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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Allan Metz

Historically, Panama has always been “a place of transit.” While technically the isthmus formed part of Colombia in the nineteenth century, it was linked geopolitically to…

Abstract

Historically, Panama has always been “a place of transit.” While technically the isthmus formed part of Colombia in the nineteenth century, it was linked geopolitically to the United States soon after the California gold rush, beginning in the late 1840s. The first attempt at building a canal ended in failure in 1893 when disease and poor management forced Ferdinand de Lesseps to abandon the project. The U.S. undertaking to build the canal could only begin after Panama declared itself free and broke away from Colombia in 1903, with the support of the United States.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Omar Arias, Gustavo Yamada and Luis Tejerina

This study investigates the role of race, family background and education in earnings inequality between whites and the African descendent population in Brazil. It uses…

3849

Abstract

This study investigates the role of race, family background and education in earnings inequality between whites and the African descendent population in Brazil. It uses quantile Mincer earnings regressions to go beyond the usual decomposition of average earnings gaps. Differences in human capital, including parental education and education quality, and in its returns, account for most but not all of the racial earnings gaps. There appears to be greater pay discrimination at the higher salary jobs for any skill level. Returns to education vary with the gradient of skin color. While returns are similar for white and mixed race workers at the top of the adjusted wage scale, mixed race workers at the bottom are rewarded similar to blacks. Thus, while equalizing access to quality education is key to reduce racial earnings inequality in Brazil, specific policies are also needed to facilitate equal access of non‐whites to good quality jobs.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Danièle Meulders, Robert Plasman and François Rycx

Introduces a collection of papers originally presented at the 79th Applied Econometrics Association Conference which was organised with the specific aim of stimulating…

4141

Abstract

Introduces a collection of papers originally presented at the 79th Applied Econometrics Association Conference which was organised with the specific aim of stimulating discussion on the “econometrics of wages”. Topics of particular focus include gender wage gaps and wage discrimination. The papers provide insight into the magnitude and sources of gender, racial and sexual orientation earnings inequalities.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Abstract

This essay aims at retracing the intellectual and biographical events of the economist Gino Arias (1879–1940), examining more in detail the two seasons at the opposite ends of his life: the early one that saw him considerably committed to the Zionist cause and the one that, thirty years later, would force him to confront the racial laws of the Fascist regime.

Despite the seeming tragic continuity of these two phases, Arias’s case is a real historiographical paradox since, over the long span between the opposite ends of his biography, not only did he distance himself from the Zionist movement, but he also gradually laid the foundations for his upcoming and immediate dedication to Fascism; indeed, within the Fascist regime he would stand out as an authoritative and influential theorist of corporatism, the institutional solution Mussolini tried to exploit to organize the national economic life.

After carefully examining Arias’s early contributions to the Zionist cause (that include the establishment of the Florentine Zionist Group and that led him toward strongly nationalistic stances), this essay sums up Arias’s intellectual biography during the next years and then, thanks to unprecedented documents from the Italian Ministry of Interior, closely looks into his fate after his conversion to Catholicism in 1932 and up against the racial laws of 1938, as well as into his attempts to escape persecution. A few final observations will then try to highlight the dramatic exemplarity of his case.

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-154-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Sungbum Jun, Dongmyung Lee and Jinwoo Park

This paper aims to develop a multi‐criteria approach for determining business models in bottom‐of‐the‐pyramid (BOP) markets.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a multi‐criteria approach for determining business models in bottom‐of‐the‐pyramid (BOP) markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Analytic network process (ANP) was employed to construct a decision‐making model of quantitative and qualitative factors relevant to BOP markets. Alternatives can be evaluated, respectively, and further business implications can be delivered to decision makers through continuous improvement of the model.

Findings

ANP is a tool that can address the interdependencies among decision elements and alternatives in the BOP markets. Moreover, it can be employed in structural analysis of the network of relationships among the selection criteria.

Practical implications

Decision makers can make more informed decisions by using the proposed approach, which is targeted toward BOP customers. This approach also overcomes the flaws of previous approaches.

Social implications

The successful selection of business models for BOP markets can change how multinational companies think about BOP consumers, allowing the poor to be perceived as value‐demanding customers. In addition, if multinational companies create new local business models, the quality of life of the poor could be improved.

Originality/value

The consideration of interdependencies among the criteria relevant to the selection of successful business models in BOP markets is a novel conceptual contribution.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 113 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Murat Hakan Altıntaş, Serkan Kılıç, Gokhan Senol and Feride Bahar Isin

The purpose of this paper is to determine which strategic objective factors have significant effects on competitive advantage of private label manufacturers in Turkey.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine which strategic objective factors have significant effects on competitive advantage of private label manufacturers in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

A study was conducted of 90 Turkish private label manufacturers. A web‐based questionnaire was the chosen method.

Findings

Three strategic objective factors were found to have an effect on competitive advantage: production efficiency, market embeddedness and product selling control.

Research limitations/implications

A comparative analysis between retailers and manufacturers of private labels was regarded as necessary to learn about their perspectives regarding competition. The large sample size encouraged confident generalization of the findings. Another limitation was only analyzing data from a country that has a low private label market share.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper offer valuable insights to retailers, national brand manufacturers and private label manufacturers, enabling them to learn the triggers for product manufacturing from the perspective of private label manufacturers.

Originality/value

It is hoped that this paper will reveal some valuable perspectives from an emerging private label market.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 13 March 2019

The resolution was a Democratic attempt at damage control after comments by a newly elected caucus member that were perceived as anti-Semitic: the party fears being tagged…

Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2012

Robert L. Williams, Maktoba Omar and Ujvala Rajadhyaksha

Addressing potential markets in emerging countries is an important development in international marketing, and over the last decade research has been energized by the…

Abstract

Addressing potential markets in emerging countries is an important development in international marketing, and over the last decade research has been energized by the model of the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP). More recently the focus has shifted away from defining the BOP potential in terms of identifying the market at the BOP, and toward creating a market at the BOP, concurrent with the rephrasing of the potential as the Base of the Pyramid. The Value Flame at the Base of the Pyramid (VFBOP) model discussed here stresses not only that a leap in mindset and analysis is necessary to operate in the BOP, but that principles of mutual value and co-venturing are necessary, that is, not only enter into the BOP but collaborate within the BOP. Twenty-one VFBOP characteristics are summarized into four categories: (1) change the mindset; (2) don’t compete; (3) align all organization activities in pursuit of differentiation; and (4) create and capture new market demand. These characteristics can be a template of considerations for a company when designing and marketing a product or service to profitably meet the demands of the BOP market. To illustrate the VFBOP model and characteristics a case study is presented. Through the VFBOP model it can be seen that enormous opportunities may be available in these emerging economies.

Details

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Product Design, Innovation, & Branding in International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-016-1

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Godfred Matthew Yaw Owusu, Theodora Aba Abekah Koomson, Stanley Agbenya Alipoe and Yusuf Ahmed Kani

This paper aims to investigate the views of employees on the motives behind frequently reported fraudulent activities at the workplace. Using the fraud triangle theory…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the views of employees on the motives behind frequently reported fraudulent activities at the workplace. Using the fraud triangle theory (FTT) as the theoretical lens, the study examines the effect of pressure, opportunity and rationalization on fraudulent acts by employees at the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

The study follows a correlational quantitative approach using questionnaires as the main data collection tool. A total of 243 valid responses from employees working in different state-owned enterprises in Ghana were used in the empirical analysis. The hypothesized relationships of the study were tested using the partial least square-structural equation modelling technique.

Findings

The results from the structural analysis showed that pressure, rationalization and opportunity are important in explaining why employees engage in fraudulent activities at the workplace.

Originality/value

The findings do not only provide empirical support for the applicability of the FTT in the Ghanaian context but most importantly offer some useful insights into the fraud discourse from the public sector workers’ perspective.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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