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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Emin Yilmaz and Buket Aydeniz

The objective of this study is to evaluate the physico‐chemical and sensorial characteristics of some commercial green table olives. Also, it seeks to elaborate the…

1207

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to evaluate the physico‐chemical and sensorial characteristics of some commercial green table olives. Also, it seeks to elaborate the sensorial background of consumer preferences of different green table olives.

Design/methodology/approach

Four green table olive samples (Çelebi, Domat, Kaba, and Ayvalık) commonly consumed in Turkey were chosen and collected from a local producer. Dimensional measures, salt content, pH value, oil content, titrable acidity, L value, a* value, b* value and texture of samples were assessed by the AOAC methods. A panel described and measured the appearance (greenness, yellowness, globeness), aroma (fresh olive, vinegary, soapy, musty), flavour (sour, salty, bitter, hay, oily) and texture properties (firmness, flesh/stone adherence, fibrousness, watery). In addition, 50 consumers evaluated hedonic values.

Findings

The salt content, pH value, oil content, titrable acidity, L value, a* value, b* value and texture of samples were found to following values 2.91‐5.46 percent, 2.80‐3.97, 4.67‐18.71 percent, 0.59‐1.40 percent, 49.96‐69.56, 1.35‐17.91, 19.57‐45.47 and 434.1‐895.7 g. Although prepared with the same technique, many properties of the olives were found different. This difference affected consumer preference and buying intentions as well.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides scientific data for researchers to design similar sensory descriptive analyses for different table olive samples.

Originality/value

The paper is helpful both to consumers and traders to determine the proximate and sensory attributes of commercial green olive samples.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Dulce Freire

Over the last years, the olive oil produced in the Mediterranean countries has obtained growing success in international markets. Olive oil has benefited from the growing…

Abstract

Over the last years, the olive oil produced in the Mediterranean countries has obtained growing success in international markets. Olive oil has benefited from the growing appetite of European and World consumers for products that are part of the so-called Mediterranean diet. For centuries, the olive crops were vital for communities that have occupied the territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this long historical drive, this chapter analyses changes that took place since the Second World War. It is recognized that in the decades that followed the end of the war the transformation of western agriculture and rural societies together with commercial and cultural transnational connections have accelerated. Even in peripheral areas, such as Portugal, different processes of globalization have developed, making it necessary to identify the mechanisms that have established the connections to distant territories. Focused on the Portuguese case, this chapter examines how olive oil has contributed to inserting this peripheral territory in the global trade network. A path analysis of this crop is used as a lens to observe how various factors (political, ecological, technical, commercial, social and institutional) have been combined to inhibit or stimulate the inclusion of these rural territories in the dynamics of globalization.

Details

Transforming the Rural
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-823-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Carla Lousas, Humberto Ribeiro, Sandra Alves and Cláudia Veloso

Since the dawn of the civilizations that olive has been playing a critical role on both the society and the economy. Indeed, one can argue that olive and olive oil were as…

Abstract

Since the dawn of the civilizations that olive has been playing a critical role on both the society and the economy. Indeed, one can argue that olive and olive oil were as critical as they shaped a form of culture, a seminal pillar that supported the Mediterranean civilizations and that has since then spread worldwide, influencing others. As waves and tides, the use of olive and olive oil has certainly met low points, to the extent that its use even became to be considered old fashioned more recently, when the traditional Mediterranean food and culture started to be jeopardized by very different modern ways of living. Nevertheless, despite defying challenging conditions, stubbornly as always, the Mediterranean diet not only continues to prevail, but keeps granting the admiration of diverse strands of the society and science, being notoriously evident the set of recent research that points to its health benefits, having olive oil as the cornerstone, a vegetable fat, considered to be highly healthy, as it enhances the control of important health indicators, such as the bad cholesterol, serving for nutritional and therapeutic uses, and preventing the occurrence of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular problems and some forms of cancer.

Taking into consideration this framework, the research presented in this book is focused on the examination of the main trends on olive and olive oil in the Iberian Peninsula, from production to retail and consumption, by analyzing several data sets covering recent decades. In terms of findings for more recent years, it was possible to conclude that despite the increasing recognition of the benefits of olive and olive oil by the society, and despite the increase in olive production, the consumption of olive oil has been decreasing internally, being replaced by increases in exports. This is most probably due to the economic conditions that have deteriorated due to the 2008’s financial crisis, which, together with an increase in olive oil prices, has prevented a considerable portion of the population to have financial conditions to access to the consumption of such an important component of the Mediterranean diet.

Details

The Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives of Management: Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-249-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Jessica Maalouf, Jennifer C. Tomazou, Stephanie Azar, Christelle Bou-Mitri, Jacqueline Doumit, Amira Youssef, Roland B. Andary, Wadih A. Skaff and Milad G. El Riachy

This study aims to identify the effect of selected agro-industrial factors associated with the olive oil phenolic composition, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the effect of selected agro-industrial factors associated with the olive oil phenolic composition, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability index (OSI). The study also aims to assess the relationship between the quality indices and each of the individual phenol, TPC, antioxidant capacity and OSI.

Design/methodology/approach

Olive oil samples (n=108) were collected from Lebanese northern (Akkar and Zgharta-Koura) and southern (Hasbaya and Jezzine) regions, at three harvesting times (early, intermediate, late) and using different types of mills (traditional, sinolea, two- and three-phase decanters). The samples were analyzed using official standard methods.

Findings

The highest TPC, antioxidant capacity and OSI were obtained in early harvested olive oil, using two-phase decanters for TPC and three-phase decanters for antioxidant capacity and OSI. A prediction model, including the free acidity, K232, TPC, C18:2, C18:0, tyrosol and apigenin, was obtained; it allowed to predict very highly significantly the OSI (p < 0.001). Apigenin, tyrosol and C18:2 recorded the highest standardized coefficients (ß^+= 0.35) and thus had the highest influence on OSI. As per antioxidant capacity of olive oil, another very highly statistically significant prediction model was constructed (p < 0.001). It included only two predictors, oleacein and TPC, with the latter having the most influence (ß^+= 0.37).

Originality/value

The overall results highlighted the detrimental effects of agro-industrial factors on olive oil chemical composition, and this contributes significantly to improve olive oil’s quality and characteristics, which are important for the product economical and nutritional values.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Giuseppe Di Vita, Raffaele Zanchini, Giovanni Gulisano, Teresina Mancuso, Gaetano Chinnici and Mario D'Amico

Urban metropolitan consumers react to the different qualitative categorizations of the product thus creating homogeneous market segments. The aim of this paper is to…

1524

Abstract

Purpose

Urban metropolitan consumers react to the different qualitative categorizations of the product thus creating homogeneous market segments. The aim of this paper is to identify specific market segments which allow for the definition of homogeneous olive oil consumer targets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was based on the stated preferences of consumers and emphasizes the role that different quality scales of olive oil have in the eye of the consumer. The data, collected through a questionnaire, were analysed by means of inferential and multivariate statistics techniques, that is, the study specifically entailed a factorial and cluster analysis.

Findings

This paper explores olive oil market segments broken down by the different quality levels of existing products, thus trying to identify main consumer preferences. Our outcomes suggest the existence of three main quality classes of olive oil consumer: basic, popular and premium.

Research limitations/implications

Even though we gathered data and information from a broad sample, the study does not fully reflect the average Italian population since we based our study on a convenience sample of northern Italian consumers. A more extended sample is needed to test our hypothesis in other regional areas.

Practical implications

The outcomes derived from this study provide useful insights both for marketers and olive oil producers by allowing more efficient strategic decisions in terms of product segmentation.

Originality/value

This study, aimed at matching olive oil market segments and consumer preferences, shows the existence of three well-defined quality classes of olive oil consumer: basic, popular and premium. In addition, this study ascertains for the first time how the attitude towards local products is positively influenced by family origin as a result of an inter-generational attitude.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2021

Özge Duygu Okur

This study aims to produce a new type of healthy functional kefir by adding olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract and to determine its potential effect on the quality…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to produce a new type of healthy functional kefir by adding olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract and to determine its potential effect on the quality (physicochemical, sensory, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties) of kefir samples during storage at 4°C for 21 days.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, four kefir samples were produced by using olive leaf extract in different amounts (A: 0% (control), B: 0.1%, C: 0.15% and D: 0.35%). The physicochemical, sensory, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of kefir samples were investigated during Days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage. The study was conducted to optimize the olive leaf extract addition level to obtain better-quality kefir functional food.

Findings

From the results, it was determined that the addition of olive leaf extract affected the entire chemical components of the kefir samples (p < 0.05). It was found that the pH value decreased during storage. By contrast, it was observed that titration acidity values increased. The kefir sample with 0.35% olive leaf extract (D) had the highest total phenolic and antioxidant activity content (1,292.75 mg GAE/L and 10.20 mM TE, respectively) among the samples (p < 0.05). In the sensory analyses, the kefir sample with the highest score – in terms of sensory attributes – was the kefir sample containing 0.15% olive leaf extract (C).

Originality/value

Thus, it was concluded that kefir with added olive leaf extract could serve as a functional kefir of benefit to human health. When we looked at the enrichment studies on kefir as a functional product, no study has been found on the use of olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract, especially with kefir. In this sense, it is thought that the study will contribute to published literature.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2021

Juan A. García and Belén Ruiz

The objective of this paper is to analyse the elements that influence Spain's reputation among Chinese consumers, and to evaluate to what extent this country's reputation…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to analyse the elements that influence Spain's reputation among Chinese consumers, and to evaluate to what extent this country's reputation has an impact on their perceived quality of Spanish olive oil (SOO) and their intentions to purchase and recommend SOO.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was carried out by surveying 399 potential olive oil consumers in China (256 of whom were familiar with olive oil and 143 of whom had no previous familiarity with the product, although they stated their intentions to consume it). The proposed hypotheses were tested using covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM).

Findings

The results show that: (1) Spain's reputation among Chinese consumers can be principally explained by its appealing environment and advanced economy; (2) reputation does not have a direct impact on intentions to purchase and recommend SOO (summary construct effect), but rather has an indirect impact thanks to the perceived quality of SOO (halo effect), and (3) familiarity with olive oil moderates these relationships.

Originality/value

No previous study has analysed this question for this food product category (olive oil), country of origin (Spain) and target market (China). This study, therefore, provides new empirical evidence regarding the formation process of Spain's reputation among Chinese olive oil consumers and the effect of the country of origin on the Chinese olive oil market. These results provide countries' policymakers with criteria for competitive country reputation management.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

N.F. Matsatsinis, E. Grigoroudis and A.P. Samaras

This paper attempts to determine effective push‐pull marketing strategies concerning olive oil in Greece, based on the analysis of consumers' and distributors' values and…

2044

Abstract

Purpose

This paper attempts to determine effective push‐pull marketing strategies concerning olive oil in Greece, based on the analysis of consumers' and distributors' values and the comparison of importance that each group gives to different product characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, multicriteria analysis is used in order to identify olive oil market segments and the factors that affect the purchase behaviour of olive oil consumers. Consumers' preferences, attitudes and perceptions with regard to special characteristics of olive oil such as quality, packaging, image, odour, colour, etc. are explored. In addition, description and analysis of the marketing channels of olive oil in Greece is presented. Finally, consumers' preferences are compared to the judgments of distributors in order to identify useful similarities‐dissimilarities in their perceptions and attitudes, concerning the attributes of the product.

Findings

The study of the olive oil market in Greece shows the importance of the product for the Greek market. Findings also suggest that the olive oil market in Greece is very complex. The qualitative analysis shows that perceived quality is the only attribute of the product that is considered very important for both consumers and distributors. In addition, perceptual maps can be a useful tool for the comparative analysis of preferences between consumers and distributors.

Originality/value

The paper identifies key factors that influence the behaviour of Greek consumers and distributors regarding olive oil purchases. These factors and the comparison between the two groups have a great influence on the marketing decisions of agricultural products and food industry in general.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Stathis Klonaris and Andromachi Agiangkatzoglou

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the competitiveness of the Greek virgin olive oil in the main destination markets (German, Italian, UK and US market).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the competitiveness of the Greek virgin olive oil in the main destination markets (German, Italian, UK and US market).

Design/methodology/approach

In order to achieve the aim, in the first stage the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA2) Index was employed showing that Greek virgin olive oil has a comparative advantage over the other suppliers (mainly Italy and Spain) in the markets under examination. In the second stage, the estimations of an import demand system for each market were estimated.

Findings

Results demonstrate clearly the competitive advantage of Greek virgin olive oil in the German market but not so clear in the rest of the markets. A strategic shift to export high-quality branded virgin olive oil instead of bulk seems necessity, in order the Greek virgin olive oil to dominate to the international markets.

Originality/value

Though there are similar works, especially for Spanish olive oil, there is no analogous research work for the Greek olive oil.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Idiano D’Adamo, Pasquale Marcello Falcone and Massimo Gastaldi

The price of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is highly subjected to variability. In this way, the consumer is not able to perceive a price of reference. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The price of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is highly subjected to variability. In this way, the consumer is not able to perceive a price of reference. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this topic, trying to define a range suitable for the selling of EVOO.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model is applied to the three price levels (i.e. production, intermediate and selling). It studies the relationship among main variables: purchase cost of olives, the production cost of olive oil, the yield of olives obtained by the technological process and the profit margin. To define the input data, 25 producers of olives and 25 owners of olive oil mills are involved.

Findings

The production of EVOO depends strictly on the production of olives, which typically is subdivided in a year of “high production” and in a year of “low production.” The price of EVOO is subjected to a great variability; however, it is possible to propose a range that varies from €7.0 per liter to €8.7 per liter.

Research limitations/implications

The level of acidity influences significantly the quality of olive oil, and this model has the limit to not analyze the variation of the price in function of this parameter.

Originality/value

This study is the first to propose a pricing model to evaluate EVOO. The literature section supports this assumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000