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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Srabanti Mukherjee and Swagato Chatterjee

The purpose of this research is to propose and validate a theoretical framework explaining web-rooming and showrooming as a multi-stage decision-making process. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to propose and validate a theoretical framework explaining web-rooming and showrooming as a multi-stage decision-making process. The authors have used consumer purchase decision-making theories to propose a model that identifies showrooming and webrooming as a combination of two decisions, channel choice during information search and channel choice during actual purchase. Further, the authors explored how various antecedents of showrooming and webrooming have differential effects on various stages of a purchase decision-making process and how product type moderates the relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have conducted empirical research, whereby 243 responses were obtained from a cross-sectional survey. The authors have used structural equation modeling and multiple regression analysis to validate our theoretical model.

Findings

Webrooming or showrooming is a multi-stage decision-making process for the consumers. First, consumers decide whether to search online or offline and then whether to buy online and offline. Different individual, purchase context-related and channel related factors impact these decisions. Product type governs which variables will be more important than others.

Originality/value

The research looks to enhance the understanding of the consumer's decision-making process during showrooming and webrooming while also helping retailers design and implement appropriate strategies that could affect consumers during information search and actual purchase.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Dipayan Biswas and Bidisha Burman

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a product‐related variable like digitalization and a market‐related variable like price dispersion might differentially…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a product‐related variable like digitalization and a market‐related variable like price dispersion might differentially influence consumer search intentions across offline versus online shopping interfaces, and how this relationship might be mediated by consumers' perceived risks. Prior research findings are extended and examines how the perceived risk – search intention relationship might be different in online contexts. The distinction is drawn between perceived performance risk versus perceived transaction risk and examines how each of these risks would differentially influence search intentions across the two shopping interfaces (offline versus online).

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental studies are conducted.

Findings

Study 1 shows that under conditions when perceived performance risks are enhanced, such as for non‐digitalized (versus digitalized) products, consumers' search intentions are enhanced, with the effects getting magnified in online shopping interfaces. In Study 2, the effects of a condition are examined when instead of performance risks, transaction risks are enhanced by a market‐related variable – price dispersion. The results of Study 2 show that when there is higher price dispersion in the marketplace, in the offline environment, participants have higher search intentions, while in the online environment, participants have lower search intentions. In addition, the effects of price dispersion on search intention in the online environment are mediated by perceived transaction risk.

Originality/value

Limitations of the studies suggest that future research may extend these findings to include non‐student samples, differential search costs, customer‐related factors like trust and involvement, other types of risks like social and psychological, social networking sites, and multichannel search behaviors.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 April 2021

Anu C. Haridasan, Angeline Gautami Fernando and Saju B.

The purpose of this study is to identify major themes and potential research opportunities in online and offline consumer search.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify major themes and potential research opportunities in online and offline consumer search.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was conducted based on 118 articles identified from prevalent journal databases. Keywords frequency analysis was carried out to identify the major themes. An inductive thematic analysis was carried out to verify the generated themes.

Findings

Results show that uncertainty, knowledge, perceived risk, price, experience and involvement are the major themes associated with consumer information search. Uncertainty, one of the major themes of offline search, has not been studied in the online search context. Similarly, the previous experience needs to be explored in the context of the offline search. Finally, potential research opportunities for future research has been summarized based on the retrieved themes.

Research limitations/implications

The systematic review provides an in-depth understanding on the current research on information search literature with future research directions.

Practical implications

This study helps retailers to understand the key elements that motivate consumers to perform external information searches from online and offline sources and to curate targeted information provision strategies to influence purchase decisions.

Social implications

Consumers with limited internet availability may access channels prior to decision-making. The themes identified in this study can aid policymakers to design affordable access to these channels.

Originality/value

This study adds to the sparse literature on systematic reviews on consumer search for online and offline channels.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Jayoung Choi and Jihye Park

To examine shopping orientation, information search, and demographics of multichannel customers in comparison to traditional single channel customers.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine shopping orientation, information search, and demographics of multichannel customers in comparison to traditional single channel customers.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was used to assess research variables and mailed out to 10,000 individuals in South Korea who were randomly selected from a purchased national database. A total of 2,926 usable questionnaires were returned for a 29 percent response rate.

Findings

Shopping orientation, information search, and demographics differentiated shopper groups: single‐channel offline users, single‐channel online users, multichannel offline users, and multichannel online users.

Research limitations/implications

A lack of theoretical approaches, a direct self‐assessment for store choice behavior, and duplicated measures for independent and dependent variables perhaps limit its usefulness.

Practical implications

Provides guidance to global retailers who plan to pioneer new markets with multichannel retailing strategies. Shopping orientations, perceived usefulness of information sources, and demographics can be effectively used to identify target markets in Korea.

Originality/value

This study first explored Korean consumer profiles in the context of multi‐shopping channels and added valuable empirical findings to the current limited literature in multichannel retailing in the international market and to help global retailers identify consumer segments based on channel choice behavior.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Elif Türk

Innovations in technology and evolution of internet elicited the usage of technology and internet during the shopping process of consumers. Changes in consumer shopping…

Abstract

Innovations in technology and evolution of internet elicited the usage of technology and internet during the shopping process of consumers. Changes in consumer shopping processes opened doors for shifts in consumer buying behavior. As a result of the variations in consumer buying behavior, retailers formed new channel structures to fulfill customer requirements. New channel structures created different retailing formats and enhanced the complexity of retailing processes. As the complexity of retailing processes increased, complexity of consumer shopping behavior increased as well. In this sense, multichannel retailing emerged and expanded all around the world and paved the way for omnichannel retailing. Transformation of multichannel retailing to omnichannel retailing created two different shopping forms as: Showrooming and Webrooming. In this chapter, showrooming and webrooming concepts will be studied and the complementarity dimensions of these concepts will be explained in detail.

Details

Managing Customer Experiences in an Omnichannel World: Melody of Online and Offline Environments in the Customer Journey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-389-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Aimao Zhang

This paper seeks to incorporate theories from commodity studies, functional studies, institutional studies, and transaction cost economics, to integrate product and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to incorporate theories from commodity studies, functional studies, institutional studies, and transaction cost economics, to integrate product and process approaches and simultaneously examine the effects of product and process on consumer preferences for online and offline channels.

Design/methodology/approach

The study took a systemic approach. It reviewed the existing literature, proposed a theoretical framework, designed and administrated a measurement instrument, analyzed survey results, and provided implications and conclusions.

Findings

In addition to the type of product, the type of transaction process has a significant impact on consumer preferences for online and offline channels.

Research limitations/implications

The sample representation was limited to college students. The analysis also assumed the independency of repeated measures on the subjects.

Practical implications

This paper will facilitate managers in designing and choosing transaction channels based on product type and process function type.

Originality/value

This is the first study which examines the impact of both factors – transaction product and transaction process – on channel preference. The transaction process is systemically defined into four sub‐functions and measured accordingly. An instrument is developed and administer to measure consumer preferences for online and offline channels in response to different types of products and different types of process functions. It is the first instrument of this kind.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Peter Dunning

INSEAD, the European Institute for Business Administration, at Fontainebleau, near Paris, offers advanced management education for over 400 students a year, mainly through…

Abstract

INSEAD, the European Institute for Business Administration, at Fontainebleau, near Paris, offers advanced management education for over 400 students a year, mainly through the MBA course. The Library first set up online access in 1984, and now has extensive online training facilities for students, as well as services for professors, researchers and administrative staff. As demand for online training from students has increased, some professors have encouraged Library online specialists to give brief presentations at the start of courses, helping students to aim their information searching directly towards project needs. In 1987, with pressure on the present three online specialists, we started to explore ways of increasing the participation of staff and student end users in their own searching. More attention was given to existing online menu‐driven systems like Textline, while the growth of professional datafiles on France's Minitel videotex system made it worthwhile to explore their potential as subsidiary search options. In 1988, to develop direct end user searching further, two CD‐ROM workstations were installed, which now offer six disc databases on free access. There has also been an exploration of the role of databases issued on floppy disk as offline alternatives. To help campus users understand the range of database options available, a booklet listing by subject major databases accessible on campus, on both online and offline media, was recently issued. Currently, a prototype simple expert system is being developed from this to help users to move between offline and online searching more easily. The present efforts are aimed at a more user‐oriented information access as the Library prepares to transfer next year to a new building.

Details

Online Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Patricia Liebesny Broilo, Lélis Balestrin Espartel and Kenny Basso

Because of the increasing volume of information spread in physical and online environments, a consumer intending to purchase a product or service must choose not only what…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the increasing volume of information spread in physical and online environments, a consumer intending to purchase a product or service must choose not only what to buy but also which sources to consult when searching for information that may aid decision-making. This study aims to understand how consumers choose their sources of information in pre-purchase external searches, given the information overproduction scenario.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative approach, data collected through interviews with consumers were analyzed under the technique of content analysis, and the results were synthesized into a framework.

Findings

Consumers tend to consider few sources of information, based on a previously built perception of which sources are more or less appropriate for consultation. Choice tends to be based on pre-established evaluation criteria involving the use of heuristics in the form of socialized images regarding those sources.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the study’s exploratory nature, the proposed framework sheds light into how consumers respond to information overproduction when choosing their sources, providing interesting venues for future investigations.

Practical implications

The study identified the possible occurrence of consumer confusion associated with information sources, extending the theoretical understanding of such a concept. Moreover, it revealed the need for managers to consider specific aspects related to the sources to be included in marketing communications.

Originality/value

This is the first study to address choice of information sources associated with consumer confusion focusing the offline/online scenario.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Sourabh Arora, Rashmi Ranjan Parida and Sangeeta Sahney

The present piece of research aims at enhancing our understanding of situational and intentional showrooming behaviour. The study further tests and validates a model based…

Abstract

Purpose

The present piece of research aims at enhancing our understanding of situational and intentional showrooming behaviour. The study further tests and validates a model based on the stimulus–organism–response framework to draw richer insights.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a two-phased approach to discover the consumers' rationale behind showrooming. In the first phase, a narrative-based examination followed by an inductive thematic analysis was employed. In the second phase, the stimulus–organism–response model was validated through structural equation modelling method.

Findings

The results of the study highlighted the factors that contribute to intentional and situational showrooming behaviour. Results show that consumers also showroom on account of situational circumstances such as assortment issues, poor sales-staff assistance and long payment queues at offline stores. However, intentional showroomers are primarily driven by perceived showrooming value which emerges as a combination of in-store search value and online purchase value. Past showrooming experience also plays a role in stimulating consumers to showroom. The results also revealed the moderating impact of product involvement and perceived product type, barring time pressure. The impact of showrooming self-efficacy was also observed.

Research limitations/implications

The study majorly validates the factors stimulating intentional showrooming conduct intertwined with product-related factors, time pressure and showrooming self-efficacy. Hence, the future scope of the study lies in quantitatively validating the findings concerning situational showroomers as this would help draw richer insights.

Practical implications

The findings of the study can be utilized by both offline and online retailers for managing showroomers.

Originality/value

The study offers rich insights on showrooming which has been identified as a major challenge being faced by offline retailers nowadays.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

Alison Jameson

Downloading and uploading offer labour‐saving advantages and are now accepted as useful options in online searching. All aspects are here considered, from recent technical…

Abstract

Downloading and uploading offer labour‐saving advantages and are now accepted as useful options in online searching. All aspects are here considered, from recent technical advances, applications and legal attitudes. There is also a review of current software for downloading. Recent developments mean a trend to higher internal memory and storage capacity, and greater transmission speeds. Packages now offer access to more than one host, give maximum assistance to the user without being menu‐driven and incorporate the latest developments in artificial intelligence. Disadvantages are in the length of time involved in the process and the fact that the legal issue of copyright has not yet been finalised. Database producers have turned to licensing under contract law, but there is still need to rely on user ethics, and the need for a standard permissions form is highlighted.

Details

Library Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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