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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Robin N. Shaw and Heath McDonald

An empirical investigation based on seven years' data for a professional football league finds that on-field performance bears little relation to the number of paid…

Abstract

An empirical investigation based on seven years' data for a professional football league finds that on-field performance bears little relation to the number of paid members or season ticket holders for the clubs.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

The purpose of this paper is to examine the 2010–2015 financial performance (FP) of the national non-profit USA Triathlon (UST) using financial effectiveness (FE…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the 2010–2015 financial performance (FP) of the national non-profit USA Triathlon (UST) using financial effectiveness (FE) indicators and financial efficiency (FY) ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

Archival data were used together with a case study method. FP was evaluated by net income; FE was indicated by total assets and total revenues, while FY was examined by program services ratios and support services ratios.

Findings

On average, the FP of the organization was positive ($2,100,591 net income per year), FE was moderate (66 percent increases in assets and revenues) and the FY was mixed (80 percent revenues spent on program services with an impressive return on asset of 14 percent).

Research limitations/implications

By using case study method, the results may not be generalizable to other national non-profit sports organizations with non-financial objectives.

Practical implications

The results revealed that overall FP is a product of both FE and FY, making the study valuable to managers who are often faced with unreliable financial resources.

Originality/value

The study utilized both FE and FY measures to evaluate the FPs of UST – a major shortfall in similar studies.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

The purpose of this paper is to examine the 2004-2015 financial performance (FP) of the national non-profit US Table Tennis Association using financial effectiveness (FE…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the 2004-2015 financial performance (FP) of the national non-profit US Table Tennis Association using financial effectiveness (FE) indicators and financial efficiency (FY) ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

Archival data were used together with a case study method. FP was evaluated by net income; FE was indicated by total assets and total revenues while FY was examined by program services ratios and support services ratios.

Findings

On an average, the FP of the organization was poor ($6,475.00 net loss per year), FE was moderate (50 percent increases in assets and revenues), and the FY was poor (80 percent revenues spent on program services with a return on asset of 201.5 percent).

Research limitations/implications

By using case study method, the results may not be generalizable to other national non-profit sports organizations with non-financial goals.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that national non-profit organizations can enhance their FP by focusing on both FE and FY.

Originality/value

The study utilized both FE and FY measures to evaluate the FPs – a major shortfall in similar studies.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Marcelo J. Alvarado-Vargas and Qi Zou

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two internal organizational factors in college football teams (team powerfulness and team reputation) and their combined…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two internal organizational factors in college football teams (team powerfulness and team reputation) and their combined relationship on game attendance. Authors aim to validate new data published by Wall Street Journal (WSJ) and NCAA websites; and to develop a new conceptual model to examine the interaction effect of team powerfulness and team reputation on game attendance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on secondary data collected from the WSJ’s “College Football’s Grid of Shame” publication and the NCAA official website. Data for 123 US college football teams are collected representing 13 conferences for seasons 2010–2014. Multi-level regressions are utilized for statistical analyses.

Findings

Results reveal that not only team’s powerfulness is required for more public attendance to games, but also team reputation strengthens this relationship. In other words, team reputation plays an important role in increasing games’ attendance. Team reputation alone does not bring more attendees to games.

Originality/value

This paper studies the relevance of team reputation in the field of sports management. This paper argues that in order to achieve superior financial benefits in college football games, it is important to properly manage team powerfulness and its legal and ethical behavior. In this way, a positive reputation can leverage game attendance to a larger extent.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Hunter Fujak, Tracy Taylor, Clare Hanlon and Donna O'Connor

The first Australia and New Zealand semi-professional women's rugby league premiership (NRLW) was launched in 2018. This chapter charts the players' journey through the…

Abstract

The first Australia and New Zealand semi-professional women's rugby league premiership (NRLW) was launched in 2018. This chapter charts the players' journey through the first two seasons of the competition. A questionnaire was distributed at the end of both seasons to all contracted players in each of the four clubs to capture feedback on their experiences, perceptions, challenges and suggestions for improvements. Players were asked about contracts, sacrifices, support, club culture and their views on coaching and training. The findings indicated despite significant stressors and challenges, players were highly appreciative of the chance to play in a semi-professional league, to be part of a landmark competition, and to inspire future generations of girls to play rugby league. Positive satisfaction across most dimensions of league and club practices and operations were evident in season one. By the end of season two, attitudes were changing, with data showing that players expected to obtain increases in remuneration, number of clubs, season length, media coverage and improvements in coaching, training and support services. Sports such as rugby league need to be particularly mindful of addressing issues arising, as options for women in professional team sports is growing rapidly and competition for talent will only accelerate into the future. This case study of women in rugby league demonstrates that women's experiences and perceptions are shifting from an initiation phase of gratefulness and acceptance of personal/family sacrifice for the opportunity to play semi-professionally, to having increased expectations of reasonable employment conditions and legitimacy as professional athletes.

Details

The Professionalisation of Women’s Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-196-6

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Rory Bishop, Aaron C.T. Smith and Daniel Read

This article provides a plain language commentary on the distributive equity structure of the English Premier League (EPL) with the aim of introducing sport business…

Abstract

Purpose

This article provides a plain language commentary on the distributive equity structure of the English Premier League (EPL) with the aim of introducing sport business practitioners to a foundational challenge facing professional leagues as they grow financially with market opportunities, namely financial inequality between clubs.

Design/methodology/approach

Introducing and discussing data from seasons 2009/10–2018/19, the article reveals that despite maintaining a consistent distribution of the EPL prize fund over time, the financial imbalance within the league has grown throughout the period.

Findings

The EPL's financial distributive equity is exacerbated by growing imparity in the acquisition of sponsorship revenues, the distribution of broadcasting revenues and the implications of policies concerning financial fair play and parachute payments, leading to a problematic differential in the talent distribution and win–wage relationship experienced by the top six teams and the remainder.

Practical implications

The EPL's market-driven continuation of its revenue allocation policies has led to a broadening financial imbalance, in favour of the top clubs, which could paradoxically undermine the financial security of the teams and league. Sport business practitioners should be familiar with this fundamental challenge for sport leagues that accompanies financial growth.

Originality/value

Whilst the percentage difference in prize fund allocation between top and bottom clubs appears minor, there is a significant financial variation across the league, primarily due to the large increase in broadcasting income. This is compounded by positive feedback via the relative dominance of the top six clubs receiving the larger share allocated to higher finishing teams.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

André Richelieu and Frank Pons

This paper looks at how two sports teams, hockey club the Toronto Maple Leafs and Football Club Barcelona, have each built and leveraged their brand equity. The main…

Abstract

This paper looks at how two sports teams, hockey club the Toronto Maple Leafs and Football Club Barcelona, have each built and leveraged their brand equity. The main differences between the two clubs lie in how they position their brands. For TML, the affective and experiential sides of the product are emphasised to make the brand grow; for Barcelona, the cognitive and affective dimensions of the product are prioritised to nurture the brand. Differences between hockey and soccer also contribute to branding discrepancies in terms of exposure and global influences.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2008

Beth A. Sanders

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of personality traits, namely the Big Five, as a means of selection in good police officers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of personality traits, namely the Big Five, as a means of selection in good police officers.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examines a sample of 96 police officers from eight non‐urban police departments.

Findings

Age and attitude were found to be better predictors of job performance measures than were personality traits. A cynical work attitude was negatively related to ratings of job performance. Officer age was found to have a non‐linear relationship to job performance.

Research limitations/implications

Difficulties in measuring police performance are discussed, as is the relative importance of individual officer personality versus organizational culture.

Originality/value

The study extends the research on police officer selection and issues of job performance and measurement.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Eric Mao, Brian P. Soebbing and Nicholas M. Watanabe

Utilizing the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the purpose is to analyze whether the stock prices of the corporation that owns sport teams fluctuate based on team…

Abstract

Purpose

Utilizing the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the purpose is to analyze whether the stock prices of the corporation that owns sport teams fluctuate based on team performance in the Chinese Super League (CSL).

Design/methodology/approach

Several CSL teams are publicly owned corporations. As such, the authors look to see if on-field performance impacts the stock price of the firms. Using the news model from previous research, seemingly unrelated regressions are estimated on CSL games from 2014 through 2017.

Findings

The results from the main models indicate some evidence of a statistical relationship between on-field team performance and stock price. Furthermore, the findings for individual teams across markets did not hold consistent across different markets. More specifically, the authors found some instances where successful on-field performance led to a decline in stock prices.

Originality/value

The present study further contributes to the growing literature related to on-field performance and stock prices. Unlike previous research, the use of the CSL as the empirical setting provides the opportunity to use multiple stock markets which provides an opportunity to further examine this relationship. Finally, the study contributes broadly to the literature on professional sports ownership structures around the world.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

Mike Mondello and Joel Maxcy

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of both salary dispersion and incentive pay on team performance using data complied from the National Football League over the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of both salary dispersion and incentive pay on team performance using data complied from the National Football League over the years 2000‐2007.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider the effect of pay structure on both in terms of on‐field and financial performance. Salary disparity and its subsequent consequences has been a topic of economic research on corporate pay structure and also professional team sport organizations. Analysis of pay structures incorporating the effects of incentive pay on performance is also recurrent in the literature. The paper uses regression analysis and incorporates both fixed and random effects models.

Findings

A relationship between improved on‐field performance and increased payroll, lower levels of salary dispersion, and increased incentive payments is found. However, when employing team revenue production as the measure of performance, a positive relationship with salary dispersion is found.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are of particular interest because a conflict of objectives is seen. When financial incentives are primary, hierarchical pay structure is optimal. It is shown that more compressed pay structures improve on‐field performance.

Practical implications

This study is unique in addressing how salary dispersion in combination with incentive pay correlates to team success as measured by both winning and revenue production. While the authors used the NFL as the organization of interest, this type of analysis could be applied to other professional sport leagues incorporating some type of salary cap. In addition, future research could also involve a mixed methods approach to help gain an additional understanding of the decision making of those in managerial positions of influence within sport and non‐sport organizations.

Originality/value

The study is unique in that most previous empirical work analyzing payroll structure in sport organizations does not consider disparity in conjunction alternative methods of improving performance through structure of compensation.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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