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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Maqsood Ahmad Sandhu, Omer Farooq, Saba Khalid and Mariam Farooq

Based on the extensive literature review and the research published in the context of Western countries, this study proposes that the entrepreneurship education…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the extensive literature review and the research published in the context of Western countries, this study proposes that the entrepreneurship education, participation in entrepreneurial seminars at the universities and their involvement in the activities of innovation and incubation center of the universities may foster entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) among Emirati female graduating students.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the study’s hypothesized model, survey data are collected from 283 female graduating students of 19 public and private universities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The analysis of the data relies upon multiple hierarchical regression and moderation analysis in SPSS.

Findings

The results suggest that all three types of educational activities positively influence the women's EIs in the UAE. However, formal entrepreneurship courses are more effective than the participation in seminars and involvement in the activities of innovation/incubation center. The authors also found that perceived social support does not moderate the impact of education on EIs, which means that entrepreneurship education is equally effective in fostering EIs, no matter female students perceive low or high social support. On the other hand, results demonstrate that the level of gender stereotypes negatively moderates the impact of education on it. This implies that if a female student believes in a high gender stereotype, the impact of education on her EIs will be low and vice versa.

Research limitations/implications

This study specifically focuses on women entrepreneurship and for the UAE only. However, the results can be generalized for female entrepreneurship, specifically for countries where governments are taking initiatives to foster female entrepreneurship. The study provides specific implications for the UAE public policy government.

Practical implications

As the Government of the UAE is keenly interested to boost up the women entrepreneurial behavior, the findings of the study support that in addition to entrepreneurship education, the government should also encourage the universities to arrange entrepreneurship seminars as these seminars also increase the EIs of women. In addition, the government and the universities should also focus on the involvement of women in the incubation centers/innovation park because the incubation centers can provide the practical exposure to the women in the new business start-ups.

Originality/value

This research is among the first, which benchmarks women EIs in the UAE.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Omer Farooq Malik, Asif Shahzad, Aamer Waheed and Zarash Yousaf

Drawing on affective events theory, the authors investigated whether exposure to abusive supervision triggers malevolent creativity among victims and the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on affective events theory, the authors investigated whether exposure to abusive supervision triggers malevolent creativity among victims and the role of psychological contract violation (PCV) as a mediator in this relationship. The authors also examined the moderating effects of the Light Triad personality traits comprising Kantianism, humanism and faith in humanity.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised 297 junior doctors working at various clinical departments of public sector hospitals in three major cities of Pakistan. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and the hypothesized model was tested using the covariance-based structural equation modeling in Mplus.

Findings

Results demonstrated that abusive supervision influences malevolent creativity directly and indirectly mediated through PCV. Further, results showed that individuals high on the Light Triad traits are less likely to engage in malevolently creative acts in response to abusive supervision and feelings of violation than those low on the Light Triad.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the literature by demonstrating that exposure to abusive supervision influences the generation of malevolently creative ideas among subordinates. Further, the authors showed that subordinates high on the Light Triad handle abusive supervisory behaviors and negative emotional reactions more productively and are less likely to retaliate against perceived mistreatment compared to their counterparts.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Madeeha Irshad, Muhammad Shakil Ahmad and Omer Farooq Malik

The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of consumers’ motivations (i.e. remuneration, social, and empowerment) on online purchase intentions mediated through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of consumers’ motivations (i.e. remuneration, social, and empowerment) on online purchase intentions mediated through trust towards retailers present on social media.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from consumers residing in the three metropolitan cities of Pakistan, and the research model was tested using the covariance-based structural equation modelling in Amos.

Findings

The results showed that remuneration and social motivations positively influenced consumers’ online purchase intentions directly, as well as indirectly mediated through trust. However, trust fully mediated the relationship between empowerment motivation and consumers’ online purchase intentions.

Originality/value

The existing literature reveals that only a handful of studies have endeavoured to understand consumers’ trust in the context of social media marketing, and the literature in this field is not matured yet. The novelty of this research lies in its contribution to understanding the impacts of consumers’ motives (i.e. remuneration, social, and empowerment) on trust towards retailers present on social media, which have not been explored before. In addition, it examines trust towards retailers present on social media as an underlying mechanism that affects the relationships between consumers’ motives and online purchase intentions.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Felipe Mendes Borini, Omer Farooq Malik, Mansoor Ahmad and Mehwish Shabaz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range leadership theory, and contextualizes leadership styles such as transformational leadership style, and transactional leadership style (active management by exception, and contingent reward) to temporary project environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected (in year 2017) from 248 individuals working in ten large project-based organizations from different sectors, each having multiple units in Pakistan. Respondents comprise functional managers and individuals (who have lead or worked on projects), as well as dedicated project managers.

Findings

Goal clarity partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership style and project success. However, in case of the transactional leadership style, there is no mediation as transactional leadership style is not associated with goal clarity. Furthermore, contingent reward is positively associated to project success, while active management by exception is negatively associated to project success.

Originality/value

Research suggests that the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between leadership styles (transactional and transformational) and project success are less clear and need to be further explored. This study contributes to literature by answering such calls, and examines possible underlying mechanisms (i.e. goal clarity) in the relationship between leadership styles and project success.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Anees Wajid, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Omer Farooq Malik, Shahab Alam Malik and Nabila Khurshid

It is argued that the service-dominant (S-D) view of the value co-creation concept is mainly of a macro nature and is difficult to examine empirically. In this regard…

Abstract

Purpose

It is argued that the service-dominant (S-D) view of the value co-creation concept is mainly of a macro nature and is difficult to examine empirically. In this regard, marketing research using the micro-foundation theory proposes some conceptual models, through which relationships (involving value co-creation) at a micro/meso level may be studied. The purpose of this paper is to add to such exchanges regarding value co-creation and conceptualize the link of embeddedness of an actor (in a service-ecosystem) to their engagement in the value co-creation process.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on the S-D logic and the value co-creation concept and make propositions with regard to two micro-foundational concepts: actor engagement and actor embeddedness.

Findings

The authors show that actor embeddedness can be considered as an antecedent of actor engagement, which leads to value co-creation at a macro level and perceived value in context at the micro level.

Originality/value

The authors fill some gaps in literature with regard to S-D logic and value co-creation by combining two micro-foundational concepts: actor engagement and actor embeddedness and propose how through these, some macro-level outcomes such as value co-creation and resource integration may be determined.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Muhammad Arshad, Omer Farooq and Mariam Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and when intrinsic (personal growth, affiliation, community contribution, health) and extrinsic (financial success, fame…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and when intrinsic (personal growth, affiliation, community contribution, health) and extrinsic (financial success, fame, physical appearance) goals affect individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). The study uses goal contents theory to propose that intrinsic and extrinsic goals positively influence individuals’ EIs. The authors further argue that the collectivism moderates the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on individuals EIs.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was designed to collect data from business graduates at a university in Pakistan. The measurement model and the hypothesized model were tested using the structural equation modeling technique in MPlus 7.0.

Findings

The results suggest that all four intrinsic goals and three extrinsic goals positively affect individuals’ EIs. However, financial success and fame appear to be the most prominent determinants of EIs. Similarly, personal growth and contribution to community are strong predictors of individuals’ EIs. Conversely, health, physical appearance and affiliation motives were found to have a weaker effect on individuals’ EIs. Moreover, the results show that collectivist orientation negatively moderates the effect of intrinsic goals on individuals’ EIs, but positively moderates the effect of extrinsic goals. These results suggest that the EIs of individuals with high collectivist orientation are mainly induced by extrinsic goals, whereas intrinsic factors play a greater role in stimulating the EIs of individuals with low collectivism.

Originality/value

Extant research has paid little attention to intrinsic and extrinsic goals as determinants of individuals’ EIs. Thus, this study explores how and when intrinsic and extrinsic goals develop individuals’ EIs. This study is the first of its kind to highlight the importance of individuals’ cultural orientation (collectivism) to determine the alternative role of intrinsic and extrinsic goals in developing individuals’ EIs. In addition, this study was conducted in a different cultural setting (i.e. South Asia), which provides an opportunity to expand the boundary conditions of the phenomenon by offering an alternative perspective on this issue.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Muhammad Arshad, Mariam Farooq, Muhammad Atif and Omer Farooq

This study aims to analyze individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions from the perspective of motivational theory and examines the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions from the perspective of motivational theory and examines the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on entrepreneurial intentions of male and female individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from students graduating from Pakistan’s largest university. A structural equation modeling technique was used for model testing.

Findings

Intrinsic factors such as intrinsic interest and community feeling aspiration and extrinsic factors such as perceived relative income and occupational prestige positively affect attitudes and, in turn, stimulate entrepreneurial intentions. Further, as intrinsic interest and perceived relative income scored higher among men, gender moderates those effects. Conversely, the entrepreneurial attitudes of women were primarily driven by community feeling aspiration. Notably, the positive effect of occupational prestige did not vary among men and women.

Originality/value

This paper explores the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the entrepreneurial intentions of men and women. The integration of motivational theory with gender provides insights into the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions in South Asia.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Cristina Doritta Rodrigues, Felipe Mendes Borini, Omer Farooq Malik and Abubakr Saeed

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encourage their subsidiaries to develop and transfer their unique knowledge and expertise back to the MNE as it is critical for the…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) encourage their subsidiaries to develop and transfer their unique knowledge and expertise back to the MNE as it is critical for the development of the MNE as a whole. However, what underlies the subsidiary ability to create such specialized knowledge that can be transferred to the MNE is less clear. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of MNE entrepreneurial strategy, subsidiary initiatives and expatriation on reverse knowledge transfers in a cross-country comparative context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are gathered through surveys from 429 foreign subsidiaries operating in New Zealand and 164 subsidiaries in Brazil, and these are analyzed using variance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

Subsidiary initiatives partially mediate the relationship between MNE entrepreneurial strategy and reverse knowledge transfers in case of subsidiaries operating in Brazil, but they fully mediate in case of New Zealand. Furthermore, expatriation, in case of the latter, has a negative interaction in the relationship between subsidiary initiative and reverse knowledge transfers, but, in case of the former, it has no moderating role. Overall, the results suggest that the influence of MNE entrepreneurial strategy and expatriation on reverse knowledge transfers can be explained by contingencies such as the subsidiary host economy and the heterogenous HQ–subsidiary relationships.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to literature by identifying some contingencies with regard to the occurrence of reverse knowledge transfers. It addresses some research calls with regard to examining reverse knowledge transfers and the role of expatriation across different empirical contexts.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Muhammad Arshad, Omer Farooq, Naheed Sultana and Mariam Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differentiated effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms on individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differentiated effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms on individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs), through the mediation of attitude toward entrepreneurship, by integrating the framework of gender schema theory with the theory of planned behavior. The authors posit that different factors stimulate the EIs of males and females, through attitude toward entrepreneurship, in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from graduating students of South Asia’s largest university. Structural equation modeling is used for model testing.

Findings

The results show that perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy has a greater effect on the attitude of males toward entrepreneurship than on the attitude of females, but perceived social norms have a greater effect on female attitude toward entrepreneurship. Attitude toward entrepreneurship has a positive impact on EIs.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its nature which demonstrates that the EIs of males and females are induced by different factors. Where the social norms are the major factors in determining the EIs of the females, self-efficacy plays a vital role in predicting the EIs of their male counterparts. This study also attempts to clarify the relationship between self-efficacy, social norms, and EIs by positing entrepreneurial attitude as mediator. Moreover, it brings a fresh perspective through its setting in South Asia. By testing a model in the cultural setting of a developing country, this study differentiates the research from that conducted in the developed world.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Muhammad Arshad, Mariam Farooq, Sadia Afzal and Omer Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors influencing the adoption of new information systems (IS) in organizations. Based on the institutional theory, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors influencing the adoption of new information systems (IS) in organizations. Based on the institutional theory, this research proposes that organizations may induce their employees to adopt new IS by creating three types of institutional pressure: coercive, normative and mimetic. It is further argued that the effects of these three institutional pressures on employees’ new IS usage depend on their cultural orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

Model testing relies on data collected from 370 banking sector employees during the implementation of a new “customer relationship management” system. The hypothesized model was tested by using the structural equation modeling technique in MPlus 7.0.

Findings

The findings of this research reveal that institutional pressures (coercive, normative and mimetic) have positive effects on employees’ attitudes to using the new IS, which, in turn, positively influences their IS usage. In addition, collectivism strengthens the positive effect of coercive and normative forces on attitudes to using the new IS. Conversely, collectivism weakens the effect of the mimetic force on employees’ attitudes to using the new IS.

Originality/value

This research is among pioneering studies that explain the effect of institutional pressures (coercive, normative and mimetic) on employees’ IS usage. It is the first study of its nature that demonstrates that each of the three institutional pressures has differential effects on employees with highly collectivist orientations in comparison with employees with low collectivist orientations.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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