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1 – 10 of over 5000
Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Jochen Wirtz, Chiara Orsingher and Hichang Cho

This paper aims to examine the psychological consequences of a customer engagement initiative through referral reward programs (RRPs) in online versus offline environments.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the psychological consequences of a customer engagement initiative through referral reward programs (RRPs) in online versus offline environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a qualitative study followed by a scenario-based experimental study.

Findings

The authors show that recommenders’ concern about how they are viewed by recommendation recipients (i.e. their metaperception) mediates the effects of incentives on referral likelihood in both offline and online environments. However, metaperception has a stronger effect offline where recommenders show higher impression management concerns compared to online. Furthermore, tie-strength and communication environment moderate the effect of incentives on metaperception. When referrals are made to weak-ties, incentives decrease metaperception favorability offline more than online. For strong-ties, this effect is lower, and it is similar in offline and online environments.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused on an online versus offline dyadic communication and did not consider the differences among social media. Furthermore, the authors did not consider how other forms of positive metaperception, like being seen as helpful or knowledgeable, could be increased in an online incentivized referral context. It is possible that a recommender thinks others see him as more helpful or knowledgeable online because a lot more useful information and other resources could be offered here compared to offline communications.

Practical implications

The authors recommend managers to design both online and offline RRPs that minimize metaperception concerns; target strong ties in any communication environment as metaperception concerns are low; and target weak ties online where metaperception concerns are muted.

Originality/value

This work is the first to examine how recommenders’ psychological responses differ offline and online.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Chi Zhou, Geni Xu and Zhibing Liu

Internet referral services are a common form of online marketing operating activities. To incentivize infomediaries and improve referral performance, brand retailers…

Abstract

Purpose

Internet referral services are a common form of online marketing operating activities. To incentivize infomediaries and improve referral performance, brand retailers typically apply the cost-per-click (CPC) or the cost-per-sale (CPS) payments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of referral services on the optimal contract with CPC or CPS payments.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper studies a mechanism design problem for internet referral services. To maximize the expected utility of the brand retailer, an uncertain contract model is established in which the brand retailer's assessment of the infomediary's referral service capability is characterized as an uncertain variable. Then equivalent models under CPC and CPS payments are presented to obtain the optimal solutions.

Findings

The results demonstrate that under CPC payments, as the referral service capability increases, the optimal sales volume is increasing, and the optimal transfer payment first shows a declining and then a rising trend. The brand retailer is less likely to raise the optimal transfer payment for the infomediary given a higher CPC revenue-sharing fee percentage, which is counterintuitive. Under CPS payments, the optimal sales volume and transfer payment are also increasing in the referral service capability. In addition, an increase in the click-through rate leads to the infomediary's incremental marginal utility.

Originality/value

The value of this research is its application of incentive contracts to the internet referral services considering CPC or CPS payments. The results of this research can serve as a guide for retailers and infomediaries in their decision-making around online retailing.

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Jan Ahrens, James R. Coyle and Michal Ann Strahilevitz

The purpose of this work is to test several incentive strategies for attaining new customers via electronic referrals, or e‐referrals. The paper aims to examine: the roles…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to test several incentive strategies for attaining new customers via electronic referrals, or e‐referrals. The paper aims to examine: the roles of both the magnitude of the incentive offered to the sender and the magnitude of the incentive offered to the receiver; and the effect of equity versus inequity of financial incentives for the two parties.

Design/methodology/approach

The study consisted of a large‐scale field experiment conducted with 45,000 members of an online mall. The participants were divided into eight conditions in an incomplete two‐factor 4×4 between‐subjects design, where not every combination of incentive magnitudes was utilized and the magnitude of the incentive offered the receiver and sender varied in size such that sometimes rewards were equal, sometimes receivers of the e‐referral had larger rewards, and sometimes senders of the e‐referral s received more. Dependent measures included the number of e‐referrals sent, the number of those e‐referrals that lead to a new customer registering, and the number of new registrants that converted to buyers from completing a purchase.

Findings

The results demonstrate that both the magnitude of financial incentives, and the relative magnitude of the incentives for the senders and receivers both influence e‐referral rates. Specifically, it was found that offering higher incentives to senders and receivers led to an increase in referral invitations sent, new member sign‐ups and new buyers. It was also found that the disparity between incentives offered to senders and receivers affected e‐referral rates and that inequity should favor the sender to enhance results.

Originality/value

This paper offers marketers valuable insights as to how different combinations of financial incentives to receivers and senders can affect e‐referral rates. The findings suggest that potential referrers respond not only to referral incentives but also to the disparity between their incentives and the receivers' incentives.

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2018

Depeng Zhang, Fuli Zhang, Si Liu and Helen S. Du

With the rise of customer engagement in online products and services innovation, enterprises are seeking effective referral reward program (RRP) to encourage customers…

1541

Abstract

Purpose

With the rise of customer engagement in online products and services innovation, enterprises are seeking effective referral reward program (RRP) to encourage customers’ follow-up electronic-referral (e-referral) behaviors. Therefore, how to stimulate more customers to participate in the RRP is very important to enterprises. However, little empirical work has systemically investigated the impact of RRP on customers’ follow-up e-referral, as well as the moderating effects of customers’ characteristics. To fill those research gaps, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of RRP (particularly, reward amount and reward type) on customers’ follow-up e-referral, and the role of creative self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the self-perception theory and the context of online customer innovation, this paper establishes a theoretical model and uses an experiment with 160 participants to test the hypotheses on the role of reward (amount and type) and the moderating effect of creative self-efficacy.

Findings

The results of the experiment suggest that both reward amount and reward type in RRP positively impact customers’ follow-up e-referral. Furthermore, customers’ creative self-efficacy moderates the relationship between rewards and customers’ follow-up e-referral. Customers with low creative self-efficacy, reward amount significantly stimulate their follow-up e-referral, but such effect is insignificant when customers’ creative self-efficacy is high. In terms of reward type, gift reward has more positive effect on customers’ follow-up e-referral when they have high (rather than low) creative self-efficacy, but cash reward has more positive effect on those with low (rather than high) creative self-efficacy.

Originality/value

First, based on the self-perception theory, the study clarifies the inconsistent relationship between reward and customers’ e-referral and contributes to related research. Second, the study broadens the existing research perspective by introducing creative self-efficacy, which shows interesting and powerful moderating effect but has been ignored in previous studies. Third, the study provides valuable advice on how enterprises design an effective RRP to enhance customers’ follow-up e-referral.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Harvir S. Bansal, Gordon H.G. McDougall, Shane S. Dikolli and Karen L. Sedatole

Prior work has examined antecedents and behavioral outcomes of satisfaction in an offline setting but few studies explore whether the findings hold for increasingly…

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Abstract

Prior work has examined antecedents and behavioral outcomes of satisfaction in an offline setting but few studies explore whether the findings hold for increasingly important online settings. This paper extends the prior work to explore the antecedents of e‐satisfaction and the relations between e‐satisfaction and two new behaviorial outcomes related to an online setting; customers' stated purchasing behavior (i.e. conversion) and actual browsing behavior (i.e. stickiness). Using a sample of 145 predominantly multi‐channel retail firms, the paper highlights two main results. First, existing models that examine the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction in the offline setting, also apply to an online setting. Second, Web site characteristics had a significant impact on all three types of behavioral outcomes, while Web site customer service was a significant driver of only retention/referral outcomes. Further, Web site customer service may be a necessary but not sufficient condition to achieving favourable outcomes in online settings.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Abubakar Mohammed Abubakar, Mustafa Ilkan and Pinar Sahin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of electronic referral (eReferral) marketing and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on brand image and purchase…

3644

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of electronic referral (eReferral) marketing and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on brand image and purchase intention, coupled with the moderating effect of gender in the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the interplay between the proposed variables, using a random sample of 308 respondents in Cyprus.

Findings

The empirical results suggest the following: eReferral does influence brand image, and the impact is significant with women only; eWOM influences brand image, and the impact is more significant with women than men; eWOM influences purchase intention, and the impact is the same for both genders; brand image influences purchase intention, and the impact is more significant with women than men.

Research limitations/implications

Marketing managers can benefit from these competitive advantage tools. Brand image, awareness and sales volume can be increased by utilizing eWOM or eReferral, depending on the product and/or service functionality as well as gender.

Originality/value

While there is a substantial research stream on eWOM, to the best of the authors’ knowledge no research has differentiated eReferral from eWOM. This paper provides useful insights regarding the two concepts.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Kelley O'Reilly and Sherry Marx

Specifically focusing on one antecedent (information seeker's characteristics) for electronic word‐of‐mouth adoption and credibility assessments, the purpose of this paper…

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Abstract

Purpose

Specifically focusing on one antecedent (information seeker's characteristics) for electronic word‐of‐mouth adoption and credibility assessments, the purpose of this paper is to attempt to shed light on consumer motivations for making and taking online recommendations, and how technically savvy consumers assess credibility online.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate the role and influence of word‐of‐mouth (WOM) amongst technically savvy online consumers, purposeful sampling was used to limit participants to those who have made online purchases and who spend more than three hours a day on the internet. Using an adaptation of the grounded theory method, this study was triangulated via one face‐to‐face interview with each participant, member‐checking, analysis of online communications deemed “not credible” by the participants, and through relevant literature from marketing and information systems (IS).

Findings

Analysis shows that participants exhibit more of a “bricks‐to‐clicks” than a “clicks‐to‐bricks” purchasing cycle. In addition to relying on customer reviews online, participants accept online WOM to enhance their self‐worth, avoid risk, or enact negativity bias. Additionally, assessment of online WOM credibility is based on four factors: the polarity and quantity of posts, the logic and articulation of posts, the ability to find corroborating sources, and the previous experience of participants with particular sellers.

Originality/value

Previous research in WOM has not specifically explored how technically savvy consumers assess the credibility of online information and how these consumers may help to identify future trends for online customer exchanges. This qualitative study fills this gap. Conceptual framework and managerial implications are discussed.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Huong Le, Bridget Jones, Tandi Williams and Sara Dolnicar

The purpose of this paper is to provide novel insights into arts consumption behaviour and patterns of communication displayed by arts consumers using Peterson’s…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide novel insights into arts consumption behaviour and patterns of communication displayed by arts consumers using Peterson’s theoretical framework, and to identify differences in the use of communication channels across arts segments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an a priori market segmentation study, with two variables serving as segmentation criteria, namely, the frequency of and the variety of arts events attended. The authors tested for differences in communication patterns.

Findings

Four segments were created: low-frequency univores, low-frequency multivores, high-frequency multivores and high-frequency omnivores. They differ in their communication patterns and online behaviours, including their online activities before and after attending arts events. Printed materials and e-mail newsletters were the most effective communication channel for raising awareness of all arts consumers.

Research limitations/implications

Understanding these communication patterns can help arts marketers to increase the attendance of low-frequency segments and broaden the variety of arts events attended by the univore and multivore segments. The generalisability of the findings is limited as the survey was conducted among online Australian arts consumers only.

Originality/value

The paper adds the dimension of arts consumption frequency to the taxonomy of omnivores and univores proposed by Peterson, which is based on the variety of consumed arts only. The paper contributes to communication and arts marketing literature by identifying key differences in communication patterns across segments of arts consumers and the most promising communication channels to engage them.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2017

Angela Dobele, Jane Fry, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele and Tim Fry

A broad array of information channels exists for service customers. The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between the use of, and trust in…

Abstract

Purpose

A broad array of information channels exists for service customers. The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between the use of, and trust in, information channels, so that there is scope to increase the effectiveness of reliable information provision and, hence, to change behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This study empirically explored whether customers use channels they trust, and trust what they use, and examined the association between individual (demographic) factors and that trust. A total of 472 mothers completed an online survey.

Findings

The current study empirically explored channel trust and individual factors, finding that individual factors (such as education level) and trust warrant inclusion in traditional communication models such as Communication–Human Information Processing. The findings revealed that the more highly educated a customer is, the more likely it will be that a health professional is their most trusted channel, but the less likely it will be that they consider family the most trusted channel. Magazines are the least trusted information channel. Further, while informants’ most trusted information channel was healthcare professionals, this was not the most common information channel used.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited to a female consumer sample focused upon one service (maternity and child health) and five key information channels, which limits the generalizability. Further, the data were collected via an internet survey, which have biased may the results on use and trust of the internet.

Practical implications

The findings showcase the importance of demographic factors and the relationship between trust in information sources and use. The insights developed provide a useful research agenda for the future. This study was limited to a female consumer sample focused upon one service (maternity and child health) and five key information channels, which limits the generalizability of the findings. The data were collected via an internet survey, which may bias the results on use and trust of the internet. Additionally, the data were collected over five years ago, which may have some impact on factors such as the role and importance of internet usage. However, these limitations do not detract from the primary focus of this study and the main findings remain new and relevant.

Originality/value

This study undertook an empirical exploration to examine information channel trust and individual factors, thereby extending the research focus beyond current traditional communication model approaches. Models such as Communication–Human Information Processing focus on individual cognitions and assume a staged sequence of decision-making following traditional decision-making models and ignoring channel attributes such as channel trust, thereby limiting understanding. The current study indicates that communication models will benefit from the addition of channel trust and additional individual factors (such as demographics) to extend understanding beyond individual cognitions.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Long Hong Pham, Erisher Woyo, Trang Huong Pham and Dao Thi Xuan Truong

Widespread technology adoption in tourism enables tourists to be active content creators, thus, influencing destination brands through co-creation. This study examines…

Abstract

Purpose

Widespread technology adoption in tourism enables tourists to be active content creators, thus, influencing destination brands through co-creation. This study examines value co-creation, social commerce information sharing, and destination brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was applied to analyse data collected from a global online survey. Hypotheses were tested using PLS-SEM analysis.

Findings

Results show that destination brand equity is positively influenced by value co-creation. Additionally, social commerce information sharing mediates the relationship between value co-creation and destination brand equity.

Practical implications

The article adds new insights to tourism marketing by investigating value co-creation, social commerce information sharing and destination brand equity. It also offers interesting implications for destination managers to improve Vietnam as a destination brand.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to test the mediating role of social commerce on value co-creation and destination brand equity.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000