In this paper, we regard public procurement as an instrument used by the government for indirect support of enterprises. In this context, we have investigated the place…
In this paper, we regard public procurement as an instrument used by the government for indirect support of enterprises. In this context, we have investigated the place that public procurement occupy in statebusiness interrelations. Using data from a large survey of Russian manufacturing enterprises conducted in 2009 we show that in Russia public procurement cannot be regarded as a component in the system of exchanges, and the extent of combination between direct and indirect support depends on the level of government. At the federal level direct and indirect instruments of government support complement each other. At the regional and local levels the effect of mutual complementation can be observed only in relations with firms, which conceal information about their ownership structure and are supposedly affiliated with regional and local bureaucrats. In relations with other firms at regional and local levels direct and indirect support substitutes each other.
This paper aims to evaluate the use of personal connections to circumvent formal procedures, known as blat in the Soviet era, in post-Soviet societies by studying its role…
This paper aims to evaluate the use of personal connections to circumvent formal procedures, known as blat in the Soviet era, in post-Soviet societies by studying its role in graduate employment recruitment.
To do this, the extent to which and how blat is used by graduates to find a job in the city of Mykolayiv in Ukraine is analysed through 85 face-to-face structured interviews with those who in the past seven years have sought employment after graduating from university.
The finding is that blat is widely used by graduates to find a job. However, contrary to the existing literature which suggests that blat has become commodified in post-Soviet market societies with monetary payment being requested by and given to personal connections “pulling strings”, no evidence is found that this is the case. Instead, this remains a non-monetised form of friendly help by and for close social relations, akin to the Soviet era, and is viewed in a positive or neutral manner by participants even though its consequences can be to circumvent meritocratic formal recruitment procedures and foster nepotism and cronyism.
This study of blat is limited to analysing graduate recruitment in one city in Ukraine. Broader empirical research on the contemporary role of blat in this and other spheres in post-Soviet societies and beyond is now required so as to develop a more nuanced context-bound understanding of both the positive and negative facets of this social practice in contemporary societies.
This study reveals that blat is commonly used to find graduate jobs and is widely viewed as a socially acceptable practice, despite hindering meritocratic recruitment procedures.
This paper aims to measure the cost of procurement because public procurement procedures prescribed by legislation not only enhance transparency and competition but also…
This paper aims to measure the cost of procurement because public procurement procedures prescribed by legislation not only enhance transparency and competition but also entail certain transaction costs for both customers and suppliers.
These costs are important to the efficiency of the procurement system. However, very few previous studies have focused on estimating procurement costs. This paper proposes a methodology for public procurement cost evaluation.
This paper shows how procurement costs can be calculated using a formalized survey of public customers. This methodology was tested with a representative group of public customers operating in one region of the Russian Federation.
The authors formulate the policy implications of this paper, as they relate to the improvement of public procurement regulations and argue that this methodological approach can be applied in other developing and transitioning economies.
The purpose of this paper is to establish the effects on the survival of outplanted Abies cephalonica Loudon seedlings of seedling characteristics, site characteristics…
The purpose of this paper is to establish the effects on the survival of outplanted Abies cephalonica Loudon seedlings of seedling characteristics, site characteristics and management practices.
The study was carried out by repeatedly monitoring survival of seedlings during a five-year period as well as establishing statistical relationships with a set of variables belonging to the aforementioned categories. It took place in plots reforested after a wildfire in the Parnitha Mt. National Park, near Athens, Greece.
The odds of survival were found to be affected by bedrock type, dominant vegetation, initial seedling height and use of shading implements. Artificial shading was most important during the first year, site-related characteristics gained importance with increasing age and seedling height was of relatively constant importance. Shifts in temporal patterns of mortality and damage symptoms occurrence suggest that the mechanisms causing mortality changed with increasing age.
The use of large seedlings in reforestation projects involving A. cephalonica should be preferred. Shading improves survival but due to the high costs this technique could be reserved for unfavorable plots, e.g. on limestone. Planting A. cephalonica in marginal sites should be avoided.
The knowledge of the performance of A. cephalonica outplanted seedlings is very limited, while the need is increasing due to the spread of wildfires in this previously unaffected habitat.