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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2014

Robert VanWynsberghe and Caitlin Pentifallo

This chapter coins the term Development through Mega-Events (DME) in order to propose a next step for developing social legacies in accordance with the principle of social…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter coins the term Development through Mega-Events (DME) in order to propose a next step for developing social legacies in accordance with the principle of social development.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter’s argument for DME is developed using quantitative, indicator-based data from the Olympic Games Impact (OGI) study as well as relevant literature from the sub-fields of Sport for Development and Peace and Sport Mega-Events.

Findings

We discuss the absence of a baseline understanding of the properties of sport mega-events. Also absent are progressive efforts to achieve sustainability by means other than competition among prospective bidders. We recommend that hosts tie social legacies to public policy objectives that are concomitant with the properties of the sport mega-events. Retrospectively applied, OGI data from 2010 reveals social inclusion as one potential social legacy that reflects the nature of the Olympics and the policy realm in the host region.

Originality/value

This chapter is original work. It would be of interest to potential host communities, policymakers, and researchers.

Details

Sport, Social Development and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-885-3

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Olympic Games: A Critical Approach
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-776-3

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Kwang-Hoon Lee

Despite the privatization of its various components, the bidding process and the preparations for the Olympics are still initiated and tightly managed by central…

Abstract

Despite the privatization of its various components, the bidding process and the preparations for the Olympics are still initiated and tightly managed by central governments. Moreover, intentionally and unintentionally, governments use mega sports events such as the Olympics as a soft power medium in which to pursue their goals such as economic development and social integration and a lot of literature has already reviewed the economic and sociocultural impact of hosting the event. This chapter argues that the Olympics have been used as the medium to assist in the formation of legitimacy for a weakened authoritarian leader in the early phase of democratization in Korea. In addition, the chapter tries to explain how the bureaucracy contributed to the success of the national event and how it eventually impacted political modernization and the attitude of bureaucrats. To these ends, first, this chapter explores the influence of soft power on international competition by providing an empirical statistical analysis. Specifically, the chapter analyzes the process by which countries compete with one another for the privilege of hosting the Olympic Games as an important field of global interaction between political actors Further, the chapter discusses which components of soft power can affect international competition. To investigate the explanatory power and concrete applicability of soft power theory, the chapter looks at the influence of democratic and government dimensions of soft power on the selection of Olympic host cities and the role of bureaucracy during that process.

Abstract

Details

The Olympic Games: A Critical Approach
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-776-3

Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Kyoung-yim Kim

To examine the mobilization of environmental sustainability policies in the Winter Olympic Games in Asia guided by approaches that highlight policy mobilities. The…

Abstract

To examine the mobilization of environmental sustainability policies in the Winter Olympic Games in Asia guided by approaches that highlight policy mobilities. The construction of sledding tracks in two cases, the Winter Games in Japan and South Korea, was analyzed to demonstrate how sustainability was framed and which policy programs were implemented.

The first part of the chapter introduces Olympic mega-events as agents of sustainability policy circulation. It discusses the study's key concepts and describes approaches to policy circulation studies. The second part of the chapter outlines the construction of the Nagano and PyeongChang sledding tracks and the sustainability policies that were in use during that time. The third part discusses the two cases from a policy mobility perspective.

The two sledding track cases are described, along with national and Olympic policies of environmental sustainability. Discursive policy framings of environmental sustainability in Nagano and PyeongChang similarly modeled previous Games' best practices that were supported by scientific and technological knowledge. It was clear, however, that best practices were taken up differently in each construction effort, and that the lack of cooperation between Games organizers across these venues and countries meant that environmental expertise was not always transferred from one Games to another. Policy circulation was also affected by entangled transnational power relations, and by the fact that each nation state and the corporate actors who built the sledding tracks arguably had uneven power relations with international expert agencies. Thus, policy priorities and policy mobility from one Olympics to the next were determined by a combination of the interaction with these expert networks, time pressure in the Olympic structure, and rivalry between the countries.

Implications for enhancing policy mobility and deliberation of policy commitments are discussed.

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2022

Eduardo Russo, Ariane Roder Figueira and Leonardo José Mataruna-dos-Santos

This paper aims to understand how the sustainability theme has been incorporated into the new Olympic planning guidelines based on analysing the case of Tokyo (2020)…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand how the sustainability theme has been incorporated into the new Olympic planning guidelines based on analysing the case of Tokyo (2020), which was severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

For this, field research using the case study method was carried out that involved 21 in-depth interviews with experts from different entities affected by the event.

Findings

As a result, it was possible to identify that some characteristics already presented in the Tokyo project came to break away from the gigantism observed in the past Olympic editions in an attempt to demonstrate alignment with the new principles brought by the IOC (2020) and 2020 + 5 Agenda that had as one of its main objectives to simplify the Olympics, making the event more sustainable and accessible for future host societies.

Originality/value

At the end, some trends for the future of the Olympic Games are also presented in order to guide future studies in the area, as well as help the future host cities and their companies in planning their investments.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 May 2022

Cheuk-Wing Lui and Hon-Kwong Lui

While the Olympic Games are always under the spotlight, the Paralympic Games are somehow ignored. This paper aims to invite the general public to think about the…

Abstract

Purpose

While the Olympic Games are always under the spotlight, the Paralympic Games are somehow ignored. This paper aims to invite the general public to think about the para-athletes and the differential treatments they received.

Design/methodology/approach

Among the participating countries, many of them were unable to win a single Olympic or Paralympic medal. When the dependent variable is left-censored, ordinary least squares regression is asymptotically biased downwards. In the literature, researchers typically employ the maximum likelihood Tobit model to take care of the censoring problem. However, some researchers argue that the Hurdle model has an advantage over the Tobit model in identifying the determinants of winning Olympic medals. Following their wisdom, this paper employs both the Tobit and Hurdle models in analysis.

Findings

The empirical evidence gathered in this paper suggests that population size, host status and average years of schooling are the big three socio-economic determinants when it comes to winning medals at the Paralympic Games and Olympic Games. The findings support the hypothesis that sports talent is randomly distributed and a large country has a higher chance to have talented athletes or para-athletes winning the Olympic medals. The strong host advantage also showed up in the following Paralympics but was not so strong at the next Olympics.

Originality/value

This paper not only examines the relationship between various social, economic and political factors in determining the success of a nation in the Paralympic Games but also attempts to identify possible non-traditional determinants.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Amber Smith-Ditizio and Alan David Smith

The purpose of this paper is to explore and test certain assumptions concerning the role of the media in its coverage of the Olympic Games, US men's and women's basketball…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and test certain assumptions concerning the role of the media in its coverage of the Olympic Games, US men's and women's basketball in particular, and its perceived impact on brand image of the athletes' performance from a fan's motivational and financial perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Uses and gratifications theory and sport fan motivation scales were used to identify potential impacts of media coverage and branding on athletic performance. Based on a study of 143 working professionals that identified themselves as Olympic sport fans in the Pittsburgh, PA metropolitan area, several hypotheses were tested.

Findings

The most to least important factor-based constructs found from a PCA (Principal Components Analysis)/factor analysis included competitiveness, fan commitment, media connections, media impacts, demographics and financial impacts. When using the construct athletic performance at the Olympic level as the dependent variable, results suggested that competitiveness, media connections and fan commitment were significant for males only, while only media connections for significant for females. Males were found to be more player-centric than females, willing to be more focused on the competitive nature of the Olympic Games and to dedicate more money for such activities.

Originality/value

Focusing on Olympic Games and associated athletes' competitive nature opens a unique perspective from fan's gender perspective.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Taeyeon Oh, Jihyeon Oh, Junhee Kim and Kisung Dennis Kwon

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of public and private officers of stakeholder at the PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games 2018. This event was…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of public and private officers of stakeholder at the PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games 2018. This event was selected as the subject of this research as it is the most recent mega-scale international sporting event and, given that the organizing committee (OC) is currently operating, it afforded a unique opportunity to investigate the staff of the organization. To clarify the research questions, this research identified stakeholders of Olympic Games.

Design/methodology/approach

The research questions were examined by a stakeholder analysis that measured and compared perceptions conducted according to the stakeholder theory (Freeman, 2010) and previous research (Naraine et al., 2016).

Findings

This study identifies eight stakeholders of the 2018 Winter Olympic Games: the OC, the International Olympics Committee, National Olympic Committee, central government, local government, media, sponsors and non-government organizations. The authors pointed out that public officers are more sensitive to the opinions and movements of community members than private staff. Conversely, the authors found that the private staffs regard the media and influential stakeholders as more important compared with public officers.

Originality/value

Based on the findings from the Olympics committee, this study contributes to the academic literature related to sporting events and their stakeholders by providing the most up-to-date identification of stakeholders.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Holger Preuss and Anke Plambeck

Olympic Stadiums are expensive and large constructions. The media often report on cost overruns based on the extravagant appearance of an Olympic Stadium and the lack of…

Abstract

Purpose

Olympic Stadiums are expensive and large constructions. The media often report on cost overruns based on the extravagant appearance of an Olympic Stadium and the lack of its postgames utilization. The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual stadium legacy framework consisting of four dimensions and twelve functions that an Olympic Stadium can potentially have.

Design/methodology/approach

These were identified by an extensive literature research and an analysis of the findings. Additionally, we collected available data on the specific Olympic Stadiums under review (1984–2016).

Findings

The utilization of Olympic Stadiums varies greatly from city to city. However, 12 functions can be observed as being valid for Olympic Stadiums. The dimensions with its functions are interpreted by the positive/negative values which Olympic Stadiums can have for particular stakeholders. The benefits can be local, regional, national or international. The framework also delivers interconnections of the functions and shows how they interlock and how they can potentially boost the benefits.

Practical implications

Future bid cities that consider constructing a large stadium can plan their stadium legacy by developing business cases based on the 12 functions developed in this paper. This offers a direct link to marketing, as iconic stadiums and urban development support city marketing.

Originality/value

To date, the complexity of functions and their interconnections, as well as their potential values, have not been examined. Thus, many (media) critiques oversee the benefits an Olympic Stadium can have besides its proper sport utilization.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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