This paper attempts to critically question present IPE approaches and analyses that aim at assessing China’s role within the international political economy. Thus, unlike…
This paper attempts to critically question present IPE approaches and analyses that aim at assessing China’s role within the international political economy. Thus, unlike common theorizations that see the country as being integrated within US hegemony (Panitch and Gindin) or those accounts that claim that we are already witnessing the “terminal crisis” of US hegemony accompanied by a hegemonic transition toward China (Arrighi), the paper will argue that China was able to gain “relative geopolitical autonomy” as a result of the revolutionary processes it went through and eventually assert itself as a contender state, now just in the process of challenging US hegemony. Dissatisfied with existent theorizations of hegemony, I will be drawing on the critical edition of Gramsci’s Quaderni and attempt to offer a new perspective regarding the conceptualization thereof. Thus applying the elaborated framework of analysis to the current situation, I argue that unlike the US’s ability to counter the challenge of its traditional imperial rivals Germany and Japan as they developed under the grip of US hegemony, the country is facing difficulties in countering China’s ascent. However, while maintaining that China does indeed represent a challenge to US hegemony, particularly in East Asia, I will argue that the idea of a “crisis of US hegemony” is premature as China remains distant from fully realizing hegemonic relations, even at the regional level.
The essence of formulating an effective strategy should be dependent on a company’s understanding of its operating environment. The implementation of a unique and effective strategy in an indigenous and competitive business environment will result in a competitive advantage. Drawing on the models that reduce uncertainty in business organisations, this chapter examines the dynamics of indigenous strategic management practices in Africa using Dangote Cement in Nigeria and Equity Bank in Kenya as case studies. The conceptual framework of this chapter presents the synthesis of strategic management practices in Africa; a global perspective and emphasis on Africa and as a result of which emerging organisations adopt these management practices and findings from both organisations. We discuss the tenacity of Dangote Cement entrepreneurial understanding of the Nigerian political, social and economic environment and its effective government relationship. This chapter examines the challenges and trends of strategic management practices in Africa and the key success factors in doing business in Africa, despite the depth of challenges in a business environment that is volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous. We discuss Equity Bank’s stakeholder management practices, strategic leadership and its inclusive business model, developed to enhance financial inclusion and access to available and attractive financial services for those at the bottom of the pyramid. Significantly, we argue that to succeed in Africa, businesses must understand the dynamics of strategic leadership, the cultural context of the operating environment, stakeholder management and include the social dimension of business in their business strategy.
Tourism in developing countries has grown rapidly in the past 20 years to the point where a fresh look at its underpinnings appears overdue. The industry itself realizes…
Tourism in developing countries has grown rapidly in the past 20 years to the point where a fresh look at its underpinnings appears overdue. The industry itself realizes that the quality of growth is as important as quantity. Inevitably, growth and globalization have brought about a change in tourism's structure, driven by competition, consolidation among the main economic players and the revolution in information and technology. The recent Sommets du Tourisme, now in its third year, promoted by the Geneva/ Chamonix/ Mont Blanc tourism industry, took up these issues in December 5–7, 2001. This paper is a result of a presentation made at that Sommets du Tourisme on tourism, poverty and the World Bank Croup's role. The Bank Croup addresses tourism through its regular channels, including poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSP) and country assistance strategy process (CAS). Its interventions focus on public good issues, market failures, and gaps not filled by others. In this framework, this article reviews tourism as a sector that can contribute to sustainable development, including its economic, financial, social and environmental aspects. It argues that developing countries can compete favorably in world markets — they often have the framework conditions which give them a good opportunity to create the new products and services that consumers seek, often in as yet unspoiled areas. Growth and poverty are addressed, as are the policy conditions for making markets work, and assuring the sustainability of tourism's often all too fragile assets. Local communities are often left out of the decision‐making process that determines their future, leading to disenchantment with tourism; similarly, local communities may have difficulty dealing effectively with the burgeoning international travel industry. The paper underscores the importance of institutions, particularly the respective roles of government and industry, and partnership as a source of mutual inspiration. Some examples are offered here as illustrations of types of investment in sustainable tourism.
To analyze more deeply and in a systemic perspective food system outcomes, and the contribution that small farming can give to the achievement of those outcomes, a…
To analyze more deeply and in a systemic perspective food system outcomes, and the contribution that small farming can give to the achievement of those outcomes, a detailed analysis of food systems is required, which highlights its components, activities and dynamics. Thus, this chapter deepens the analysis of the food system. We first reflect on the complexity of the concept of food system, discussing the abundance of different conceptualizations proposed in the scientific and political debate on the base of different disciplines and perspectives. Then, a comprehensive representation is shown, which is then unpacked. The food system actors, assets and functions are explored, with an eye on power relations among actors and on the main drivers of change. Governance (that also includes actors external to the food systems) is called ‘reflexive’, as long as it characterizes a system that is able to reflect upon the conditions and the forms of its own functioning, to detect and analyze threats and to change accordingly, with the involvement of actors external to the food systems. This analysis, which represents the focus of this section, provides the base for the description of the food system vulnerability developed in Chapter 4. Drivers of change and governance emerge as key categories to consider.
Jelinek has developed a multi-level model for conceptualizing the contextual influences through which intellectual property (IP) is “understood, interpreted and made sense…
Jelinek has developed a multi-level model for conceptualizing the contextual influences through which intellectual property (IP) is “understood, interpreted and made sense of” by key parties to IP “deals.” This commentary reflects upon that model through a historical examination of industry–university relationships in one case – specifically, IBM. Since the late 1920s, IBM has encouraged multifaceted relationships with universities. From the start, IBM sought relationships with academia not only because of the market potential represented by university campuses, but also because Thomas Watson Sr. viewed academic customers as potential research collaborators, a novel idea at the time that later proved instrumental in the development of the corporation's successful research enterprise. IBM's university relationships have continued to evolve over time, reflecting shifts in the corporation's business strategy, and changes in larger macroeconomic structures. The case of IBM reveals complex interactions among governmental, corporate, and academic actors and their policies at different points in time, providing support for Jelinek's multi-level approach to framing IP dynamics, and suggesting possible refinements of the model for the future.
China's experience of investing in Latin America in one of the main sectors included in the BRI architecture, railways, has faced significant challenges: only one of four…
China's experience of investing in Latin America in one of the main sectors included in the BRI architecture, railways, has faced significant challenges: only one of four Chinese potential railway projects in Latin America has materialised. The purpose of this paper is to explore these challenges and to provide an explanation focusing on the importance of the “domestic politics” factor.
The paper proposes a comparative study of four cases, developing a qualitative analysis based on an in-depth review of the literature and primary and secondary sources of information.
The findings suggest that domestic politics played a significant role in the outcomes of the Brazil–Peru Bi-Oceanic railway (changes in government), in Argentina's Belgrano Cargas modernisation project (multiple “domestic politics” factors, such as a presidential campaign), in Venezuela's failed Tinaco-Anaco high-speed train project (authoritarian turn/country's stability) and in Mexico's Querétaro-Ciudad de México high-speed train project (corruption and popular contestation). The paper suggests that one should not expect an easy or fast projection of the BRI in the region, at least in the short- and mid-term, because becoming familiar with the domestic politics of Latin American is a complex and gradual task.
The particular impact of the political risks related to domestic politics in the Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Latin America has not been extensively explored, especially in the railway sector. This paper intends to contribute to this literature gap by analysing four cases of Chinese investment in railways in Latin America, an area that has received little attention in the studies of the Chinese FDI in the region, and proposing an explanation of their outcomes focusing on the “domestic politics” factor.
This study aims at establishing a linkage between IFRS adoption and environmental pollution in Africa. More so, the role of institution was emphasized as a possible…
This study aims at establishing a linkage between IFRS adoption and environmental pollution in Africa. More so, the role of institution was emphasized as a possible ameliorator of environmental pollution in the face of IFRS adoption.
The empirical model builds on the traditional EKC hypothesis, by including IFRS adoption variable and an interaction term (which captures the multiplicative between IFRS adoption and institutions). Data was gathered for 47 African countries for the period 2001–2013. The SGMM technique was used in the estimation process.
The robust estimation reveals that a positive and significant linkage exist between IFRS adoption and environmental pollution. The interactive variable also shows that the effect of IFRS on the environment will reduce when institutions quality (in the form of bureaucratic corruption) is addressed.
The linkage between IFRS and the environment has not received empirical attention. This is partly due to the fact that accounting phenomenon is rarely linked to macroeconomic outcomes. However, there is a rising interest in the role of accounting institutions on economic outcomes and this study contributes sufficiently to this budding body of knowledge.
The purpose of this paper is to review the post‐1996 literature of information science and other disciplines for the application of social network theory and social…
The purpose of this paper is to review the post‐1996 literature of information science and other disciplines for the application of social network theory and social network analysis to research that provides an understanding of information environments.
The literature review involved a content analysis of 373 articles retrieved from five electronic journal databases offering broad disciplinary coverage, and a selection of nine peer‐reviewed electronic access journals in information science. Each database was limited to academic or peer reviewed journals and searched using two query phrases: social network theory (SNT) and social network analysis (SNA).
The paper demonstrates the growth of interest by information science and other disciplines in research that applies social network theory and utilizes social network analysis, indicating what research approaches and major focus trends differentiate the disciplines.
The search phrases overlook articles using social networks as the only key phrase for indexing. However, the intention was to examine the application of a theoretical concept and specific methodology, so the terms used were appropriate for this purpose.
The paper identifies opportunities to apply social network theory and social network analysis to the study of the exchange of information resources.
The paper demonstrates that information science could advance valuable contributions to an understanding of information behavior using social network theory and social network analysis as a vehicle to connect with a significant body of existing research in other disciplines.
One of the key contributions of feminist criminology has been to recognise the cultural significance of the concepts of sex and gender, bodies and social practices in…
One of the key contributions of feminist criminology has been to recognise the cultural significance of the concepts of sex and gender, bodies and social practices in order to conceptualise men’s engagement with crime, including the dominance of men as perpetrators of crimes of violence against women.
This chapter focusses on the #MeToo movement which has revealed the stark contrast between women’s experiences of sexual assault and sexual harassment, and the extent of men’s perceived entitlement to women’s bodies. By theorising the regulatory processes by which different bodies are ‘moralised’, it is possible to see how cultures are created by reference to the values ascribed to different bodies as well as what different bodies do. The author considers the applicability of moral regulation theory to show how processes of sexualisation, including sexual assault and harassment, constitute identity formation and considers whether resistance in the form of the #MeToo movement amounts to a powerful enough challenge to introduce cultural and structural changes.
The aim of this research is to study the implications of the human resources management practices on corruption in humanitarian aid as the phenomenon is under-researched…
The aim of this research is to study the implications of the human resources management practices on corruption in humanitarian aid as the phenomenon is under-researched (Akbar & Vujic, 2014; Melo & Quinn, 2015) and considered to be a hot topic since the determinants of corruption from an individual perspective have been scarcely discussed in the non-profit sector (Epperly & Lee, 2015; Mohiuddin & Dulay, 2015).
This research adopts grounded theory as a method and builds upon long experience in the humanitarian aid sector to generate theory from field observations and from 30 interviews conducted with respondents working in humanitarian organisations. The data collected from interviews was compared to observations data, leading the way to validating and expanding the findings.
The findings of this study are related to human resources administration weaknesses which appear to be directly linked to corruption in humanitarian aid. These weaknesses include issues in relation to Terms of Reference and organisational charts, irregularities in staff selection procedures, the short-termism of contracts, poor talent management, a lack of ethics awareness and mismanaged cultural diversity.
This study suffers from a few limitations pertaining to the sensitivity of the context, confidentiality issues, retrospection in some cases and possible bias resulting from staff frustration. These were dealt with through ensuring interviewees' utmost anonymity in publishing the results and through cross-checking answers of respondents from within the same organisation.
This research proposes a corruption preventive model which serves as a tool driving better human resources practices in humanitarian aid, and highlights the dangerous impact of corruption and raises awareness among humanitarian aid managers and workers about the importance of preventing it so that more vulnerable people are reached and that the donated money fulfils its intended target. The chapter brings value to research on humanitarian aid as it considers the corruption phenomenon with new lenses; focusing on individuals rather than on systems thus opening new horizons of study away from the traditional stream of research on service delivery.