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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Anisur R. Faroque, Olli Kuivalainen, Jashim Uddin Ahmed, Mahabubur Rahman, Hiran Roy, M. Yunus Ali and Md Imtiaz Mostafiz

Although both institutional export assistance and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) contribute separately and positively to export performance, the interplay between them…

Abstract

Purpose

Although both institutional export assistance and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) contribute separately and positively to export performance, the interplay between them has received little attention. This study examines the role of international EO in deriving performance benefits from governmental and nongovernmental export assistance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this longitudinal study, two surveys were administered at two different times: In 2011, 705 Bangladeshi apparel exporters were surveyed, and in 2019, a subsequent survey of 198 firms in multiple industries was conducted. The aim of the surveys was to assess the relationships between governmental and nongovernmental assistance, EO and export performance.

Findings

The results of the first survey show that, while nongovernmental assistance influences performance directly and via EO, governmental assistance has only direct effects. Furthermore, the negative influence of government assistance on EO reduces the total effects and renders them nonsignificant. The results of the second survey demonstrate that government EPPs have both direct and indirect positive and significant effects on market performance, indicating a partial mediation, whereas quasi-governmental assistance has positive and significant direct effects as well as negative but nonsignificant indirect effects. Nongovernmental EPPs have both direct and indirect significant effects on international performance, indicating a partial mediation.

Research limitations/implications

The study has important implications for researchers studying export assistance and its impact on firm performance. Instead of adopting a parochial view of government assistance, this study categorizes such assistance into three types – government, quasi-government and nongovernment. Furthermore, this study bridges the export assistance and international entrepreneurship literature by including EO.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs must emphasize the use of government assistance in order to enhance export performance. However, to promote both entrepreneurship and performance, they must emphasize nongovernment assistance. Exporters should also capitalize on the assistance extended by various quasi-governmental agencies to bolster export performance.

Originality/value

Given the performance advantage of export assistance, this study highlights the contribution of the private sector in promoting export entrepreneurship while shedding light on the pernicious role of (quasi-)governmental assistance in export entrepreneurship.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Rudolf R. Sinkovics, Olli Kuivalainen and Anthony S. Roath

This paper aims to explore value co-creation between manufacturing firms and third-party logistics providers (3PLs). The specific focus is on resources and value…

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1246

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore value co-creation between manufacturing firms and third-party logistics providers (3PLs). The specific focus is on resources and value co-creation with the aim to examine a set of relationships among the 3PL’s resource commitment, collaboration and innovation, and their performance outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data consisting of 142 UK manufacturing firms are used to study the 3PL and manufacturing customer value co-creation. The confirmatory factor model (CFA) and subsequent structural equation model were tested using EQS 6.1.

Findings

The findings show that collaboration between the manufacturers and the 3PLs mediates the relationship between resource commitment and innovation, and performance. 3PLs are becoming much more of a collaborative partner which support the idea of value co-creation strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The study is cross-sectional; temporal evolution of value co-creation should be studied in the future.

Practical implications

When manufacturers and 3PLs collaborate to target efforts strategically, the 3PL’s resource commitment can be directed towards the development of new innovative approaches.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the discussion of forms of co-creation, and theoretical frameworks which would enable us to understand how customers and other actors engage with the companies in collaborative value creation activities.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Lasse Torkkeli, Olli Kuivalainen, Sami Saarenketo and Kaisu Puumalainen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of institutional environment on the international performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and how this…

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1875

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of institutional environment on the international performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and how this relationship is influenced by network competence.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quantitative approach. In total, 119 internationally operating Finnish SMEs from five industry sectors are sampled via a cross-sectional survey. Data are analysed through regression modelling.

Findings

The international performance of SMEs is influenced directly and indirectly by institutional drivers. The results show that network competence mediates the positive relationship between institutional drivers and international performance.

Research limitations/implications

Network capability development can help SMEs leverage more or less favourable institutional environments for successful internationalisation. Perceived institutional drivers directly result in higher performance, but the effect can be partially mediated by dynamic capabilities. The limitations of the study include its single-country context and the cross-sectional nature of the data.

Practical implications

SMEs should take their home countries’ institutional environments into account, but for long-term success, they should develop the ability to manage their business networks. A conducive institutional environment may help develop competence, which in turn can enable more successful internationalisation in terms of scale, scope and satisfaction.

Social implications

Decision-makers may benefit from knowing that, in addition to capabilities, an institutionally conducive environment that drives domestic SMEs towards international markets may be an antecedent of successful internationalisation in the SME sector.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies to illustrate how network capabilities can mediate the influence of institutional factors on entrepreneurial internationalisation. It combines institutional theory and the dynamic capabilities view to explain successful SME internationalisation.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Ioan-Iustin Vadana, Lasse Torkkeli, Olli Kuivalainen and Sami Saarenketo

Little research has been done on the emergence of companies that engage in increasingly digital entrepreneurship with digitalized value-chain activities. The purpose of…

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2435

Abstract

Purpose

Little research has been done on the emergence of companies that engage in increasingly digital entrepreneurship with digitalized value-chain activities. The purpose of this paper is provide a consistent picture of how value-chain digitalization affects companies’ internationalization and international marketing (IM), and give insights regarding the influence of the degree of value-chain digitalization on the level of internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper takes an explorative approach based on a literature review and uses a conceptual analysis and research framework to empirically classify digitalized/-ing companies.

Findings

This study finds ways to classify the internationalization of companies according to the degree of digitalization of their value-chain. The more these companies use internet hardware infrastructure and web and mobile software technologies, the better they can leverage their foreign assets, achieving a higher share of foreign sales with relatively limited foreign assets.

Research limitations/implications

The results enrich the literature on internationalization and IM and entrepreneurship to explain companies that are distinctly digitalized across their value-chain activities.

Practical implications

This research provides evidence for companies regarding digitalization of the value-chain to facilitate entrepreneurial opportunities and offer rapid, efficient and affordable internationalization.

Originality/value

This research tackles a novel phenomenon by analyzing companies’ value-chain digitalization in relation to their degree of internationalization and IM.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Olli Kuivalainen, Sanna Sundqvist, Sami Saarenketo and Rod McNaughton

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and…

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9308

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) should be conducted.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive overview of concepts and a conceptual framework to study internationalization patterns of SMEs is offered.

Findings

The complexities of existing definitions and methodologies for researching internationalization patterns are highlighted, and a synthesis of the issues is provided. An integrative model of internationalization pathways, and their antecedents and outcomes is presented.

Research limitations/implications

It is recommended that future research focuses especially on the time dimension of internationalization patterns. Future research can contribute to the literature by adopting a longitudinal approach with larger samples and more detailed cases to capture the dynamics of internationalization.

Practical implications

Practitioners might map their positions, and look for challenges and opportunities with regard to their chosen internationalization pattern. They can also benchmark other firms’ pathways and fine‐tune their own approach to internationalization.

Originality/value

The paper integrates a large body of research in an important research area in international marketing. It also provides guidance on how to conduct future research in the area, and introduces the content of this special issue of the International Marketing Review.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Edith Olejnik and Bernhard Swoboda

The purpose of this paper is to identify the internationalisation patterns of small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) quantitatively, to describe SMEs as they follow…

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11021

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the internationalisation patterns of small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) quantitatively, to describe SMEs as they follow different patterns over time and to discuss the determinants of these patterns through empirical study.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a questionnaire survey among mature German SMEs (n=674). To identify internationalisation patterns, a latent class clustering approach was applied. Because of the large sample, a multinomial logistic regression analysis could be used to analyse the factors influencing these patterns.

Findings

The authors empirically find three internationalisation patterns: traditionals, born globals and born‐again globals. Comparing modern SMEs with the same SMEs from ten years ago, it was found that firms may change their patterns. Moreover, the patterns are determined by international orientation, growth orientation, communication capability, intelligence generation capability and marketing‐mix standardisation.

Research limitations/implications

Combining elements of the Uppsala model (countries and operation modes) and born global research (time lag and foreign sales ratio), three internationalisation patterns of established international SMEs from traditional sectors were identified empirically. Because of the multidimensional nature of internationalisation, the patterns may change over time. Different firm‐level factors determine the internationalisation patterns.

Originality/value

Instead of applying “arbitrary” thresholds, the paper provides a quantitative approach to identifying internationalisation patterns. These patterns confirm the three main internationalisation pathways discussed in the international marketing literature. The paper further advances the field by describing the patterns, showing evidence that the patterns may cross over time and providing information on the factors that influence the patterns.

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Lee Li, Gongming Qian and Zhengming Qian

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the early internationalization and the performance of small firms in technology‐intensive industries.

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3676

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the early internationalization and the performance of small firms in technology‐intensive industries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 278 small US firms in technology‐intensive industries, this paper employs quantitative methodologies to test hypotheses.

Findings

The findings indicate that such organizational variables as firm size and international experience have a non‐linear, inverted U‐shaped relationship with these firms’ early internationalization. Some strategic variables, such as R&D intensity, have significant impacts, whereas others, such as advertising intensity and strategic alliances, have none. However, the interactions between these strategic variables have a more significant influence upon these firms’ early internationalization than do the individual strategic variables in isolation. Moreover, early internationalization has significant and positive impacts on the performance of these firms.

Practical implications

The paper’s findings have important managerial implications. The paper identifies the driving forces for the early globalization of small firms and provides useful guidelines for managers to manage these factors in their efforts to maximize firm performance.

Originality/value

The paper differentiates organizational factors from strategic factors against the background of small “born globals” in technology industries and investigates the interactions among these internal factors and external factors, i.e. the environments of technology industries. Findings of non‐linear relationships among these factors shed light on the strategy determinants of a unique group of small to medium‐sized enterprises and their performance.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Svante Andersson, Natasha Evers and Olli Kuivalainen

The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a…

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3223

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to, first, offer insights into the relationship between industry idiosyncrasies and international new ventures (INVs), and then present a research conceptual framework that identifies the role of industry factors in new venture internationalization processes and strategies. Second, the authors introduce the content of this special issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual article builds on extant studies on INVs operating in different industrial contexts. Particular attention is given to the role of industry influences in the processes of new venture internationalization, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such factors are discussed to formulate a conceptual framework as a basis for further research.

Findings

The conceptual framework identifies key industry factors as well as emergent factors that influence the new venture internationalization process, in terms of speed, geographical scope and entry strategy. Such key influencing factors are competition and structure, industry life cycle, industry concentration, knowledge intensity, local cluster internationalization and global industry integration. Emergent factors are identified as new business models, technology and industry network dynamics.

Research limitations/implications

This article is conceptual in nature, and thus empirical research is recommended in diverse contexts.

Practical implications

Further analysis of industry factors is a valid research avenue for understanding INVs.

Originality/value

This special issue offers new insights into how industry factors influence INVs’ internationalization processes in terms of speed, scope and entry strategy.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Susan Freeman, Seyda Deligonul and Tamer Cavusgil

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the…

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3316

Abstract

Purpose

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the processes of de‐internationalization and re‐internationalization. Strategy and internationalization processes are created by entrepreneurial behaviour. If one wants to understand various international behaviours and strategic changes in firms one needs to focus on entrepreneurs – individual managers. The purpose of this paper is to unify the theoretical framework on born‐globals by addressing two questions. How do managers move through the de‐internationalization (exit) to re‐internationalization (re‐entry) process? How do they choose their patterns of internationalization?

Design/methodology/approach

To address these research gaps, this study draws on 26 in‐depth interviews with senior managers across nine Australian born‐globals.

Findings

Moving between outward and inward‐oriented activity as they de‐internationalize and re‐internationalize is used as proactive strategic re‐structuring by born‐global managers for survival during periods of global economic decline or changing competitive conditions.

Originality/value

This study provides new theoretical insights where the entrepreneur is central to the internationalization process and provides practical implications for those involved in international business and marketing.

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Lasse Torkkeli, Kaisu Puumalainen, Sami Saarenketo and Olli Kuivalainen

Purpose – The role that network competence, environmental hostility and knowledge intensiveness of the industry have on the propensity of small- and medium-sized…

Abstract

Purpose – The role that network competence, environmental hostility and knowledge intensiveness of the industry have on the propensity of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to internationalise is examined.

Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses are developed, based on earlier literature on the subject. Subsequently, binary logistic regression modelling using SPSS software is applied to test the hypotheses on a sample of 224 Finnish SMEs representing five industries, two of which are characterised by knowledge intensiveness and three of which are from less knowledge-intensive ones.

Findings – The propensity of SMEs to internationalise depends on both their level of network competence and their lack of perceived environmental hostility. Knowledge intensiveness of the industry is found to moderate the effect that network competence has on the internationalisation propensity.

Research limitations/implications – The present study indicates that possessing higher levels of network competence helps domestic SMEs in their efforts to turn international, and that its beneficial effect is especially important for small firms in industries characterised by high knowledge intensity. Possible limitations of the study are the small cultural context and inclusion of firms from only five industries.

Originality/value – This study is the first linking measurable network competence to internationalisation decisions of SMEs, while also including environmental and industry considerations. It also provides further evidence for the importance of networks in SME internationalisation theory, but indicates that it is not only the business networks themselves but also the competence in developing and maintaining those networks that help SMEs internationalise.

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