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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2013

Yee-Ching Lilian Chan

This study looks at board governance in Ontario hospitals.

Abstract

Purpose

This study looks at board governance in Ontario hospitals.

Methodology/approach

We conducted a research of the hospitals’ websites and a survey of board directors to study the board structure and examine governance practice in Ontario hospitals.

Findings

The findings suggest that the board structure and process in Ontario hospitals are in compliance with Accreditation Canada’s Governance Standards, and such administrative controls are appropriate. Ontario hospital boards, in general, have fulfilled their key functions of governance in terms of working as an effective board; developing a clear direction; supporting the organization to achieve its mandate; maintaining positive relationships with external stakeholders; and being accountable and achieving sustainable results. Building knowledge through information is an area where improvement is needed.

Research implications

Ontario hospitals have implemented appropriate administrative controls in terms of board composition and committee structure. The results of a survey of 99 board directors from over 25 hospitals suggest that directors, in general, have a good understanding of their governance role and relationship with senior management as well as the government. The findings are also supportive of good governance practice where executives manage and nonexecutive directors monitor the performance of the executives. According to the respondents, Ontario’s hospital boards are actively involved in setting the mission, strategic goals and objectives of their organizations, and they take appropriate steps to ensure that risk management, client safety, and quality improvements are incorporated in their governance and strategic planning process. In order to discharge their fiduciary duty effectively, respondents would like to have more information from different sources. This is an area where management accounting professionals can become involved such that relevant information from a variety of sources, especially external sources, are provided to board directors for decision making.

Practical implications

Ontario’s hospital sector has undertaken initiatives through research and publications to promote good governance practice. Such leadership is critical to ensure that directors have the competence and skills to discharge their duties and responsibilities diligently. Hospital boards should focus on renewal while ensuring that board directors are equipped for the challenging task of governing through professional development and continuing education.

Limitations and future research

Limitations related to the use of questionnaire applies to this research study. Self-selection bias and low response rate limit the generalizability of the findings. Future research can examine the behavior of directors in the boardroom and the impact of governance variables on hospital performance, such as quality of care and patient safety.

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Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-842-6

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Melodie Cardin

This research studied the integration of Ontario midwives into the hospital system, through analysis of 15 semi-structured interviews with midwives throughout the Canadian…

Abstract

This research studied the integration of Ontario midwives into the hospital system, through analysis of 15 semi-structured interviews with midwives throughout the Canadian province. In 1994, following activism from parents and families who wanted “alternative” choices for childbearing, Ontario became the first Canadian province to legislate and publicly fund midwives. This followed nearly a century in which midwifery had all but disappeared in Canada, in part due to deliberate campaigns to discredit woman-centered health care and knowledge. The findings from this research were considered through the lens of Foucault’s concept of power/knowledge, to identify the ways in which medicalized norms have been privileged in Ontario birth care, and to demonstrate how pregnant people1 and midwives have struggled against the power/knowledge of hospital environments. This research looked at the ways that midwifery, as a social movement born of feminist and countercultural activism, offers possibilities for resisting disciplinary power. Midwives in Ontario offer an alternative to medicalized childbirth which recognizes that a birth caregiver’s role is not only the physical care of parents and babies, but guidance for families during a liminal experience – the birth of a new child, which changes a family permanently and profoundly.

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Childbearing and the Changing Nature of Parenthood: The Contexts, Actors, and Experiences of Having Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-067-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Susan J. Gregoroff, Robert S. McKelvie and Sylvia Szabo

This study of 216 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients at a large teaching hospital in south‐central Ontario was undertaken to determine whether the patients managed in…

Abstract

This study of 216 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients at a large teaching hospital in south‐central Ontario was undertaken to determine whether the patients managed in an outpatient heart failure clinic used fewer hospital resources (as expressed in number of admissions, complexity of admission, and length of stay (LOS)) than a matched cohort who were not managed in an outpatient clinic. Statistical significance of LOS opportunities could not be demonstrated (owing to sample size), however, the heart failure clinic is making a positive impact on all types of admissions (CHF and non‐CHF) in terms of LOS and suggests that management in an outpatient setting for chronic disease states is important for acute care hospitals to consider.

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Leadership in Health Services, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-0756

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Hedayet Chowdhury, Walter Wodchis and Audrey Laporte

The purpose of this paper is to present a productivity measure for hospital services in Ontario.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a productivity measure for hospital services in Ontario.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) to assess the efficiency of hospital services in Ontario, Canada, over the period 2003‐2006. The MPI was decomposed into efficiency change and technological change. Efficiency change was further decomposed into pure efficiency change and scale efficiency change. A bootstrapping technique was also used to obtain confidence intervals for the output oriented MPI and its decompositions.

Findings

By estimating confidence intervals it was found that a large number of hospitals did not achieve significant progress in terms of productivity. By taking geometric means of estimates for all years it was observed that while overall productivity and efficiency of hospitals in Ontario declined during the study period, technological progress increased at a rate of 5.95 percent on average.

Practical implications

The present study helps to understand the productivity and technological change and change in technical efficiency in this vital sector of the economy, which is important for policy making identifying improvement opportunities in resource allocation. It was observed that Ontario hospitals did not improve the efficiency with which they employed their inputs (i.e. staff and supplies) over the study period; they did achieve gains through application of technologies.

Originality/value

The paper provides a thorough study on productivity growth of health care services in Ontario using a non‐parametric framework with bootstrapping. It also provides a robust measurement and analysis of the contributions of technology, size of operation and use of inputs to the performance of hospitals in Ontario.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 60 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Yee‐Ching Lilian Chan

The purpose of this paper is to exemplify the evolving applications of balanced scorecard and strategy map in the healthcare sector. This paper seeks to describe a number…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to exemplify the evolving applications of balanced scorecard and strategy map in the healthcare sector. This paper seeks to describe a number of innovative approaches adopted by healthcare organizations and health systems in their implementation of Kaplan and Norton's strategy map and balanced scorecard. Although strategy map and balanced scorecard are useful strategic management tools, policy makers and decision makers should be well‐informed about implementation issues and challenges of their adoption in healthcare organizations and health systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a literature review of the applications of strategy map and balanced scorecard in healthcare organizations and health systems. Also publications of the Ministry of Health and Long‐Term Care and its agencies are examined to assess the strategic priorities and plans for Ontario's health system.

Findings

From the literature review and case studies cited, an increasing use of strategy map and balanced scorecard was found in the healthcare sector. The implementation is both unique and innovative. Moreover, strategy map and balanced scorecard are effective communication and strategic management tools in aligning and integrating the strategic goals of various levels within the health system.

Practical implications

The paper gives an account of the different implementation approaches of strategy map and balanced scorecard in the healthcare sector; thereby providing policy makers and decision makers with choices on how to implement the strategic management tool in their organizations.

Originality/value

The literature review and case studies described here highlight the value and applications of strategy map and balanced scorecard in the healthcare sector.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Kunle Akingbola and Herman A. van den Berg

This study examines the relationship between CEO compensation and patient satisfaction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to determine what impact hospital

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relationship between CEO compensation and patient satisfaction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to determine what impact hospital CEO compensation has on hospital patient satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyses in this study were based on data of 261 CEO-hospital-year observations in a sample of 103 nonprofit hospitals. A number of linear regressions were conducted, with patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and CEO compensation as the independent variable of interest. Controlling variables included hospital size, type of hospital, and frequency of adverse clinical outcomes.

Findings

CEO compensation does not significantly influence hospital patient satisfaction. Both patient satisfaction and CEO compensation appear to be driven primarily by hospital size. Patient satisfaction decreases, while CEO compensation increases, with the number of acute care beds in a hospital. In addition, CEO compensation does not even appear to moderate the influence of hospital size on patient satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

There are several limitations to this study. First, observations of CEO-hospital-years in which annual nominal CEO compensation was below $100,000 were excluded, as they were not publicly available. Second, this research was limited to a three-year range. Third, this study related the compensation of individual CEOs to a measure of performance based on a multitude of patient satisfaction surveys. Finally, this research is restricted to not-for-profit hospitals in Ontario, Canada.

Practical implications

The findings seem to suggest that hospital directors seeking to improve patient satisfaction may find their efforts frustrated if they focus exclusively on the hospital CEO. The findings highlight the need for further research on how CEOs may, through leading and supporting those hospital clinicians and staff that interact more closely with patients, indirectly enhance patient satisfaction.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no research has examined the relationship between hospital CEO compensation and patient satisfaction. This research fills the gap and provides a basis for future research.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Jennifer Innis, Jan Barnsley, Whitney Berta and Imtiaz Daniel

Health literate discharge practices meet patient and family health literacy needs in preparation for care transitions from hospital to home. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Health literate discharge practices meet patient and family health literacy needs in preparation for care transitions from hospital to home. The purpose of this paper is to measure health literate discharge practices in Ontario hospitals using a new organizational survey questionnaire tool and to perform psychometric testing of this new survey.

Design/methodology/approach

This survey was administered to hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability testing were performed.

Findings

The participation rate of hospitals was 46 percent. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that there were five factors. The survey, and each of the five factors, had moderate to high levels of reliability.

Research limitations/implications

There is a need to expand the focus of further research to examine the experiences of patients and families. Repeating this study with a larger sample would facilitate further survey development.

Practical implications

Measuring health literate discharge practices with an organizational survey will help hospital managers to understand their performance and will help direct quality improvement efforts to improve patient care at hospital discharge and to decrease hospital readmission.

Originality/value

There has been little research into how patients are discharged from hospital. This study is the first to use an organizational survey tool to measure health literate discharge practices.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Polly Christine Ford-Jones and Tamara Daly

Paramedics increasingly attend to mental health-related emergencies; however, there has been little evaluation of the mental health training for paramedics. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

Paramedics increasingly attend to mental health-related emergencies; however, there has been little evaluation of the mental health training for paramedics. This study aims to analyze the fit between paramedicine pedagogy, patient needs and the conditions for paramedics’ skill development.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a single, qualitative, critical ethnographic case study of pre-hospital mental health and psychosocial care in paramedicine in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts from interviews (n = 46), observation (n ∼ 90h) and document analysis were thematically analyzed using a constant comparative method. The study is theoretically grounded in a feminist political economy framework.

Findings

Tensions are explored in relation to the pedagogy of paramedicine and the conditions of work faced by paramedics. The paper presents challenges and insufficiencies with existing training, the ways in which certain work and training are valued and prioritized, increased emergency care and training needs and the limitations of training to improving care.

Research limitations/implications

Recommendations include more comprehensive didactic training, including the social determinants of health; scenario training; practicum placements in mental health or social services; collaboration with mental health and social services to further develop relevant curriculum and potential inclusion of service users.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the lack of mental health pedagogy in Ontario and internationally and the need for further training pre-certification and while in the workforce. It presents promising practices to ameliorate mental health training and education for paramedics.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2019

Guillermo A. Sandoval, Adalsteinn D. Brown, Walter P. Wodchis and Geoffrey M. Anderson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between hospital adoption and use of computed tomography (CT) scanners, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between hospital adoption and use of computed tomography (CT) scanners, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines and in-patient mortality and length of stay.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used panel data (2007–2010) from 124 hospital corporations operating in Ontario, Canada. Imaging use focused on medical patients accounting for 25 percent of hospital discharges. Main outcomes were in-hospital mortality rates and average length of stay. A model for each outcome-technology combination was built, and controlled for hospital structural characteristics, market factors and patient characteristics.

Findings

In 2010, 36 and 59 percent of hospitals had adopted MRI machines and CT scanners, respectively. Approximately 23.5 percent of patients received CT scans and 3.5 percent received MRI scans during the study period. Adoption of these technologies was associated with reductions of up to 1.1 percent in mortality rates and up to 4.5 percent in length of stay. The imaging use–mortality relationship was non-linear and varied by technology penetration within hospitals. For CT, imaging use reduced mortality until use reached 19 percent in hospitals with one scanner and 28 percent in hospitals with 2+ scanners. For MRI, imaging use was largely associated with decreased mortality. The use of CT scanners also increased length of stay linearly regardless of technology penetration (4.6 percent for every 10 percent increase in use). Adoption and use of MRI was not associated with length of stay.

Research limitations/implications

These results suggest that there may be some unnecessary use of imaging, particularly in small hospitals where imaging is contracted out. In larger hospitals, the results highlight the need to further investigate the use of imaging beyond certain thresholds. Independent of the rate of imaging use, the results also indicate that the presence of CT and MRI devices within a hospital benefits quality and efficiency.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the combined effect of adoption and use of medical imaging on outcomes specific to CT scanners and MRI machines in the context of hospital in-patient care.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Barbara J. Merkens and James S. Spencer

The success and adaptability of healthcare organizations will depend more and more on their ability to draw on the capabilities of their people. Tillsonburg District…

Abstract

The success and adaptability of healthcare organizations will depend more and more on their ability to draw on the capabilities of their people. Tillsonburg District Memorial Hospital, a rural Ontario hospital, has evolved an organization and culture based on shared leadership and decision‐making responsibility. Today this extends to front‐line teams. This did not come about, however, without continuous effort. Successful transition takes preparation, guidance, much thought, commitment and patience.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-0756

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