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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2017

Brandon Dupont, Drew Keeling and Thomas Weiss

We present a continuous time series on first cabin passenger fares for ocean travel from New York to the British Isles covering nearly a century of time. We discuss the…

Abstract

We present a continuous time series on first cabin passenger fares for ocean travel from New York to the British Isles covering nearly a century of time. We discuss the conceptual and empirical difficulties of constructing such a time series, and examine the reasons for differences between the behavior of advertised fares and those based on passenger revenues. We find that while there are conceptual differences between these two measurements, as well as differences in the average values, the two generally moved in parallel, which means that the advertised fare series can serve as a reasonable proxy for movement of the revenue-based fares. We also find that advertised fares declined over time, roughly paralleling the drop in freight rates for US bulk exports, until around 1890, but thereafter increased while freight rates continued to decline. We propose several hypotheses for this divergent behavior and suggest lines of future research.

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Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-120-1

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2017

Abstract

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Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-120-1

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Richard Hunt and Lauren Ortiz-Hunt

The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically test the theory that new industry entrants hold advantages over incumbents in the shift from unidirectional to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically test the theory that new industry entrants hold advantages over incumbents in the shift from unidirectional to multi-directional revenue streams.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a Cobb-Douglas production function, modified to isolate returns to innovation, the authors examine data from three separate contexts: steamships on Western US rivers (1810-1860), satellite-based internet services (1962-2010) and food waste recycling (1995-2015).

Findings

The results reveal that while incumbents often attempt to stretch existing technologies to fit emerging circumstances, entrepreneurial innovators achieve greater success by approaching multi-directional value creation as a distinct challenge, one requiring new technologies, organizational forms and business models. Existing theories have primarily attributed incumb ent inertia to a firm’s inability perceive and pursue radical innovations, the results also suggest that existing firms are unwilling to pursue innovations that are likely to erode the marginal profitability of their respective business models. Ironically, rather than protecting incumbents’ financial interests, the authors find that “marginal reasoning” can lead to diminished performance and even extinction.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework and empirical findings have implications for numerous multi-directional frontiers, including: social networking, commercial space travel, distance education and medical treatments using nanoscale technologies.

Practical implications

While incumbents often lament the destabilizing effects of multi-directionality, new and small firms enjoy a compelling array of entry points and opportunities.

Originality/value

Scholars, incumbent firms and start-ups both benefit from insights stemming from the novel formulation of multi-directionality challenges and opportunities.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Ray W. Coye and Patrick J. Murphy

The paper seeks to explore lessons in service delivery from an industry that no longer exists. The transatlantic passenger liner dramatizes some of the most unique…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to explore lessons in service delivery from an industry that no longer exists. The transatlantic passenger liner dramatizes some of the most unique challenges of service delivery. The ship itself was a delivery mechanism completely separated from support services. Customers were essentially contained for extended periods. Whereas all customers received the same core transportation service, peripheral services varied substantially by service class.

Design/methodology/approach

Description of the historical context is followed by examinations of passenger and service provider perspectives to illustrate services expected and delivered. Primary and secondary source material is used to exemplify service management challenges.

Findings

Socioeconomic and technological factors played major roles in delivery system design decisions. With stable and loyal workforces and well designed delivery systems, ocean liners were able to deliver service successfully to customer classes with widely varying expectations.

Practical implications

Service management on ocean liners occupied a range of levels and intensity not found in current organizational contexts. The context provides modern practitioners pure consideration of complexities and service management implications.

Originality/value

The novel and isolated organizational aspects of transatlantic ocean liners is unique among organizations. Examination of service management in this context provides information of original value not available from examination of other kinds of organizations.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1960

A. Grünthal

The latest volume (10) of the Balance of Payments Yearbook of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) contains balances of payments (BP) of 74 countries for the years 1956…

Abstract

The latest volume (10) of the Balance of Payments Yearbook of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) contains balances of payments (BP) of 74 countries for the years 1956, 1957, and partly 1958. For a number of countries comparative figures are given as far back as 1951.

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The Tourist Review, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Deirdre M. Collier and Paul J. Miranti

This study aims to explain how the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) used its power over rail rates as part of an effort to promote the growth of economically…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain how the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) used its power over rail rates as part of an effort to promote the growth of economically underdeveloped regions of the USA. This was accomplished by subsidizing shipments of food and fuel staples to major domestic and world markets and by offsetting the burden of high protective tariffs through low transportation rates on imported goods, from its inception in 1887 until the disruption of ocean transport with the outbreak of First World War in 1914.

Design/methodology/approach

Through examination of contemporary ICC studies and cases, this study shows how the ICC condoned rate practices that promoted the socioeconomic welfare of sparsely populated regions primarily in the Southern and Western USA.

Findings

The study illustrates that the ICC facilitated exports by authorizing rates that subsidized the transport of overseas food and fuel staples from the interior while at the same time allowing preferential rail–sea contracts on imports that partially offset the burden of protective tariffs on these regions. The focus on regional social welfare within the ICC largely ended by 1914, with the end of protective tariffs and the start of First World War.

Originality/value

This new interpretation explains how international trade patterns in the USA were influenced in significant ways by the ICC to achieve regional social welfare objectives and to promote greater national economic integration.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Book part
Publication date: 21 June 2005

Robert J. Windle

Abstract

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Handbook of Transport Strategy, Policy and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-0804-4115-3

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2007

Drew Keeling

Early twentieth century transatlantic migration was both a massive transoceanic population transfer and a complex travel business. The successful growth of this…

Abstract

Early twentieth century transatlantic migration was both a massive transoceanic population transfer and a complex travel business. The successful growth of this multinational commerce was based not on fare reductions, but on risk management strategies. Shipping lines provided costly carrying capacity sufficient to accommodate severely fluctuating demand for transatlantic migration, and did so in a manner which improved the reliability and quality of travel for migrants.

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Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-459-1

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Blaine Branchik

The purpose of this paper is to recount the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry (known today as the cruise industry). This is a unique industry…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to recount the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry (known today as the cruise industry). This is a unique industry that has survived and thrived for almost 175 years despite dramatic environmental changes. This history focuses on passenger shipping in and out of the USA first from/to European ports, later focusing on cruises from the USA to the Caribbean, today’s most popular cruise destination.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adapts the Hollander et al. (2005) approach and incorporates primary data such as fare lists, advertisements and promotional materials, as well as secondary data from a variety of expert works and government reports.

Findings

This study finds that the industry’s marketing history can be divided into six periods or phases: immigration and luxury (mid-nineteenth century to 1914); World War I (1914-1918); tourism, alcohol and luxury (1918-1939); World War II (1939-1946); jet age emergence (1946-1970); and cruising for all (1970 to the present day). Continuing industry growth; increasing focus on new geographic, and every-smaller demographic and psychographic markets; promotional emphasis on cuisine and activities; and positioning as a mass-consumed luxury are trends for the future.

Research limitations/implications

Space constraints limit the information mostly to Europe-to-North America sailings of British and German transatlantic lines early in the paper, and to USA-to-Caribbean cruises in later phases.

Practical implications

This study illustrates how an industry can completely reinvent all elements of its marketing strategy in response to changing social and technological forces. It adds to a growing body of industry marketing histories.

Originality/value

Although much has been written about maritime history, no known work has examined the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry. It augments the growing body of industry-specific marketing histories.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Rong-Her Chiu

The first well-known liner shipping conference was created for the UK/Calcutta trade in 1875. However, the European Union (EU) decided to abolish repeal the liner…

Abstract

Purpose

The first well-known liner shipping conference was created for the UK/Calcutta trade in 1875. However, the European Union (EU) decided to abolish repeal the liner conferences system with effect from October 18 2008. This paper aims to study the governing regulations on shipping conferences in Taiwan along with investigating the impact on the EU to repeal conferences. The regulation on liner conferences in the USA is also briefly referred.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review and questionnaire survey are used to conduct the study. This paper reviews important literature relating to the EU to repeal the conferences system and its impact on liner market competition to/from European trade routes, with discussions on the US and Taiwan regulations on shipping conferences. Questionnaire survey data, collected from published report and this research present shippers’ and carriers’ responses on the changes of regulations on liner conferences.

Findings

Shippers are strongly supporting the repeal of the conferences system. Academic research results basically reveal that the liner market will be more competitive in the trades to/from the USA and the EU after the repeal of the conferences. For Taiwan, its regulations are rather simple and loosely control over the liner conferences; therefore, if the shipping administration intends to enhance the inspection of the agreements of conferences and strategic alliances, more detailed regulations should be prepared, and the provisions of the EU or USA would be a good reference.

Practical implications

Through the discussions on the legal treatments of shipping conferences from the USA, the EU and Taiwan perspectives, this paper provides shipping researchers with not only a clear evolution of the liner conferences but also a deep understanding of the impact to repeal the conferences on liner market competition.

Originality/value

This paper reviews important literature and related legislations on liner conferences including the USA, the EU and Taiwan. The different responses on the EU to repeal the conferences system from shippers and carriers are discussed. The impact on liner market competition is presented.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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