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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

Seppo Junnila

The purpose of the study is to estimate the potential of end‐user effect on energy conservation in office buildings. The study quantifies the energy conservation potential…

2246

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to estimate the potential of end‐user effect on energy conservation in office buildings. The study quantifies the energy conservation potential and estimates the current level of energy management in four banking organisations in the Nordic countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiple case study employs quantitative scenario analysis for estimating the energy conservation potential of office equipment and lighting, and uses a qualitative model for estimating the current level of end‐user energy management in the organisations.

Findings

The study found that noticeable potential for energy conservation exists in the end‐user energy consumption. The tested scenarios significantly decreased the yearly electricity consumption of office equipment, for some 70 per cent, from 21 kWh per m2 to 6 kWh per m2. The electricity consumption of lighting was also noticeably improved, for some 30 per cent, from 38 kWh per m2 to 27 kWh per m2, equalling a 29 per cent reduction there. Altogether, the identified savings equal an improvement of roughly 20 per cent in the overall electricity consumption of the organisations. At the same time, the evaluation of current energy management showed that the management practices implemented represent only a rather modest level of end‐user energy management.

Research limitations/implications

The multiple case study focused on four Nordic countries and banking organisations only. As the banking sector tends to be more conservative than some other industries, the results are not necessary valid in all industries. The simulation tools used, especially for lighting, only give estimation of the “best case” type of situation for tested scenarios, in which it is assumed that all end‐users would start to behave according to the scenario.

Practical implications

This study implies clearly that end‐user‐energy‐management services are needed in FM. Although the user behaviour is more challenging to manage than pure technology, it can be quite profitable. For example, in the studied organisations, the savings found in end‐user energy would equal yearly profits of roughly 1.7 million €, i.e. some 20 per cent of the overall electricity budgets of the companies.

Originality/value

Most of the quantitative energy conservation studies in the offices have concentrated so far on new constructions and building system improvements. This study quantifies the potential influence of good facilities management with the end‐user activation on the energy efficiency of office buildings.

Details

Facilities, vol. 25 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

17193

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property…

14450

Abstract

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Facilities, vol. 19 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

13925

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Property Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

13806

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Pan Lee, Edwin H.W. Chan, Queena K. Qian and Patrick T.I. Lam

Design teams have difficulties in assessing building carbon emissions at an early stage, as most building energy simulation tools require a detailed input of building…

Abstract

Purpose

Design teams have difficulties in assessing building carbon emissions at an early stage, as most building energy simulation tools require a detailed input of building design for estimation. The purpose of this paper is to develop a user-friendly regression model to estimate carbon emissions of the preliminary design of office buildings in the subtropics by way of example. Five sets of building design parameters, including building configuration, building envelope, design space conditions, building system configuration and occupant behaviour, are considered in this study.

Design/methodology/approach

Both EnergyPlus and Monte Carlo simulation were used to predict carbon emissions for different combinations of the design parameters. A total of 100,000 simulations were conducted to ensure a full range of simulation results. Based on the simulation results, a regression model was developed to estimate carbon emissions of office buildings based on preliminary design information.

Findings

The results show that occupant density, annual mean occupancy rate, equipment load, lighting load and chiller coefficient of performance are the top five influential parameters affecting building carbon emissions under the subtropics. Besides, the design parameters of ten office buildings were input into this user-friendly regression model for validation. The results show that the ranking of its simulated carbon emissions for these ten buildings is consistent with the original carbon emissions ranking.

Practical implications

With the use of this developed regression model, design teams can not only have a simple and quick estimation of carbon emissions based on the building design information at the conceptual stage but also explore design options by understanding the level of reduction in carbon emissions if a certain building design parameter is changed. The study also provides recommendations on building design to reduce carbon emissions of office buildings.

Originality/value

Limited research has been conducted to date to investigate how the change of building design affects carbon emissions in the subtropics where four distinct seasons lead to significant variations of outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Previous research also did not emphasise on the impact of high-rise office building designs (e.g. small building footprint, high window-to-wall ratio) on carbon emissions. This paper adds value by identifying the influential parameters affecting carbon emissions for a high-rise office building design and allows a handy estimate of building carbon emissions under the subtropical conditions. The same approach may be used for other meteorological conditions.

Details

Facilities , vol. 37 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

Peter C. Thornton and J. Verner Wheelock

The office is an area of activity which to date has been largely untouched by major technological change. With the exception of the electric typewriter and the development…

Abstract

The office is an area of activity which to date has been largely untouched by major technological change. With the exception of the electric typewriter and the development of photocopying machines, office equipment has changed comparatively little during this century. As a result, while there have undoubtedly been advances made in office organisation and procedures, the basic systems have remained essentially manual and mechanical. The situation is reflected in the relative capitalisation of shop floor operatives and office workers. A recent study conducted by the Stanford Research Institute, for example, estimated that the average investment in capital equipment for an office worker was about $2,000, compared with an average of $25,000 on the shop floor. The labour intensity of office systems is similarly evident in their cost structure, with approximately 80 per cent of office costs being directly attributable to labour.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property…

26894

Abstract

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property Management Volumes 8‐17; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐17.

Details

Facilities, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

23452

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property Management Volumes 8‐17; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐17.

Details

Property Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

23463

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property Management Volumes 8‐17; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐17.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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