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1 – 10 of 467
Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Ramón Benito Infante, Omar E. Garcia, Andrés Carmona and Carlos J. Rivera

Brush border intestinal disaccharidases (maltase, sucrase and lactase) play an important role in carbohydrate assimilation. These enzymes are located on the brush border…

Abstract

Purpose

Brush border intestinal disaccharidases (maltase, sucrase and lactase) play an important role in carbohydrate assimilation. These enzymes are located on the brush border and may interact with legume seed components such as dietary fiber and polyphenols. The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of legume dietary fiber on rat disaccharidase in vitro.

Design/methodology/approach

Rat intestinal disaccharidases from Sprague‐Dawley rats fed a basal diet for 21 days were partially purified from intestinal scrapings. Enzyme activities were tested in vitro in the absence and presence of total dietary fiber isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris (Varieties Tacarigua and Montalbán) and Vigna unguiculata (Varieties Unare and Tuy) seeds that differ in fiber and polyphenol content. Dietary fiber was purified using the AOAC method.

Findings

The specific activities of the intestinal brush‐border disaccharidases from rats fed the basal diet were 3.29 ± 0.06, 3.13 ± 0.62 and 0.18 ± 0.04 umoles of glucose released/mg of protein/min for maltase, sucrase and lactase, respectively. Total dietary fiber from the legume tested inhibited both sucrase and maltase. Fiber from the four seeds tested affected sucrase similarly (average inhibition 35 per cent) whereas the fiber residue from P. vulgaris Montalbán was more effective on maltase (26.7 per cent) than that from P. vulgaris Tacarigua (12.2 per cent). Effect of V. unguiculata fibers on maltase was similar and somewhat in between those from P. vulgaris.

Originality/value

These results suggest that dietary fiber, as well as other factors from beans with anti‐physiological effect, such as condensed tannins and fitic acid possibly associated with the dietary fiber, may impair carbohydrate availability and may contribute to the low glycemic index proper of these foodstuffs.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 12 no. 4/5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Mohammed Hossain, Omar Al Farooque, Mahmood Ahmed Momin and Obaid Almotairy

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between gender diversity and the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) score/index. Specifically, the study describes extant…

1117

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between gender diversity and the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) score/index. Specifically, the study describes extant research on theoretical perspectives, and the impact of women on corporate boards (WOBs) on carbon emission issues in the global perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the carbon disclosure scores of the CDP from 2011 to 2013 (inclusive). A total observation for the three-year periods is 1,175 companies. However, based on data availability for the model, the sample size totals 331 companies in 33 countries with firms in 12 geographical locations. The authors used a model which is estimated using the fixed-effects estimator.

Findings

The outcomes of the study reveal that there is a positive relationship between gender diversity (WOB) and carbon disclosure information. In addition to establishing a relationship between CDP score and other control variables, this study also found a relationship with Board size, asset size, energy consumption and Tobin’s Q, which is common in the existing literature.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the study mostly revolve around samples and the time period. To further test the generalizability and cross-sectional validity of the outcomes, it is suggested that the proposed framework be tested in more socially responsible firms.

Practical implications

There are increasing pressures for WOBs from diverse stakeholders, such as the European Commission, national governments, politicians, employer lobby groups, shareholders, Fortune and Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE) rankings and best places for women to work lists. The study offers insights to policy makers implementing gender quota legislation.

Originality/value

The study has important implications for putting into practice good corporate governance and, in particular, gender diversity. The outcomes of the analyses advocate that companies that included women directors and had a smaller board size may expect to achieve a higher level of carbon emission performance and to voluntarily disclose the level of carbon information assessment requested by the CDP.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2021

Juan E. Núñez-Ríos, Jacqueline Y. Sánchez-García, Manuel Soto-Pérez, Elias Olivares-Benitez and Omar G. Rojas

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) mainly rely on their structure and internal networks to achieve their goals and remain competitive. However, their limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) mainly rely on their structure and internal networks to achieve their goals and remain competitive. However, their limited internal capabilities and complex environments can hinder their stability. Thus, this study evaluated the relationships among specific factors toward fostering organizational resilience (OR) in tourism SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-methodological approach was adopted to address this research study, including (1) social network analysis (SNA) to formulate the conceptual model and (2) construct validation through partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM).

Findings

The six proposed hypotheses were supported. These results suggest that addressing these variables and relationships after considering management style and people development as critical factors can foster OR in tourism SMEs.

Research limitations/implications

The ideas that were developed were constrained to the organizational domain. Although the results apply to the Mexican context, this limitation can be offset by extending the proposal to other emergent regions or organizations. This can also increase the generalization of the results and foster improvements in the approaches applied.

Practical implications

Academics and managers must rethink resilience as the final state generated by multiple factors. This requires reconfiguring inner organizational interactions, providing more autonomy to operative units, reinforcing business intelligence and improving feedback mechanisms.

Originality/value

This research study contrasts previous studies because it proposes that SNA be exploited to avail of the advantages it confers in designing the conceptual model. In this regard, we present new relationships to promote OR and provide new avenues in order to improve the analysis of adaptation processes.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2018

Esmeralda Brito-Cervantes, Semei Coronado, Manuel Morales-García and Omar Rojas

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the adaptive market efficiency in the price–volume (P–V) relationship of the stocks listed in the Mexican Stock Exchange. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the adaptive market efficiency in the price–volume (P–V) relationship of the stocks listed in the Mexican Stock Exchange. The period under study goes from 1982 to 2015. In order to detect causality and, thus, determine adaptive efficiency in the market, one linear and two non-linear tests are applied. There are few papers in the literature that study the P–V relationship in Latin American markets; as such, this paper may be of interest and importance to financial academics and practitioners alike.

Design/methodology/approach

The Diks and Panchenko (DP) non-parametric Granger causality and the Brooks and Hinich (BH) cross-bicorrelation tests are applied.

Findings

Derived from the DP test, the findings show that there exists bi-directional non-linear Granger causality in 25.71 per cent of the firms studied, compared to 8 per cent when applying the linear Granger causality test. Therefore, there is evidence of weak-form efficiency in the market. From the BH test, evidence is shown of the adaptive market efficiency, since 71.42 per cent of firms exhibited some form of non-linear dependence in certain periods of time. With these results, the information process should be better studied for a greater comprehension of regulatory policies in the market and better decision-making tools for the investors.

Originality/value

This paper complements studies on the P–V relationship and efficiency in a Latin American market.

Propósito

Este documento analiza la eficiencia adaptativa del mercado para la relación precio-volumen de las empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores. El periodo bajo estudio es de 1982 a 2015. Para detectar causalidad y determinar la eficiencia adaptativa del mercado, se aplicó una prueba lineal y dos no-lineales. Existen pocos documentos en la literatura que estudien la relación precio-volumen en mercados latinoamericanos. Como tal, este documento puede ser de interés e importancia tanto para académicos como para profesionales de las finanzas.

Metodología

Se aplicó la prueba de causalidad no-paramétrica de Diks y Panchenko y la prueba de bicorrelación cruzada de Brooks y Hinich.

Hallazgos

Derivado de la prueba DP, los hallazgos muestran que existe causalidad no-lineal bidireccional en 25.71% de las empresas bajo estudio, comparado a un 8% cuando se aplica la prueba de causalidad lineal de Granger. Por lo tanto, existe evidencia de eficiencia en forma débil del mercado. De la pruba BH, se muestra evidencia de eficiencia adaptativa del mercado, dado que el 71.42% de las empresas exhibieron alguna forma de dependencia no-lineal en ciertos periodos de tiempo. Con estos resultados, el proceso de información debe ser mejor estudiado para una mayor comprensión de las políticas regulatorias del mercado y mejores herramientas para la toma de decisiones por los inversionistas.

Originalidad

Este documento complementa los estudios sobre la relación precio-volumen y la eficiencia en un mercado latinoamericano.

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Hani Alkayed and Bilal Fayiz Omar

This study aims to investigate the determinants of the extent and quality of corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) in Jordan. The study examines a number of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the determinants of the extent and quality of corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) in Jordan. The study examines a number of factors that influence the extent and quality of CSR disclosure, such as corporate characteristics, corporate governance and ownership structure.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach and a content analysis technique is used to measure the extent and quality of CSRD from annual reports. The sample is drawn from the annual reports of 118 Jordanian companies between 2010 and 2015. A CSRD index is constructed, which includes the disclosures of the following categories: environmental, human resources, product and consumers, and community involvement. This is the first study that presents a new measurement for CSR disclosure quality by using images and charts in a seven-point scale measurement.

Findings

The result reveals that the extent of CSRD is higher than quality in Jordan. Regarding the determinants of CSR disclosures, the following factors were found to have a significant relationship with both the extent and quality of CSRD: board size, non-executive directors, age of firm, foreign members on the board, number of boards meetings, the presence of audit committees, big 4, government ownership, size of firm and industry type. Non-executive directors was found to have a significant correlation with the extent of CSRD.

Research limitations/implications

The current study has some limitations; first, the study findings are limited to the Jordanian environment. Second, the study adopted a purely quantitative method, and future research could include interviews and questionnaires to gather data from financial managers and chief executive officers (CEOs). Third, the potential influences on the level and quality of CSR are not limited to the variables tested in this study. Future research can be done on new determinants, such as CEO interlocking and profitability. Finally, the sample included companies from two main sectors – the services and industrial sectors; thus, this limited the results to these two main sectors.

Practical implications

Practitioners, as firms, should develop new strategies and ensure that CSR is included in their reports. Thus, companies can achieve legitimacy for their products and activities. Policymakers must consider introducing new laws that mandate CSRDs since it has many advantages for companies and society. In addition, this research suggests amending the law to require companies to have 33% of their directors be non-executives since this will remove the negative effect on CSR disclosure. Investors must pay attention to the social activities of the companies they invest in, as CSR could have a positive effect on their market value.

Social implications

The study has indicated that Jordanian companies became increasingly more involved in CSR activities, as this growth in CSRD is linked with global increases in CSR. Moreover, the study has revealed that the highest category of CSR disclosures is related to products or services and employee information. On the other hand, the lowest category of CSR disclosures is related to community and other disclosures (extent) and environmental disclosures (quality). Furthermore, the results show that the services sector was found to have more disclosures regarding employees and community, whereas the industrial sector was more concerned about environmental and product information.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that presents a new measurement for CSR disclosure quality by using images and charts in a seven-point scale measurement. This new seven-point scale will be adopted to distinguish between poor and excellent disclosures. In addition, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study in Jordan which examines the determinants of the extent and the quality of CSR for three categories, namely, corporate characteristics, corporate governance and ownership structure.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Omar A. Tapasco-Alzate, Jaime Giraldo-García and Diógenes Ramírez-Ramírez

The purpose of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis between the productivity metrics recommended in the literature and those that companies in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis between the productivity metrics recommended in the literature and those that companies in the knowledge-intensive services sector use in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

To collect information, a systematic review of the literature was used, to apply virtual surveys and interviews among managers of different companies representing the sector. For data analysis, categorical optimal scales, homogeneity tests, tetrachoric correlation matrices, word clouds and association coefficients for dichotomous variables were used.

Findings

There are association patterns between the metrics used and the nature of the work performed. Despite the heterogeneity observed in the productivity metrics, categorization guidelines related to the traditional, human resources and customer-oriented approaches emerge.

Practical implications

Possible neglects using metrics aimed at valuing the intellectual capital immersed in human resources are evident, particularly in the follow-up to autonomy, knowledge management, human capital, teamwork, training and capacity building metrics, among others. Conversely, face-to-face monitoring metrics, such as absenteeism, are overvaluation.

Originality/value

The approaches and metrics discussed and the results obtained, provide information so that knowledge-intensive companies have a reference framework to identify and select useful metrics to assess the work carried out by their workforce.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2022

Md. Shamsul Arefin, Omar Faroque, Junwei Zhang and Lirong Long

Aligning employees' goals with organizational goals is an overarching objective of an organization to increase employees' outcomes and, ultimately, the firm's performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Aligning employees' goals with organizational goals is an overarching objective of an organization to increase employees' outcomes and, ultimately, the firm's performance. Employees' perceived goal congruence is proposed to be an important mediator of the effect of high-performance work systems (HPWS) on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). In this paper, the authors proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that depicted how servant leadership increased or restrained these effects.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used data from 56 managers and 322 employees working in Bangladeshi organizations. The study conducted cross-level analyses using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the hypothetical relationships among variables.

Findings

This study revealed that employees' perceived goal congruence mediated the influence of HPWS on OCB. Consistent with the moderated mediation prediction, employee-perceived goal congruence mediated the relationship between HPWS and OCB when servant leadership is high.

Originality/value

This study examined how and when HPWS affects OCB by incorporating perceived goal congruence and servant leadership as mediating and moderating variables, respectively.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Gábor Nagy, Carol M. Megehee and Arch G. Woodside

The study here responds to the view that the crucial problem in strategic management (research) is firm heterogeneity – why firms adopt different strategies and…

Abstract

The study here responds to the view that the crucial problem in strategic management (research) is firm heterogeneity – why firms adopt different strategies and structures, why heterogeneity persists, and why competitors perform differently. The present study applies complexity theory tenets and a “neo-configurational perspective” of Misangyi et al. (2016) in proposing complex antecedent conditions affecting complex outcome conditions. Rather than examining variable directional relationships using null hypotheses statistical tests, the study examines case-based conditions using somewhat precise outcome tests (SPOT). The complex outcome conditions include firms with high financial performances in declining markets and firms with low financial performances in growing markets – the study focuses on seemingly paradoxical outcomes. The study here examines firm strategies and outcomes for separate samples of cross-sectional data of manufacturing firms with headquarters in one of two nations: Finland (n = 820) and Hungary (n = 300). The study includes examining the predictive validities of the models. The study contributes conceptual advances of complex firm orientation configurations and complex firm performance capabilities configurations as mediating conditions between firmographics, firm resources, and the two final complex outcome conditions (high performance in declining markets and low performance in growing markets). The study contributes by showing how fuzzy-logic computing with words (Zadeh, 1966) advances strategic management research toward achieving requisite variety to overcome the theory-analytic mismatch pervasive currently in the discipline (Fiss, 2007, 2011) – thus, this study is a useful step toward solving the crucial problem of how to explain firm heterogeneity.

Details

Improving the Marriage of Modeling and Theory for Accurate Forecasts of Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-122-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2022

Angel A. Escamilla García

Purpose: This chapter analyzes the policies of immigration control implemented in Mexico in 2014 to deter the migration of Central Americans to the United States, and

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter analyzes the policies of immigration control implemented in Mexico in 2014 to deter the migration of Central Americans to the United States, and their impact on Central American youth migrants.

Methods: This chapter draws from three pools of data: (1) participant observation and interviews conducted with minor migrants in Mexico from 2015 to 2019; (2) Mexican and US government data on detentions and deportations of Central American minor migrants; and (3) publicly available information on Mexican and Guatemalan government programs and media campaigns targeted at addressing the migration of Central American minor migrants.

Findings: This chapter posits that the policies of migrant detention and deportation implemented in Mexico in 2014 turned the entire country into a borderland for Central Americans. These policies expanded the areas of migrant surveillance, detention, and deportation beyond Mexico’s traditional border regions, which, in turn, made youth migrants’ journeys through Mexico more precarious and prone to violence.

Research implications: This chapter examines the impact of immigration and border control policies implemented in Mexico and anti-immigration propaganda on Central American youth, and it demonstrates how Mexico has been converted into an expanded US border territory in an attempt to prevent migrants from reaching the United States’ physical borderland.

Value: This chapter analyzes the impact of US-led detention and deportation policies aimed at Central American migrants throughout Mexico, rather than just in the traditional border regions. These relatively novel policies are at the forefront of immigration control and warrant special attention.

Details

Children and Youths' Migration in a Global Landscape
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-539-5

Keywords

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