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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Katie Cremin, Olive Healy and Michael Gordon

The purpose of this paper is to explore the transition to and early experience of secondary school for students with autism from the perspective of their parents. It aimed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the transition to and early experience of secondary school for students with autism from the perspective of their parents. It aimed to gather the parents’ personal accounts of their views of the transition experience for their child and of their perceptions of both the positive and the negative factors inherent in the process of transition. There was an emphasis on seeking useful information for others from the parent’s perception, views and choices.

Design/methodology/approach

As parents were reporting on their own perceptions and also their child’s experiences, a qualitative exploratory descriptive method was required. Thematic analysis was used as a pragmatic method to report on the experiences, meanings and the reality of the transition to secondary school from a parent’s perspective (Braun and Clarke, 2012).

Findings

A variety of supports and strategies were described, parents were unanimous in their emphasis of the importance of communication to them. Parents were concerned about secondary schools not fully understanding the nature of autism, and the impact this can have on their child as an individual. Despite differing perceptions and views on the purpose or end product of secondary educations for their child, all the parents communicated a desire for their child to reach their potential and make progress within the secondary school system.

Research limitations/implications

This was a small qualitative study with a self-selected group of parents in the Republic of Ireland, with fathers underrepresented. It did not take any account from any other stakeholders or the students themselves.

Practical implications

Parents would benefit from more practical support and communication during this time in the child’s education. Their recommendations and personal experiences may serve as a useful reference point for parents preparing for this time in their child’s school life.

Social implications

The study highlights the need to better understand how children with autism can be supported in making social attainments and connections within mainstream secondary schools in Ireland.

Originality/value

There is a small body of knowledge related to the secondary school experience for students with autism. It contributes the parental perspective and highlights areas for further research and practice.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Mauro Leoni, Serafino Corti, Roberto Cavagnola, Olive Healy and Stephen J. Noone

The purpose of this paper is to present a review on evidence-based intervention concerning the reduction of stress/burnout and the improvement of wellbeing for professionals…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a review on evidence-based intervention concerning the reduction of stress/burnout and the improvement of wellbeing for professionals working with people with intellectual disabilities (IDs).

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical models and literature related to stress reduction are reviewed from a classical cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) approach up to the novel contribution of the third generation of cognitive-behavioural therapies, with a specific focus on contextual behavioural sciences and acceptance and commitment Therapy (ACT).

Findings

Despite the improvement of CBT-based interventions in reducing risk factors for stress and burnout, the limitations of a problem-solving approach when applied to challenging environments like those of direct support to persons with ID, are still large. Interventions based on the core processes and the related techniques of ACT appear to be promising in promoting the well being of paid carers reducing the risk of burnout, and increasing psychological flexibility. Such factors can increase the ability to clarify personal and professional values, as well as the opportunities to act consistently with such values and achieve greater social reinforcement in the work environment.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the existing research are presented and discussed. There are several aspects that future research should address in order to promote staff training protocols that could be extensively applied with preventive aims. Organisations could take the available procedures and methodologies and implement these evidence-based practices within existing training.

Originality/value

The research on the application of ACT and third generation of behavioural approaches to the wellbeing and behaviour of staff supporting persons with IDs remains limited. The present paper is the first narrative review on this topic.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1901

IN order to be able to discriminate with certainty between butter and such margarine as is sold in England, it is necessary to carry out two or three elaborate and delicate…

Abstract

IN order to be able to discriminate with certainty between butter and such margarine as is sold in England, it is necessary to carry out two or three elaborate and delicate chemical processes. But there has always been a craving by the public for some simple method of determining the genuineness of butter by means of which the necessary trouble could be dispensed with. It has been suggested that such easy detection would be possible if all margarine bought and sold in England were to be manufactured with some distinctive colouring added—light‐blue, for instance—or were to contain a small amount of phenolphthalein, so that the addition of a drop of a solution of caustic potash to a suspected sample would cause it to become pink if it were margarine, while nothing would occur if it were genuine butter. These methods, which have been put forward seriously, will be found on consideration to be unnecessary, and, indeed, absurd.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1901

The Board of Agriculture, by virtue of the powers conferred upon them by the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1899, have made regulations whereby it may be presumed, until the contrary…

Abstract

The Board of Agriculture, by virtue of the powers conferred upon them by the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1899, have made regulations whereby it may be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that milk containing less than 8·5 per cent. of solids‐not‐fat, or less than 3 per cent of fat, is adulterated within the meaning of the Act. The suggested limit for fat in milk recommended by the special committee appointed by the Board of Agriculture was 3·per cent., and it will therefore be observed that the new regulations have fixed a standard for milk‐fat which is even lower than the low limit recommended by the committee. There are even rumours that a further lowering of this standard is to bo urged upon the authorities. Although from the point of view of Public Analysts and the officials responsible for the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Acts it is satisfactory that an official standard for the composition of milk has at last been set up, it is idle to suppose that the fixing of such a limit will materially improve the character of the milk‐supply as a whole. It should be remembered that milk which contains only 3 per cent of fat, although under the new regulations legally “genuine,” is, as a matter of fact, of the poorest quality, and is only produced by a cow when in bad condition, or by a particular breed of cow which is remarkable more for the quantity than for the quality of the fluid yielded. Producers and vendors of milk of good quality have been placed in a very unfortunate position by the new regulations, as the tendency of the trade will be to lower all milk to the official limits, with the result that those dealers who are still desirous of maintaining a high standard of quality will have to compete in the matter of price with less conscientious traders, who, taking advantage of the protection afforded by the regulations, will be enabled to sell to the public “genuine” milk, from which all “superfluous” fat has been removed. Gradation of quality in an article of food cannot, of course, be provided for by official regulation, and for the purpose of legal classification it is only possible to differentiate between legally “genuine” and adulterated articles. Therefore, in a legal sense, and also in a popular sense, a milk containing 4 per cent. of fat is no more “ genuine ” than one containing 3 per cent., although the former is, of course, a superior article. Competition in the dairy trade, which has of late years become very keen, will, as the result of the fixing of this standard, become more acute than before, and to keep their position it will be necessary for those milk‐vendors who are desirous of maintaining their reputation as vendors of milk of good quality to give to their customers some guarantee that their product is indeed superior to the legalised article. Any statements of the traders themselves upon this point will naturally be received by customers with reserve, as proceeding from an interested source, and the guarantee, to be effective, must therefore be given by an authority whose statements are above suspicion. It is hero that the system of Control will be found to be a necessity both to the milk dealer and milk consumer.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1900

A point repeatedly brought forward for the defence, or at all events for the purpose of mitigating the fine, in adulteration cases, is the statement that defendant's goods have…

Abstract

A point repeatedly brought forward for the defence, or at all events for the purpose of mitigating the fine, in adulteration cases, is the statement that defendant's goods have been analysed on former occasions and have been found genuine. As illustrating the slight value of analyses of previous samples may be taken the average laudatory analyses on patent or proprietary foods, drinks, or medicine. The manufacturer calculates—and calculates rightly—that the general public will believe that the published analysis of a particular specimen which had been submitted to the analytical expert by the manufacturer himself, guarantees all the samples on the market to be equally pure. History has repeatedly proved that in 99 cases out of 100 the goods found on the market fall below the quality indicated by the published analyses. Not long ago a case bearing on this matter was tried in court, where samples of cocoa supplied by the wholesale firm were distributed; but, when the retailer tried to sell the bulk of the consignment, he had repeated complaints from his customers that the samples were a very much better article than what he was then supplying. He summoned the wholesale dealer and won his case. But what guarantee have the general public of the quality of any manufacturer's goods—unless the Control System as instituted in Great Britain is accepted and applied ? Inasmuch as any manufacturer who joins the firms under the British Analytical Control thereby undertakes to keep all his samples up to the requisite standard; as his goods thenceforth bear the Control stamp; and as any purchaser can at any time submit a sample bought on the open market to the analytical experts of the British Analytical Control, free of any charge, to ascertain if the sample is up to the published and requisite standard, it is plain that a condition of things is created which not only protects the public from being cheated, but also acts most beneficially for these firms which are not afraid to supply a genuine article. The public are much more willing to buy an absolutely guaranteed article, of which each sample must be kept up to the previous high quality, rather than one which was good while it was being introduced, but as soon as it became well known fell off in quality and continued to live on its reputation alone.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1900

There are very few individuals who have studied the question of weights and measures who do not most strongly favour the decimal system. The disadvantages of the weights and…

80

Abstract

There are very few individuals who have studied the question of weights and measures who do not most strongly favour the decimal system. The disadvantages of the weights and measures at present in use in the United Kingdom are indeed manifold. At the very commencement of life the schoolboy is expected to commit to memory the conglomerate mass of facts and figures which he usually refers to as “Tables,” and in this way the greater part of twelve months is absorbed. And when he has so learned them, what is the result? Immediately he leaves school he forgets the whole of them, unless he happens to enter a business‐house in which some of them are still in use; and it ought to be plain that the case would be very different were all our weights and measures divided or multiplied decimally. Instead of wasting twelve months, the pupil would almost be taught to understand the decimal system in two or three lessons, and so simple is the explanation that he would never be likely to forget it. There is perhaps no more interesting, ingenious and useful example of the decimal system than that in use in France. There the standard of length is the metre, the standard of capacity the cubic decimetre or the litre, while one cubic centimetre of distilled water weighs exactly one gramme, the standard of weight. Thus the measures of length, capacity and weight are most closely and usefully related. In the present English system there is absolutely no relationship between these weights and measures. Frequently a weight or measure bearing the same name has a different value for different bodies. Take, for instance, the stone; for dead meat its value is 8 pounds, for live meat 14 pounds; and other instances will occur to anyone who happens to remember his “Tables.” How much simpler for the business man to reckon in multiples of ten for everything than in the present confusing jumble. Mental arithmetic in matters of buying and selling would become much easier, undoubtedly more accurate, and the possibility of petty fraud be far more remote, because even the most dense could rapidly calculate by using the decimal system.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1899

The Food and Drugs Bill introduced by the Government affords an excellent illustration of the fact that repressive legislative enactments in regard to adulteration must always be…

Abstract

The Food and Drugs Bill introduced by the Government affords an excellent illustration of the fact that repressive legislative enactments in regard to adulteration must always be of such a nature that, while they give a certain degree and a certain kind of protection to the public, they can never be expected to supply a sufficiently real and effective insurance against adulteration and against the palming off of inferior goods, nor an adequate and satisfactory protection to the producer and vendor of superior articles. In this country, at any rate, legislation on the adulteration question has always been, and probably will always be of a somewhat weak and patchy character, with the defects inevitably resulting from more or less futile attempts to conciliate a variety of conflicting interests. The Bill as it stands, for instance, fails to deal in any way satisfactorily with the subject of preservatives, and, if passed in its present form, will give the force of law to the standards of Somerset House—standards which must of necessity be low and the general acceptance of which must tend to reduce the quality of foods and drugs to the same dead‐level of extreme inferiority. The ludicrous laissez faire report of the Beer Materials Committee—whose authors see no reason to interfere with the unrestricted sale of the products of the “ free mash tun,” or, more properly speaking, of the free adulteration tun—affords a further instance of what is to be expected at present and for many years to come as the result of governmental travail and official meditations. Public feeling is developing in reference to these matters. There is a growing demand for some system of effective insurance, official or non‐official, based on common‐sense and common honesty ; and it is on account of the plain necessity that the quibbles and futilities attaching to repressive legislation shall by some means be brushed aside that we have come to believe in the power and the value of the system of Control, and that we advocate its general acceptance. The attitude and the policy of the INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ADULTERATION, of the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, and of the BRITISH ANALYTICAL CONTROL, are in all respects identical with regard to adulteration questions; and in answer to the observations and suggestions which have been put forward since the introduction of the Control System in England, it may be well once more to state that nothing will meet with the approbation or support of the Control which is not pure, genuine, and good in the strictest sense of these terms. Those applicants and critics whom it may concern may with advantage take notice of the fact that under no circumstances will approval be given to such articles as substitute beers, separated milks, coppered vegetables, dyed sugars, foods treated with chemical preservatives, or, in fact, to any food or drug which cannot be regarded as in every respect free from any adulterant, and free from any suspicion of sophistication or inferiority. The supply of such articles as those referred to, which is left more or less unfettered by the cumbrous machinery of the law, as well as the sale of those adulterated goods with which the law can more easily deal, can only be adequately held in check by the application of a strong system of Control to justify approbation, providing, as this does, the only effective form of insurance which up to the present has been devised.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2018

Devi Akella and Niveen Eid

This paper aims to critically examine the concept of social enterprises in Palestine. It uses the lens of institutional theory to understand how the political and economic context…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically examine the concept of social enterprises in Palestine. It uses the lens of institutional theory to understand how the political and economic context of the society can influence certain types of entrepreneurial behaviors and be responsible for the emergence of social enterprises. The paper uses a critical perspective to deconstruct social enterprises in Palestine to shed light on reasons for their emergence, motives and agendas.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study design was used to examine the phenomenon of social enterprises. The case study method is valuable in describing the how and why issues of a phenomenon in the present time frame. Two leading social enterprises operating within the Palestinian region were identified. The two enterprises were contacted for a series of interviews (over a period of few months) with their owners and other active members.

Findings

The empirical findings suggest that social enterprise model is still in its embryonic stages in Palestine. Their social mission of community development and sustainability is not completely sincere. The social entrepreneurs were willing to compromise social mission for economic surplus. The national structure, political framework, legal environment, social, cultural and the economic conditions of Palestine have served as suitable launching pads for social enterprises with not so authentic mission of serving the society. It has encouraged entrepreneurial philosophy and behavior, which has masked hidden economic and political agendas with exterior goals of social welfare and community development.

Research limitations/implications

This paper adopts a critical perspective and a qualitative methodology, and this raises the concern if the arguments pertaining to social enterprise raised in this paper can sustain in a developed nation with a stabilized political scenario or whether this alternative ideology is only relevant to underdeveloped countries with unstable, political conditions, such as Palestine.

Practical implications

This paper provides relevant information for students, critical academics and policymakers.

Social implications

The paper argues for a more concise definition for the model of social enterprises. It argues for clear legal guidelines which could monitor the formation of social enterprises in Palestine.

Originality/value

This paper provides an alternative perspective on social enterprises within a constrained and political unstable economy of Palestine.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2014

Hulya Yuceer and Beser Oktay Vehbi

Scattered mainly along the coast of Cyprus, a series of modest stone built carob warehouses provide a historical legacy of the agricultural, social and economic life of the rural…

Abstract

Scattered mainly along the coast of Cyprus, a series of modest stone built carob warehouses provide a historical legacy of the agricultural, social and economic life of the rural areas of Cyprus during the late 19th and early 20th century. They were constructed of local materials and employed local building techniques, and have become a largely unrecognized part of the local landscape. Most remain in a dilapidated condition through neglect and weathering throughout the years. It is suggested that this is largely due to a lack of understanding of their cultural significance, and a lack of vision as to how a holistic conservation approach could help to address wider strategic policy objectives in the areas of sustainable tourism/place marketing, and rural economic development. More specifically it is suggested that a tourism path incorporating former carob collecting routes could support the adaptive re-use of the former warehouses based upon contemporary cultural needs and opportunities. The development of such an approach will require a multi-agency, cross-sectoral involvement that sees these buildings as a significant cultural resource.

Details

Open House International, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Karin Klenke

Abstract

Details

Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

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