foresight, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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Article

Stuti Saxena

The purpose of this study is to do provide an overview of open government data (OGD) frameworks in six Middle East countries (Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to do provide an overview of open government data (OGD) frameworks in six Middle East countries (Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon and Jordan) and to underscore the barriers in using the open data sets.

Design/methodology/approach

OGD framework offered by Sieber and Johnson (2015) is deployed for the present purpose. Primarily, documentary analysis is being used for substantiating the study and the national portals of the six countries are investigated.

Findings

In line with the frameworks chosen for this study, OGD initiatives across the six Middle East countries are at an emerging phase. All the six countries qualify for the “data over the wall” model as advanced by Sieber and Johnson (2015), wherein there are basic provisions of “data aggregation.” Furthermore, the data are incomplete and outdated, which serve as barriers in using these data sets for analysis and interpretation. Therefore, there are a number of barriers in using the open data sets. However, there are many prospects for using these data sets which would improve public accountability and transparency in the long run.

Practical implications

Besides helping in improved decision-making, the governments may be in a better position to appreciate the relevance of adopting a robust OGD initiative in facilitating the economic growth of their country.

Social implications

This study is relevant for ensuring that citizen engagement is promoted and there is co-creation of public value.

Originality/value

Hitherto, OGD has been investigated in the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) but the other countries in Middle East have not been investigated. This study selects six countries outside the GCC ambit and investigates the nature and scope of OGD initiatives in each of them apart from underlining the barriers in using the open data sets.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

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Article

Stuti Saxena

The purpose of this study is to underscore the significance, drivers and barriers towards re-use of open data sets in the context of Oman’s open government data (OGD) initiative.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to underscore the significance, drivers and barriers towards re-use of open data sets in the context of Oman’s open government data (OGD) initiative.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a qualitative framework, the paper invoked a documentary analysis approach to probe the OGD initiative of Oman. Specifically, the national OGD portal of Oman (https://data.gov.om/) is being investigated in the paper. Furthermore, the paper invokes a theoretical model of “citizen engagement” (“Data over the wall”, “Code exchange”, “Civic issue tracker” and “Participatory open data model”) proposed by Sieber and Johnson (2015) to assess the extent to which open data sets may be re-used.

Findings

As per the theoretical model forwarded by Sieber and Johnson (2015), the OGD initiative of Oman is a cusp between “Data over the wall”, “Code exchange” and “Participatory” models. Oman’s OGD initiative facilitates the re-use of the open data sets. However, there are challenges in re-using the open data sets as well. The paper underlines the prospects of better re-use of data sets by institutionalizing the OGD initiative across all administrative levels of the country.

Practical implications

This study holds relevance for practitioners and policy-makers in Oman to ensure the re-use of data sets is facilitated for generating public value.

Originality/value

Hitherto, research has underlined the significance of launching OGD initiatives in the West but studies in developing countries are few. The present study seeks to plug this research gap by underlining the significance of OGD re-usage in Oman’s context.

Details

foresight, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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Article

Rui Pedro Lourenço, Suzanne Piotrowski and Alex Ingrams

This paper aims to analyse extant literature on open data, distinguish and categorize the strands of public accountability research and use the results to provide better…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse extant literature on open data, distinguish and categorize the strands of public accountability research and use the results to provide better clarity in the concept of open data-driven public accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic review of 135 open data articles and 155 accountability articles from the e-government reference library. A multi-stage analysis results in 12 articles which are categorized using Bovens’ (2007) accountability theory of information, discussion and consequences. Conceptual development, using the literature analysis, forms the final section of the paper.

Findings

Research demonstrates that a range of open data topics has been advanced. However, just 12 articles exist that simultaneously address open data and accountability theory. Of the total 155 public accountability articles, the preponderant focus is on the information (N = 25) and discussion (N = 7) stages of the accountability process. Just one article focuses on the complete accountability process. To address this problem, the characterization of open (government) data-driven public accountability establishes conceptual crispness and clarity.

Originality/value

Public accountability theory on open government has become overshadowed by social and economic value perspectives. This paper clarifies and advances the open data-driven public accountability perspective. It takes stock of public accountability research, delimits the key issues and questions and highlights the next steps needed for developing scholarship.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

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Article

Fotis Kitsios and Maria Kamariotou

In terms of entrepreneurship, open data benefits include economic growth, innovation, empowerment and new or improved products and services. Hackathons encourage the…

Abstract

Purpose

In terms of entrepreneurship, open data benefits include economic growth, innovation, empowerment and new or improved products and services. Hackathons encourage the development of new applications using open data and the creation of startups based on these applications. Researchers focus on factors that affect nascent entrepreneurs’ decision to create a startup but researches in the field of open data hackathons have not been fully investigated yet. This paper aims to suggest a model that incorporates factors that affect the decision of establishing a startup by developers who have participated in open data hackathons.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 70 papers were examined and analyzed using a three-phased literature review methodology, which was suggested by Webster and Watson (2002). These surveys investigated several factors that affect a nascent entrepreneur to create a startup.

Findings

Eventually, by identifying the motivations for developers to participate in a hackathon, and understanding the benefits of the use of open data, researchers will be able to elaborate the proposed model and evaluate if the contest has contributed to the decision of establish a startup and what factors affect the decision to establish a startup apply to open data developers, and if the participants of the contest agree with these factors.

Originality/value

The paper expands the scope of open data research on entrepreneurship field, stating the need for more research to be conducted regarding the open data in entrepreneurship through hackathons.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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