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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Norm G. Miller

This study aims to examine the trends in space per office worker and the influence of a number of factors on the ability to reduce space per worker. These trends are…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the trends in space per office worker and the influence of a number of factors on the ability to reduce space per worker. These trends are important in that they impact future office demand along with property values.

Design/methodology/approach

Using both survey and empirical data a simulation model is used to examine the impact on space per worker over the course of a typical lease. Factors considered include the length of lease, the worker growth rate of the firm, turnover and time to fill positions, the type of organizational management hierarchy, whether dedicated or non-dedicated space is utilized and firm policies toward working out of the traditional office.

Findings

Space per worker will continue to decline over time, yet collaborative work environments and the effects of traditional management and cultural momentum suggest that downsizing will take time. Counter to the initial hypothesis, growing tenants do not over-consume space in the early years but rather tend to renegotiate leases when growth spurs the need for more space.

Research limitations/implications

It appears that modest economic growth is sufficient to offset downsizing trends, but some markets will be more affected than others. Portfolios dominated by larger than average tenants or U.S. Federal Government tenants will be affected much sooner by downsizing efforts compared to smaller private sector tenants. The mix of occupant types and age also matters, and this study does not delve into significant occupant-type differences by market. This study also does not directly consider design influences on productivity other than those mentioned through surveys: natural light, air quality, temperature control, noise and the presence of collaborative space.

Practical implications

Forecasters of office space demand must input an estimate of the growth in professional employment and then apply a space per worker assumption. This assumption in most markets will be declining, by as much as 30 per cent over several years. Washington DC is already being affected by downsizing, yet most markets with reasonably good economic growth will be able to offset most of this transition to more intensively used space.

Social implications

Much of the existing stock needs to be rebuilt. Much of how the authors work and where is changing. This requires new perspectives on how productivity is measured and how remote workers are measured.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to try and reconcile the views of commercial real estate owners and operators with those of corporate space planners, both of who have opposite sides of the same lease. It is also the first to point out the explicit reasons why downsizing efforts are sometimes not as effective as expected.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Michael Naor, Gavriel David Pinto, Amir Israel Hakakian and Akiva Jacobs

This study aims to investigate whether the shift to teleworking during COVID-19 pandemic is going to diminish the need to procure/rent extensive office space and how this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether the shift to teleworking during COVID-19 pandemic is going to diminish the need to procure/rent extensive office space and how this emerging trend impacts the real-estate market in Israel.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodologies used in this study include triangulation of Google search engine, survey and post hoc case study analysis.

Findings

The analysis indicates a decline both in procuring office space and its price per square meter. Employee productivity while teleworking remains relatively high despite home distractions. Interestingly, the survey results forecast a continuous shift to hybrid work mode after the pandemic.

Practical implications

The study introduces the development of numerous innovative Israeli technologies to allow a gradual return to work in public places.

Social implications

As the coronavirus outburst, business sectors were forced by government regulations to change the way of employment extensively, specifically, teleworking has become an integral part of the routine to accommodate social distance. The study provides insights into the impact of teleworking on gender and ethnic diversity in the Israeli workplace.

Originality/value

Israel provides a unique bedrock for investigation because of its status as a start-up nation with both high skilled workforce and advanced information technology infrastructure. The study enlightens an Israeli perspective on how a small size country with a high-density population succeeds to deal with coronavirus by teleworking coupled with strict government enforcement of social distance.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Torres L. Brown

Technology proliferation is on a movement to outpace an 18th-century computing industry paradigm known as “Moore’s law.” This law establishes the rate of technological…

Abstract

Technology proliferation is on a movement to outpace an 18th-century computing industry paradigm known as “Moore’s law.” This law establishes the rate of technological advancements. The premise of this edict is evident in our coupled workplace with the integration of an emerging technology known as Ambient Intelligence (Aml).

The modernization of the traditional office is designed to be collaborative and environment-friendly. Modernization is primarily due to ambient intelligence. “Opportunities for process and business improvements will derive from a “real-world Web” of smart objects and ambient intelligence, and from consumer-oriented trends such as Web business platforms, aesthetic design, and mobile robots as they move into the business world” (Fenn and Smith, 2005, para. 1). It is safe to reason that ambient intelligence is on a trendy trajectory in many business-oriented workplaces, worksites and workspaces. The business culture is inconspicuously changing before our eyes. Architects and designers are seamlessly incorporating this trend into their respective end-to-end processes of constructing new or retrofitting existing office spaces.

Its unnoticeably embedded adoption is in conference rooms, doorways, elevators, escalators, lighting, meeting rooms, phone displays, and walkways. As ambient technology naturally collides with the functional way an office professional interactively operates through a usual workday, its adaptation becomes seemingly smart and swift. The interesting facet of this technology is that one would not know it unless it was pointed out.

Although there are equipment and devices that offer a singular approach of being convenient and hands-free, there exist common misconceptions and unassuming annoyances that are in place as inherent issues. Once the work environment impedes productivity or natural flow of movement, we realize something is different. These differences align to the surrounding tangible and intangible cues. The information presented in this chapter will disclose the underlying issues at a practical level.

Details

Advances in the Technology of Managing People: Contemporary Issues in Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-074-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Eddie C.M. Hui and Raymond Y.C. Tse

Office decentralization has been developing rapidly in Hong Kong since the early 1980s. Office tenants relocated their businesses to the Decentralized District (DD) with…

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2081

Abstract

Office decentralization has been developing rapidly in Hong Kong since the early 1980s. Office tenants relocated their businesses to the Decentralized District (DD) with the benefits of lower rent, higher flexibility of space use and better supporting facilities. This study examines office decentralization in Hong Kong's office market, both the upturn and downturn. It analyzes the vacancy trend of the Grade A office market in Hong Kong: DD versus Central Business District (CBD), based on a Decentralization Index. This study found that the CBD is a more stable office market sector than the non‐CBD. During a market upturn, the Grade A office market in Hong Kong DD has outperformed that in the CBD. However, during a market downturn, the vacancy rate in the DD tends to increase at a greater rate than that in the CBD. The study also found that periods with a sufficiently high index of decentralization generally experienced increases in CBD rent premiums.

Details

Property Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Lee D. Parker

This study aims to critically evaluate the COVID-19 and future post-COVID-19 impacts on office design, location and functioning with respect to government and community…

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6720

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to critically evaluate the COVID-19 and future post-COVID-19 impacts on office design, location and functioning with respect to government and community occupational health and safety expectations. It aims to assess how office efficiency and cost control agendas intersect with corporate social accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretically informed by governmentality and social accountability through action, it thematically examines research literature and Web-based professional and business reports. It undertakes a timely analysis of historical office trends and emerging practice discourse during the COVID-19 global pandemic's early phase.

Findings

COVID-19 has induced a transition to teleworking, impending office design and configuration reversals and office working protocol re-engineering. Management strategies reflect prioritisation choices between occupational health and safety versus financial returns. Beyond formal accountability reports, office management strategy and rationales will become physically observable and accountable to office staff and other parties.

Research limitations/implications

Future research must determine the balance of office change strategies employed and their evident focus on occupational health and safety or cost control and financial returns. Further investigation can reveal the relationship between formal reporting and observed activities.

Practical implications

Organisations face strategic decisions concerning both their balancing of employee and public health and safety against capital expenditure and operation cost commitments to COVID-19 transmission prevention. They also face strategic accountability decisions as to the visibility and correspondence between their observable actions and their formal social responsibility reporting.

Social implications

Organisations have continued scientific management office cost reduction strategies under the guise of innovative office designs. This historic trend will be tested by a pandemic, which calls for control of its spread, including radical changes to the office at potentially significant cost.

Originality/value

This paper presents one of few office studies in the accounting research literature, recognising it as central to contemporary organisational functioning and revealing the office cost control tradition as a challenge for employee and community health and safety.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Martin Mulder

A study on new office technology and the consequences forcurriculum design are described. In a preparatory study, information wascollected about trends in the field of…

Abstract

A study on new office technology and the consequences for curriculum design are described. In a preparatory study, information was collected about trends in the field of office automation, the actual and the desired job profiles of office personnel and the existing curricula. The aim of these activities was to have an empirical base for designing the curriculum. As expected, several discrepancies existed between the information obtained and the desired conditions of the ideal situation, which made it necessary to evaluate the findings of the preparatory study. This was done by a curriculum conference, a new approach to design curricula in groups, which has the characteristics of a carefully prepared workshop. At this conference, the design of the curriculum was validated and confirmed. The design of the curriculum embraces module descriptors for several components of office automation. The curriculum conference was evaluated and appeared to be a promising method to design job‐related curricula.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

Raymond R. Panko

Office work has grown explosively in this century. Once a small occupational category, office work now includes about 40 percent of the American work force. Yet office

Abstract

Office work has grown explosively in this century. Once a small occupational category, office work now includes about 40 percent of the American work force. Yet office work continues to be “the familiar unknown”: we worry about its growing size, we are concerned about its productivity, and we design systems to improve it; but our real knowledge of what goes on in the office is very shallow. This article discusses only a few of the many subtle facets of office work that vendors and users must understand to meet the needs of this attractive, but difficult market.

Details

Office Technology and People, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0167-5710

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Suining Ding

The purpose of this paper is to explore managers' and employees' opinions regarding privacy in open plan offices and also investigate the relationship between the…

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2943

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore managers' and employees' opinions regarding privacy in open plan offices and also investigate the relationship between the perception of managers and employees on visual and acoustical privacy in order to provide better design solutions in an open plan office setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method is a structured interview. The categorized data are analyzed with percentage of frequency distributions and Chi square analysis. A total of 42 subjects were interviewed and separated in two groups as managers and employees.

Findings

It was found that lack of privacy still exists as an unsolved negative aspect in open plan offices. Findings indicated that there is a strong desire for employees to change and control their physical working space when both visual and acoustical privacy is needed in an open plan office setting. Another finding is that there is a difference of opinion regarding visual privacy between managers and employees.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the paper is that the sample is small and all subjects' occupations are computer‐related. Future studies are needed to further investigate diverse subjects in a larger population. Any future research instrument would have to be different from a structured interview.

Practical implications

Research findings provide valid recommendations to system furniture designers and manufacturers. System furniture design needs to be modular and easily changeable and adjustable for open plan offices.

Originality/value

The significant contribution of this research is that it provided valid data and makes a valuable contribution to the body of knowledge in open plan office design.

Details

Facilities, vol. 26 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

Albert Gore

The federal government is the only entity I know of that thinks it's wise to spend tomorrow's money today to solve the problems of yesterday. We end up with the worst of…

Abstract

The federal government is the only entity I know of that thinks it's wise to spend tomorrow's money today to solve the problems of yesterday. We end up with the worst of both worlds—crisis management for today, and massive federal debts that we'll have to service in the future. What we should be doing is trying to figure out what problems and opportunities lie ahead—to bring foresight into the governmental process.

Details

Planning Review, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Christina Bodin Danielsson

The concept of Lean office design has emerged, claiming to support an efficient labour process. This article aims to investigate how the two main perspectives identified…

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2600

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of Lean office design has emerged, claiming to support an efficient labour process. This article aims to investigate how the two main perspectives identified in the Lean office: the neo-Tayloristic approach and the team-based approach, based in different historical backgrounds, use the office design to shorten lead time and free up time.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive review is done in the article of what the Lean office concept means for different research areas and to practitioners.

Findings

The study presents the two Lean office perspectives in relation to each other, something that has not been done before since it is only recently the team-based Lean office was introduced. The study also presents possible risk and benefits of two perspectives from an employee and organizational perspective.

Research limitations/implications

Since this is a first exploratory review of the Lean office concept based on theories and examples from design practice, further empirical studies are needed to determine risks and benefits of the concept.

Practical implications

The clarifying examples in the article make it useful for people involved in the design and building process of offices.

Originality/value

The article brings together the fields of labour process, office research and facility management with the design practice and presents the two perspectives Lean office design in relation to each other, which has not been done before since the team-based Lean office has only recently been introduced.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 15 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

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