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Article

Malgorzata Ciesielska and Ann Westenholz

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about the commercial involvement in open source software, levels of this involvement and consequences of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about the commercial involvement in open source software, levels of this involvement and consequences of attempting to mix various logics of action.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the case study approach based on mixed methods: literature reviews and news searches, electronic surveys, qualitative interviews and observations. It combines discussions from several research projects as well as previous publications to present the scope of commercial choices within open source software and their consequences.

Findings

The findings show that higher levels of involvement in open source software communities poses important questions about the balance between economic, technological, and social logics as well as the benefits of being autonomous, having access to collaborative networks and minimizing risks related to free-riding. There are six levels of commercial involvement in open source communities, and each of them is characterized by a different dilemma.

Originality/value

The paper sheds light on the various level of involvement of business in open source movement and emphasize that the popularized “open innovation” concept is only the first step in real involvement and paradigm shift.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part

Josh Lerner and Jean Tirole

There has been a recent surge of interest in open source software development, which involves developers at many different locations and organizations sharing code to…

Abstract

There has been a recent surge of interest in open source software development, which involves developers at many different locations and organizations sharing code to develop and refine programs. To an economist, the behavior of individual programmers and commercial companies engaged in open source projects is initially startling. This paper makes a preliminary exploration of the economics of open source software. We highlight the extent to which labor economics, especially the literature on career concerns’, can explain many of these projects’ features. Aspects of the future of open source development process, however, remain somewhat difficult to predict with off-the-shelf’ economic models.

Details

Intellectual Property and Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-265-8

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Article

Khaireddine Mouakhar and Albéric Tellier

Open Source software companies (OSSCs) are confronted with institutional pressures from Open Source software (OSS) communities. They must find an acceptable balance…

Abstract

Purpose

Open Source software companies (OSSCs) are confronted with institutional pressures from Open Source software (OSS) communities. They must find an acceptable balance between the expectations of these communities and their own business model. However, there are still few studies that try to analyse the OSSC business models. The purpose of this paper is to highlight OSSC typical business models by using rich empirical data.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on a combination of quantitative analysis of a sample of 66 OSSCs and qualitative analysis of three typical situations resulting from that sample.

Findings

The quantitative study enables the authors to highlight three typical business models. The in-depth study of three typical cases enables the authors to specify these OSSC business models. The authors can distinguish four key dimensions: the relationship developed with the OSS communities, the strategic manoeuvres made, the key resources and competitive positioning.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that it is possible for firms to accommodate both profit and non-profit logics using different strategic manoeuvres to position themselves with regard to the Open Source institutional environment. Such accommodation requires the development of key resources and the adoption of suitable competitive positioning.

Practical implications

This study allows the authors to highlight two main practical contributions for OSSCs’ directors. First, the different manoeuvres identified may help them to ensure coherence between their strategic choices and the business model chosen. Second, the results can help OSSC founders identify value creation mechanisms more clearly by analysing four key variables.

Originality/value

This paper provides new insight about OSSCs business models. It aggregates four dimensions that provide a more “fine-grained” analysis of business models, while other studies often emphasise one dimension (usually the regime of appropriability).

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article

Risto Rajala, Mika Westerlund and Kristian Möller

This paper seeks to explore how market orientation facilitates the strategic flexibility of business models grounded in open innovation. The authors suggest that the new…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore how market orientation facilitates the strategic flexibility of business models grounded in open innovation. The authors suggest that the new paradigm of open innovation may impact a firm's adaptability and responsiveness under conditions of environmental flux. However, extending innovation capacity by opening the innovation process poses major challenges for firms. The aims of this study are to explore the characteristics of open innovation activity and to contemplate the role of strategic flexibility in the design of business models based upon open innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws upon a qualitative research approach through a longitudinal case study in the field of open source software (OSS). The empirical case illustrates how an OSS firm utilizes signals in its environment to flexibly alter its business model.

Findings

A business model that embodies open innovation raises dilemmas between open and closed innovation paradigms. However, the authors' case highlights that an ambidextrous approach that combines market orientation with the principles of open innovation increases profitability, shortens time to market through effective market access, and enhances innovation capability.

Research limitations/implications

The results have profound implications for industrial marketers, managers, management consultants and business educators. They can use the insights gleaned from this research to guide the development of business models that involve open innovation. The results indicate that firms involved in open innovation need reactive strategic flexibility to cope with the environmental diversity and variability. However, this study analyzes a single case in the field of OSS and one should be cautious when generalizing the findings.

Originality/value

This paper improves the understanding of the relationship between flexibility and market orientation. It combines two areas that have previously been discussed separately, i.e. market orientation and open innovation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Raj Kishor Kampa and Purnima Kaushik

The purpose of this paper is to study the adoption and use of open source software (OSS) in the libraries of Institutions of National Importance (INIs) in India vis-à-vis

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the adoption and use of open source software (OSS) in the libraries of Institutions of National Importance (INIs) in India vis-à-vis their economic impact on adopting libraries. Besides, it aims to study the business model of OSS.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses the adoption and use of OSS in the libraries of INIs, India, and their economic impact on the adopting libraries. An online survey was administrated to library professionals of INIs to know the adoption and use of OSS in their libraries and its acceptability. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square are used in this study.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that the libraries of INIs adopt and use OSS in integrated library system (ILS) (18.4 per cent), digital repository (95.2 per cent) and library website (65.5 per cent). Koha, DSpace, Drupal and Joomla! are the most favoured OSS among the libraries of INIs. The results reveal that favouring of OSS and having a policy on OSS by the libraries have a positive and significant relationship with their adoption and use of OSS in the libraries. The results of the study show that university libraries of India could save an estimated Rs 417m by adopting open source ILS such as Koha, Evergreen, NewGenLib and ABCD.

Practical implications

The paper will help decision makers to adopt and use open source ILS in their libraries.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind that explores the economic impact of OSS on the adopting libraries and also explicitly discusses the business model of open source library software.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 68 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

Content available
Article

Vinícius Rosa Cota, Cleiton Lopes Aguiar, Bezamat de Souza Neto and Miguel Benegas

The purpose of this paper is to argue in favor of the open hardware philosophy (open-source hardware – OSH) as a technological innovation and academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue in favor of the open hardware philosophy (open-source hardware – OSH) as a technological innovation and academic entrepreneurshipmodel in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

This argument is based on three pillars. The first one refers to a bibliographic review of theoretical frameworks related to academic entrepreneurship and technological innovation to emphasize the disruptive innovation capacity of academia. Second, a few elements related to the Brazilian political, economic and structural scenario, which entail a (more) favorable environment to technological innovation and academic entrepreneurship, is presented. Finally, concepts related to OSH and its business model are approached to demonstrate the facilitating effect toward the whole process.

Findings

As a result of the argument made herein, it is possible to perceive the viability of the OSH model in terms of entrepreneurship and technological innovation in the academic sphere, and to perceive its benefits before social and economic needs in areas such as health and education.

Research limitations/implications

There are no empirical or quantifiable data in the literature that enable comparison between OSH and traditional technological innovation models.

Originality/value

The considerations on the philosophical value of OSH and its business models are scarcely explored in international literature. As far as we know, relating OSH to technological innovation entrepreneurship in the academic sphere, as well as its singularities in Brazil regarding the innovation national system and social and economic demands, is a unique approach in literature.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Article

Nur Ahammad

This paper aims to explain the implementation procedure of DSpace at the Library of Independent University, Bangladesh. This paper shows how DSpace is promoting open

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the implementation procedure of DSpace at the Library of Independent University, Bangladesh. This paper shows how DSpace is promoting open educational resources (OER) movement and demonstrates the ease of implementing DSpace in an institution. Moreover, the purpose of this paper is to encourage library professionals to participate in the OER movement by implementing DSpace in their libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

The requirements for implementing DSpace have been shown in this paper. It also describes the system model of an academic repository (DSpace)/digital library (DL). In addition, the paper describes the legal issues for submitting an item in DSpace and self-submission process of an item as well as shows impact of DSpace on OER.

Findings

Open source software and Open Access Institutional Repository software has a fundamental role in promoting OER. DSpace is perfect for building a DL or an institutional repository in libraries, especially for developing country libraries because this demands low cost and it is easy to implement in libraries as well as is user-friendly.

Originality/value

This paper will help to understand the role of the library community and librarians about OER. It will also show the impact of DL on OER. In addition, this paper encourages librarians to participate in OER movement.

Abstract

Details

Building Markets for Knowledge Resources
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-742-7

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Article

Yiqing Yu

Interorganizational reciprocity plays a key role in relationships among software firms and open source communities. This study seeks to illuminate how a firm's open source

Abstract

Purpose

Interorganizational reciprocity plays a key role in relationships among software firms and open source communities. This study seeks to illuminate how a firm's open source strategy, characterized by its participation in the open source community, contributes to its financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the norm of reciprocity and social capital theory, the study proposes a model comprising the behavioral antecedents and business results of a firm's symbiotic relationship with the open source community. Data were collected through a survey. Partial least squares-based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to assess the results.

Findings

A firm's participative behaviors can have three dimensions: technology giving, technology taking and social participation. Technology taking directly impacts financial performance, whereas the effects of technology giving and social participation on financial performance are fully mediated by the firm's symbiotic relationship with the open source community.

Practical implications

Managers can understand how a specific behavior ultimately contributes to a symbiotic relationship or a firm's financial performance and how to flexibly align participation strategies with the business orientation.

Originality/value

The study adds to the open source literature by refining and enriching the conceptual domain of a firm's participative behaviors in open source communities. It also reveals how contrasting behavioral strategies impact a firm's financial performance.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article

Timo Pykäläinen and Arto Ojala

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework that explains international activities of open source software (OSS) firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework that explains international activities of open source software (OSS) firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews relevant literature related to international operations of knowledge‐intensive firms, especially in the software industry. Theoretical development is based here on a combination of the network approach, international new venture theory and inward–outward internationalization.

Findings

The findings in this study suggest that the international activities of OSS firms can be divided into project activities and business activities. Project activities include inward and outward linkages, and partner identification. Business activities include domestic and partner network activities that can lead to international business as well.

Research implications

For scholars, the framework provides a new approach to explain many international activities of OSS firms by integrating three international business theories. In addition, it provides good starting point for further empirical examination.

Practical implications

The framework helps managers gain a better understanding of complex circumstances embedded into the international activities of OSS firms. With that better understanding, the managers can focus their activities, which helps further to improve their firms' competitiveness engendered by the international activities in the OSS development.

Originality/value

The framework developed in this study is believed to be the first serious attempt to provide a deeper theoretical understanding of international activities of OSS firms.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

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