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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Frank Duffy

Lack of depth is the usual price paid for breadth of ambition. However, in order to make sense of the current enthusiasm for intelligent office building it is necessary…

Abstract

Lack of depth is the usual price paid for breadth of ambition. However, in order to make sense of the current enthusiasm for intelligent office building it is necessary not only to investigate what is happening in countries as widely dispersed as Japan, Sweden and the United States but also to indulge in a rather liberal interpretation of what office buildings actually are. The first benefit of this point of view is that a great deal can be learned from contrasts between offices built in different countries (and for different organisations) particularly about values held by the individuals and about the social structures which make up the modern office organisation. The second benefit is that a better understanding of how offices are built and serviced, through time, is of great practical advantage to those who must manage rapidly changing organisations.

Details

Facilities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Hilde Remøy, Peter de Jong and Wiechert Schenk

Across use adaptation is a possible way of dealing with long term vacant office buildings, albeit previous research shows that there are many obstacles to be thrived. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Across use adaptation is a possible way of dealing with long term vacant office buildings, albeit previous research shows that there are many obstacles to be thrived. In The Netherlands several successful transformations of offices into housing were completed. Nevertheless, transformations do not take place on a large scale. High building costs are the main reason. Hence, new office developments should anticipate future programmatic transformation. This paper seeks answers to the questions: Is it possible to anticipate future programmatic change? To what extent will anticipation on future possibilities influence building costs?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors reviewed existing studies to gather information about transformation building costs and the critical success factors of transformations. The building design and costs for new office buildings were then studied, designed with enhanced transformation potential, focussing on two standard office building types, the central core tower and the single corridor slab, using the cost model PARAP.

Findings

The outcome of this research proposes an approach to office development that deals with adaptability as a means of realising enhanced future value.

Research limitations/implications

To limit the research, only two standard office building types were studied.

Practical implications

Next to changes in the construction method of standard office buildings, the research suggests consciousness in the design phase of office developments to improve adaptability.

Originality/value

Based on studies of completed across use adaptations, the paper gives recommendations on how to improve the adaptability of new office buildings.

Details

Property Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Heng Li, Q.P. Shen and Peter E.D. Love

This paper presents a set of step‐wise regression models which can incorporate multiple factors in modelling the costs of office buildings. The models appeared to be more…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a set of step‐wise regression models which can incorporate multiple factors in modelling the costs of office buildings. The models appeared to be more accurate than the traditional method.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from historical office building projects, which were then, adjusted using the construction price index. The step‐wise regression was conducted to produce the linear cost models.

Findings

Seven RC office buildings and 11 steel office buildings in Hong Kong completed in different years were selected randomly to verify the accuracy of the regression models developed. The data of these buildings were not used in the development of the cost models. The result shows that the variability of percentage difference is ranging from −4.11 per cent (4.11 per cent underestimate) to +2.74 per cent (2.74 per cent overestimate) for RC office buildings. For steel office buildings, it ranges from −6.65 per cent (6.65 per cent underestimate) to +2.78 per cent (2.78 per cent overestimate).

Research limitations/implications

This study presents a methodology that can be used in cost estimation of office buildings in Hong Kong at early stage of construction project. The regression cost models developed above are based on, in total, historical data of 30 completed office buildings in Hong Kong. The reliability of the cost models can be further improved by including more office buildings to develop the cost models. Furthermore, the application of cost modelling by regression analysis is not limited to office buildings. The same approach can be applied to residential and other non‐residential buildings as well. Regression cost modelling, with sufficient updating for new cost data available, can provide economic, quick and accurate cost estimation at early stage of construction projects. It will become rational guide supplementing judgmental forecast of cost advisors in near future.

Originality/value

Step‐wise regression procedure was applied to develop the cost models. Jackknife re‐sampling was carried out and both of the models show stability. Cross‐validation shows that the developed regression models performed satisfactorily. The paper considers that it can provide economic, quick and accurate cost estimation at the early stage of construction project. In addition, the approach of this study can be adopted to develop cost models of other types of buildings in other locations.

Details

Facilities, vol. 23 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Sara J. Wilkinson and Richard G. Reed

The purpose of this paper is to present research which analysed energy consumption in the Melbourne central business district (CBD) office stock and examined all buildings

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present research which analysed energy consumption in the Melbourne central business district (CBD) office stock and examined all buildings to identify CO2 emissions in 2005. The rationale was that, by profiling a large group of buildings, it would be possible to identify characteristics of the stock. For example, do older buildings typically emit more CO2 per square metre than newer buildings?

Design/methodology/approach

This research conducted a detailed analysis of all Melbourne CBD office stock to identify which patterns and trends emerged regarding building characteristics and carbon emissions. The study examined variables such as building size, number of employees, occupancy levels, physical characteristics and building age.

Findings

By examining all office stock and aggregating data, the results confirm that it is possible to identify general physical building characteristics and carbon emissions. This research confirmed that clear relationships existed within the Melbourne CBD office stock in terms of building size, age and the density of occupation in relation to CO2 emissions.

Originality/value

Practitioners can apply this knowledge to the professional advice they give to clients to assist in achieving increased energy efficiency in the office stock, for example in refurbishment being conscious that smaller buildings will be generally less energy‐efficient than larger ones.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Eddie Chi-man Hui, Eric Wing-fai Chan and Ka-hung Yu

– This study aims to examine whether Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification yields additional premiums for Shanghai’s office rental sector.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification yields additional premiums for Shanghai’s office rental sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The hedonic model is utilized to evaluate the impact of LEED, as well as of other factors, on the rental values of 59 Grade A office buildings in Shanghai, including 23 LEED-certified buildings and 36 non-LEED-certified buildings.

Findings

It is found that rental values of buildings with LEED are about 12.8 per cent than those of buildings without the same certification. Other factors, for instance accessibility to facilities such as subway station and 4-star hotels, the availability of catering services in surrounding areas as well as the building’s location (i.e. inside the CBD) also are significantly positively correlated with office rents in the sample commercial buildings.

Originality/value

Besides being one of the earlier contributions to the literature with regard to the study of the impact of green certifications in China’s office market, the findings in this study also provide some empirical evidence for stakeholders, such as developers, investors, property managers and market practitioners, to evaluate the introduction of green features (and/or green certifications such as LEED) as an investment decision.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2018

Chukwuka Christian Ohueri, Wallace Imoudu Enegbuma and Russell Kenley

Green building construction was adopted as a strategy to reduce energy consumption and the overall impact of the built environment on our natural environment. However, in…

Abstract

Purpose

Green building construction was adopted as a strategy to reduce energy consumption and the overall impact of the built environment on our natural environment. However, in Malaysia, previous studies have reaffirmed that green office buildings consume a substantial amount of energy, compared to their counterparts in Singapore. Moreover, there is still a significant performance gap between predicted energy measurements and actual operational energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia, due to occupants’ behavioural discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop energy efficiency practices for occupants of green office buildings in Malaysia. The developed practices integrate technology, organisation policy, and occupants’ behavioural strategies, in order to reduce the energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the research goal, a mixed (quantitative and qualitative) research method was used to collect data from the research population. In total, 53 respondents working in a green office building complex in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia were surveyed using a questionnaire. Additionally, three top management staff of the green office building and two Malaysian construction professionals were interviewed. The study adopted convenience sampling technique in selecting the research respondents. The data from the questionnaire were analysed using SPSS software (version 22) while the interview data were analysed via thematic content analysis.

Findings

The findings suggest that the integration of technological strategy (use of BIM tools, sustainable building materials, etc.); organisational strategy (develop, implement and evaluate action plans, use of monitor/control systems, etc.); and occupants behavioural strategy (training, incentives, occupants energy efficiency guide, etc.) will critically reduce energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia.

Originality/value

Based on the findings, energy efficiency practices are developed to guide occupants in reducing the energy consumption of green office buildings in Malaysia. This strategy will contribute to reducing the performance gap that exists between predicted energy and actual energy use of green office buildings in Malaysia. However, the developed energy efficiency practices need to be validated to ascertain its workability in the green office building context.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Olga Filippova, Michael Rehm and Chris Dibble

With the marked increase in the awareness of earthquake risks following the Canterbury earthquakes, the purpose of this paper is to assess if the reassessment of risk has…

Abstract

Purpose

With the marked increase in the awareness of earthquake risks following the Canterbury earthquakes, the purpose of this paper is to assess if the reassessment of risk has influenced rents for office accommodation in commercial buildings. Two contrasting office markets are examined: New Zealand’s largest market within a high-risk earthquake zone – Wellington, and the country’s largest market within a low-risk zone – Auckland.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 252 leasing transactions were collected from a proprietary database of Colliers International, one of the largest commercial brokerage firms in New Zealand. Hedonic pricing models were developed to isolate the effects of building seismic strength on office rents.

Findings

Wellington office market rents tend to increase with higher earthquake strength (New Building Standard) ratings, all other factors held equal. In contrast, rents in Auckland, a low-risk earthquake area, do not exhibit such price effects.

Practical implications

The study provides estimates of the economic value associated with seismic retrofits which are vital for building owners’ decision making who must weigh retrofit costs against the economic benefits of doing so.

Originality/value

This study provides the first empirical analysis of office rents in New Zealand and the first quantitative analysis, internationally, of the impact of earthquake risk on commercial rents.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Francesco Pomponi and Poorang A. E. Piroozfar

– The purpose of this paper is to establish how UK offices and double skin façade (DSF) technologies can be best matched for refurbishment purposes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish how UK offices and double skin façade (DSF) technologies can be best matched for refurbishment purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a mixed methodology including primary and secondary data collection, analysis and interpolation through document analysis, comprehensive critical literature review, and case study approach.

Findings

In total, 22 benchmarks have been developed to represent 75 per cent of the existing office stock in the UK. Through a comparison with 36 case studies of European buildings refurbished with DSFs, two benchmarks showed to be most suitable for a DSF refurbishment and most appropriate configurations for a successful DSF refurbishment have been identified. Findings have been also checked against a large sample of DSF buildings in the UK.

Research limitations/implications

The benchmarks delivered in this study can be developed further into parametric models, where variations can be obtained by changing the parameters provided. A follow-up study can be designed to help define the exact share of existing stock represented by each benchmark and to foster research where a more typological or statistical approach might be intended.

Practical implications

Findings from this research can be of practical use to academics and practitioners alike involved in research related to office refurbishments, DSFs, and the UK existing office stock. The design for this research can also be adapted to similar studies on its own or further developed to suit different contexts.

Social implications

Improvements to existing buildings can preserve established communities, with a clear social advantage.

Originality/value

This paper represents the first attempt to systemically shed light on how existing UK offices and DSF technologies can be best matched in refurbishments. The benchmarks developed, the DSF case studies, and guidelines for suitable DSF technologies in UK office refurbishments represent the original contribution of this research.

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Tunbosun Oyedokun, Colin Jones and Neil Dunse

The purpose of this paper is to examine the experience of the UK office market in embracing green buildings. The empirical analysis considers the spatial pattern and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the experience of the UK office market in embracing green buildings. The empirical analysis considers the spatial pattern and growth of green buildings in cities since 1990. It examines the perceived industry wisdom that the establishment of a green premium for occupation is the key to greening the office stock.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by looking at the concept of a green office and then examines the evolving attitudes towards these offices and the issues for local market dynamics. The empirical analysis examines the current spatial pattern of green office buildings in the UK and then their impact on city office markets, where there is a major concentration. The latter part of the paper examines the growth of green offices since 1990. It begins with national trends and then examines the evolution of green development in individual cities.

Findings

The initial adoption of green offices was slow. There has been a dramatic rise in green offices at the peak of the past decade’s development boom and in the immediate years that followed. Market acceptance of the importance of greenness appears still to be in the melting pot with limited market transactions since 2008. Green offices represent only 2.7 per cent of office buildings and 12 per cent of total space in the market. Most green offices are in the principal cities with the largest concentration in London. London represents the only potential locality where a green market could have been established so far.

Practical implications

The paper provides an empirical assessment of the growth of green offices in the UK.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to consider the development and scale of green offices in the context of local markets. It challenges the perceived wisdom that a green premium is central to the green transformation to date.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Stephanie Rock, M. Reza Hosseini, Bahareh Nikmehr, Igor Martek, Sepehr Abrishami and Serdar Durdyev

The built environment is a major source of carbon emissions. However, 80 per cent of the damage arises through the operational phase of a building’s life. Office buildings

Abstract

Purpose

The built environment is a major source of carbon emissions. However, 80 per cent of the damage arises through the operational phase of a building’s life. Office buildings are the most significant building type in terms of emission-reduction potential. Yet, little research has been undertaken to examine the barriers faced by building operators in transitioning to a green operation of the office buildings in their care. This study aims to identify those barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

Building facilities managers with between 7 and 25 years’ experience in operating primarily Melbourne high-rise office buildings were interviewed. The sample was taken from LinkedIn connections, with ten agreeing to participate in semi-structured interviews – out of the 17 invitations sent out. Interview comments were recorded, coded and categorised to identify the barriers sought by this study.

Findings

Seven categories of barriers to effecting green operation of office buildings were extracted. These were financial, owner-related, tenant-related, technological, regulatory, architectural and stakeholder interest conflicts. Difficulties identifying green operation strategies that improved cost performance or return on investment of buildings was the major barrier.

Practical implications

Government, policymakers and facilities managers themselves have been struggling with how to catalyse a green transition in the operation of office buildings. By identifying the barriers standing in the way, this study provides a concrete point of departure from which remedial strategies and policies may be formulated and put into effect.

Originality/value

The uptake of green operation of office buildings has been extremely slow. Though barriers have been hypothesised in earlier works, this is the first study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, that categorically identifies and tabulates the barriers that stand in the way of improving the green operational performance of office buildings, drawing on the direct knowledge of facilities experts.

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