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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Shahid Iqbal Khan and Bilal Ahmad

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of post content, post media and post scheduling strategies on online engagement on Twitter in context of micro…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of post content, post media and post scheduling strategies on online engagement on Twitter in context of micro celebrities in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, micro celebrities of Pakistan have been defined as the target population. Secondary data consisting of 464 tweets from walls of six micro celebrities belonging to both genders and diverse set of socio-political fields was collected. Tweedie estimation analysis was run to accept or reject the hypotheses. Mean values with standard deviations were utilized to analyze the different engagement patterns of dichotomous variables (content type, content language, mentions, hashtags, text, images, links, videos, hour of the day and day of the week) on online engagement.

Findings

Content type, content language, content length, hashtags, mentions, images, links, videos, hour of the day and day of the week have been found to have a significant relationship with online engagement on Twitter.

Research limitations/implications

First, the study has been conducted in context of micro celebrities on Twitter. It did not include influencers on other social media networks. Second, study considered only quantitative aspects of engagement based on secondary data ignoring qualitative aspects of phenomenon due to time and methodology constraints. Third, study did not include link clicks as a measure of engagement as clicks data is not publicly available on the posts.

Practical implications

The study contributes significantly to find out valuable “micro celebrity” strategies in Pakistan. The study suggests micro celebrities to tweet soft content in Urdu language along with relevant hashtags and mentions to get higher engagement on their tweets. Further, tweets should contain maximum number of characters. Micro celebrities should not insert images, links and videos in their tweets as these media types result in lower engagement on Twitter. Micro celebrities should tweet at low hours and weekends.

Social implications

As this study focuses on investigation of better engagement practices for micro celebrities, it will help general public to express themselves more effectively through social media.

Originality/value

First, this is the first study that investigates the online engagement model for micro celebrities. Second, the online engagement model designed in this study has yet not been investigated to best of our knowledge. The theoretical model combines multiple engagement factors discussed in previous studies conducted on Facebook, YouTube, Instagram and Twitter.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Sanjay Puligadda, James R. Coyle and John Ni

Consumers’ engagement with brands online is increasingly important for marketers for both promotion of their brand’s message and sales. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers’ engagement with brands online is increasingly important for marketers for both promotion of their brand’s message and sales. The purpose of this paper is to examine if consumers’ brand schematicity, a generalized consumer disposition to process information using brand schema, influenced their proclivity to engage with brands online through consuming and co-creating brand-related content, and the influence of online brand engagement on actual purchase of brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Study 1 shows that brand schematicity increases online brand consumption and online brand co-creation and Study 2 shows that this online brand engagement is not always beneficial to brands in terms of sales. Specifically, because of resource depletion, consumers who co-create brand content online may purchase brands less while those that consume online brand content purchase more brands.

Originality/value

There is a lack of previous research addressing individual differences in consumers’ online brand engagement that this paper investigates. Further, a generalized, dispositional variable such as brand schematicity has not been hitherto investigated in the context of consumers’ online behavior. Finally, this paper shows counter-intuitive effects of online brand engagement on brand purchase.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Jana Bowden and Abas Mirzaei

Brands are investing heavily in content marketing within digital communication channels, yet there is limited understanding of the effectiveness of this content on…

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3644

Abstract

Purpose

Brands are investing heavily in content marketing within digital communication channels, yet there is limited understanding of the effectiveness of this content on consumer engagement. This paper aims to examine how consumer engagement with branded content is created through consumer-initiated online brand communities (OBCs) and brand-initiated digital content marketing (DCM) communications. Self-brand connections are examined as an important antecedent to the cognitive, affective, behavioural and social dimensions of consumer engagement and the subsequent impact of engagement on loyalty is explored across these two channels.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey approach was used with two consumer samples for one focal retail brand, namely, a consumer-initiated OBC (Facebook) and email subscribers of the retail brand’s DCM communications. A multi-group analysis of structural invariance procedure was used to comparatively examine the formation of engagement for consumers within the OBC and DCM channels.

Findings

This study demonstrates the different ways in which engagement forms across different digital communication channels. Self-brand connection (SBC) was found to strongly drive behavioural, cognitive, affective and social engagement. The cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement was found to mediate the self-brand connection and consumer loyalty relationship. Overall, this relationship was most strongly and significantly mediated by affective and cognitive engagement within the OBC channel when compared to the DCM channel.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study should be interpreted with several limitations in mind. First, the research was conducted within the confines of one OBC, within one social networking site platform characterised by self-selected membership based on a passion and immersion with the brand. This means that consumers within the OBC were highly connected to one another and the retail brand and highly socialised in-group norms and mores. This type and intensity of connection may not be the case for all forms of OBCs. Second, this study was limited to one retail brand, from one brand category. Future research should examine OBCs across a range of utilitarian and hedonic brands to comprehensively contextualise the dimensions of engagement. Third, the data for this study was cross-sectional. The use of netnographic analysis and qualitative interviews across a range of OBCs would support the triangulation of the findings of this research, especially with regard to the narrative that consumers’ express when discussing how their SBC manifests through the dimensions of engagement. Fourth, this study explored a single antecedent of engagement, namely, self-brand connections. Future research may consider how SBC operates in conjunction with other complementary factors to enhance consumers’ affective, cognitive, social and behavioural engagement such as brand awareness, satisfaction and participation/interactivity. In addition, future research could examine an expanded array of engagement outcomes such as purchase intention, the share of wallet and reputation. Finally, future research should examine the operationalisation and validation of the dimensions of engagement using multiple competing scales to assess the suitability of these engagement scales across multiple brand categories and contexts.

Practical implications

Given the increasing investment in branding within social media and the fragmentation of brand communications across multiple communications platforms, the management of effective brand communications remains a significant challenge. This study found that the relationship between self-brand connections, affective, social, behavioural and cognitive engagement and loyalty was context-specific and moderated by a digital communication channel (OBC vs DCM email marketing), thus providing insights as to the effectiveness of OBCs and DCMs as two tools for enhancing consumer loyalty.

Originality/value

This study makes a novel contribution to the engagement literature by examining the antecedent role of self-brand connections in predicting consumers’ engagement; the moderating role of digital communication platforms (OBC vs DCM) on the formation of cognitive, affective, behavioural and social engagement; and the mediating effect of these dimensions on loyalty.

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Brian A. Vander Schee, James Peltier and Andrew J. Dahl

The purpose of this study is to summarize the findings of consumer factor research and to suggest future lines of inquiry connected to branding outcomes. Consumers are…

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1430

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to summarize the findings of consumer factor research and to suggest future lines of inquiry connected to branding outcomes. Consumers are comfortable with social media and accept firms occupying the same digital space. However, some consumers more readily engage with firms online than others. Consumer factor antecedents are numerous and yet not fully explored. Online consumer engagement has also been defined and measured in various ways. The resultant outcomes related to branding also have implications for future consumer engagement. Summarizing the findings of consumer factor research and suggesting future lines of inquiry connected to branding outcomes will enhance the understanding of consumer engagement and branding strategies to maximize marketing return on investment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review literature examining key constructs and sub-dimensions on how consumer factors impact brand engagement and brand outcomes.

Findings

Three major research areas specific to consumer factors were identified: consumer status, consumer disposition, personality trait, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and cultural dimensions. Brand engagement was explored relative to affective, cognitive and behavioral engagement. Lastly, six brand outcomes were explored: brand status, disposition, attitude, affirmation connection and aversion.

Practical implications

This review contributes to the literature through a deeper understanding of consumer factors that lead to consumer engagement and the resultant branding factors of consumer engagement. The authors offer framework that both identifies future research needs, and insights into how firms may create, grow and enhance consumer–brand engagement.

Originality/value

Given the dearth of comprehensive brand engagement frameworks in the literature, the authors offer insights into how consumer factors serve as antecedents to brand engagement and identify a research agenda for advancing the field.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Tri D. Le

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of word-of-mouth (WOM) types, WOM valence, content types and discussion topics of user posts on online engagement in two…

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1568

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of word-of-mouth (WOM) types, WOM valence, content types and discussion topics of user posts on online engagement in two channels of a consumption community. The posts are composed by users on the discussion forum and shared to the Facebook channel of the consumption community by the administrators.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study were obtained from a popular car consumption community in Vietnam. A total of 505 user posts on the discussion forum were manually coded and assigned to WOM types, valence and content characteristics. The online engagement metrics were measured by the number of views and replies on the discussion forum, and the number of likes, comments and shares on Facebook.

Findings

The results indicate that the WOM types and valence have a significant impact on online engagement and the popularity of posts on Facebook is associated with the number of views on a discussion forum. The content type and discussion topic partially influence some factors of the online engagement metrics.

Practical implications

The findings are helpful for consumption community administrators to understand and manage their users’ engagement. Moreover, it indirectly supports brands and companies, since the consumption communities also include sub-communities of particular brands and marketers cooperate with consumption communities for their social media marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature of online engagement in two aspects. First, this study examines the impact of WOM types and valence. Second, this is the first study investigating the effects of posts by users within an information flow from a discussion forum to Facebook.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Julia Marbach, Cristiana Lages, Daniel Nunan and Yuksel Ekinci

Despite growing recognition of the importance of consumer engagement with new technologies, a gap remains in terms of understanding the antecedents, consequences and…

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2529

Abstract

Purpose

Despite growing recognition of the importance of consumer engagement with new technologies, a gap remains in terms of understanding the antecedents, consequences and moderators of online consumer engagement (OCE). This paper aims to address this gap by exploring the relationship between personality traits, OCE, perceived value and the moderating role of personal values.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical framework anchored in the extant OCE literature is tested through a study of 559 users of two distinct firm-hosted online brand communities (FHOBCs).

Findings

Findings suggest that three personality traits – extraversion, openness to experiences and altruism – are positively correlated with OCE. OCE is related to two types of perceived value, namely, social value and aesthetic value. The personal values of conservation and self-enhancement moderate the relationships between the three identified personality traits and OCE.

Research limitations/implications

Future research into OCE should consider the application of this study’s conceptual framework across different cultures to account for the fast-changing nature of online communities.

Practical implications

Understanding how personality traits drive OCE and what value consumers receive from engagement in online communities can help managers to better segment and evaluate consumers. Engagement and levels of activity within these online communities can be improved accordingly.

Originality/value

This study’s contribution to the OCE literature is threefold. First, the study provides new insights regarding personality traits as antecedents of consumer engagement with FHOBCs. Second, the study reveals the first insights into the role of personal values in the relationship between personality traits and OCE. Specifically, conservation and self-enhancement emerged as moderators of the relationship between three personality traits (extraversion, openness to experiences, altruism) and OCE. Third, the study yields support for perceived value types (social value and aesthetic value) that emerge as consequences of consumer engagement in FHOBCs.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Imran Khan, Linda D. Hollebeek, Mobin Fatma, Jamid Ul Islam and Zillur Rahman

The purpose of this study is to assess the mediating role of brand trust and commitment in the relationship of brand engagement and brand experience with brand loyalty in…

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3052

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the mediating role of brand trust and commitment in the relationship of brand engagement and brand experience with brand loyalty in the online service context.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the study’s objective, 414 users of virtual service brands, predominantly in the online banking, airline and hotel sectors, were surveyed.

Findings

Both brand engagement and experience exert direct effects on brand trust and commitment, as well as indirect effects on brand commitment (via brand trust) and service brand loyalty (via brand commitment).

Research limitations/implications

This paper adds to the literature by incorporating brand engagement, experience, trust and commitment into a unifying framework. The framework emphasizes brand trust and commitment’s mediating role in the relationship that brand engagement and experience share with brand commitment and loyalty in the online service context.

Practical implications

Marketers should formulate online brand engagement and experience strategies that strengthen customer brand trust and commitment, which are expected to exert a significant brand loyalty-enhancing effect.

Originality/value

Brand engagement and experience were validated as key drivers of brand trust and commitment, thereby further substantiating their role as important strategic metrics. Moreover, the role of commitment as a mediating factor in the association between brand engagement and experience and their respective impact on brand loyalty has been verified. Although the findings suggest that improved brand engagement/experience contributes to brand loyalty, this effect transpires only though brand commitment.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Carina Simon, Tim Oliver Brexendorf and Martin Fassnacht

Consumer engagement has been designated as an approach to describing online interactions that more comprehensively reflects the nature of consumers’ interactive…

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4439

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer engagement has been designated as an approach to describing online interactions that more comprehensively reflects the nature of consumers’ interactive relationships in online brand communities. This paper aims to explore consumers’ brand community engagement in the context of Facebook brand pages. This research puts forth the hypothesis that consumers’ brand community engagement on Facebook is dependent upon two overarching themes: external social forces and internal personal forces.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on social impact theory, social identity theory and social exchange theory, a conceptual research model is developed and empirically tested through structural equation modelling using cross-sectional data of 460 Facebook brand fans.

Findings

The empirical results suggest that internal personal forces primarily positively influence brand community engagement, while external social forces can even impact consumers’ brand community engagement negatively.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should test and validate the proposed model for specific categories and brands.

Practical implications

This paper offers help to online brand marketers to trigger meaningful engagement of consumers in a brand community on Facebook.

Originality/value

This paper examines the consumer engagement construct from a behavioural perspective in a defined social media context and highlights the peculiarities of online brand communities on Facebook that distinguish them from traditional brand communities. The research uses a strong theoretical foundation to develop a model that investigates the prevalent variables that influence consumers’ brand community engagement on Facebook.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Laurence Dessart, Cleopatra Veloutsou and Anna Morgan-Thomas

This paper aims to delineate the meaning, conceptual boundaries and dimensions of consumer engagement within the context of online brand communities both in term of the…

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59337

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to delineate the meaning, conceptual boundaries and dimensions of consumer engagement within the context of online brand communities both in term of the engagement with the brand and the other members of the online brand communities. It also explores the relationships of consumer engagement with other concepts, suggesting antecedents of engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected through semi-structured interviews with 21 international online brand community members, covering a variety of brand categories and social media platforms.

Findings

This paper suggests that individuals are engaging in online communities in social network platforms both with other individuals and with brands. The study also identifies three key engagement dimensions (cognition, affect and behaviours). Their meaning and sub-dimensions are investigated. The paper further suggests key drivers, one outcome and objects of consumer engagement in online brand communities. These findings are integrated in a conceptual framework.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should aim at comparing consumer engagement on different social media and across brand categories, as this study takes a holistic approach and does not focus on any particular category of brands or social media. Consumers’ views should also be evaluated against and compared with marketing managers’ understanding of consumer engagement.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the fast-growing and fragmented consumer engagement literature by refining the understanding of its dimensions and situating it in a network of conceptual relationships. It focusses on online brand communities in rich social media contexts to tap into the core social and interactive characteristics of engagement.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Kesmat AbdelAziz, Nor Hasliza Md Saad and Ramayah Thurasamy

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the factors which influence value co-creation intention through customer engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the factors which influence value co-creation intention through customer engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper studies the online modest fashion small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Egypt as a Muslim country.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the social cognitive theory (SCT) and the literature to develop a theoretical framework of the factors influencing customers’ value co-creation intention on social media. The framework is then tested quantitatively through structural equation modelling based on partial least squares method (SEM-PLS) approach using the SmartPLS software.

Findings

The empirical analysis supported the SCT through the following conclusions: first, regarding the subject factors, self-efficacy has a positive significant effect on all dimensions of customer engagement and outcome expectation has a positive significant effect on cognitive customer engagement. Concerning the environmental factors, community experience has a positive significant effect on affective and behavioural customer engagement, whereas content quality has a positive significant effect on affective customer engagement. Second, customer engagement is a significant mediator through the dimensions of affective and behavioural customer engagement.

Practical implications

The findings of this study can help online modest fashion SMEs better comprehend the factors which influence the customers’ engagement for value co-creation intention whether it is subject factors or environmental factors. Therefore, they can better operate online and encourage customers to contribute to the development of new products and services and hence achieve a competitive advantage and survive in times of COVID-19.

Originality/value

Most of the existing studies focused on the value co-creation behaviour and output. However, there is limited research focusing on what contributes to the customers’ engagement for value co-creation intention, especially for online modest fashion and Muslim countries. Therefore, this study attempts to examine and bridge this research gap.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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