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This article provides a summary of the Health and Safety Executive’s (HSE) work over recent years to address occupational exposure to particulates during the manufacture…
This article provides a summary of the Health and Safety Executive’s (HSE) work over recent years to address occupational exposure to particulates during the manufacture and use of coating powders. It contends, in particular, that many users of coating powders are not controlling exposure to total inhalable particulate (TIP) (i.e. the total inhalable dust in the air from all sources), and that these control issues would exist even if TGIC (triglycidyl isocyanurate) was not being used. TGIC is a curing agent for polyester coating powders which is classified as a Category 2 mutagen. HSE is raising awareness that control of exposure is generally poor whatever powders are being used.
Metallic nickel and four nickel compounds are undergoing a risk assessment in the European Union. The outcomes of this risk assessment may be used for a revision of…
Metallic nickel and four nickel compounds are undergoing a risk assessment in the European Union. The outcomes of this risk assessment may be used for a revision of existing or introduction of new occupational exposure limits (OELs) and environmental quality standards (EQS). This study aimed at determining the impact on the nickel plating industry of reduced nickel OELs and EQS, these should be proposed in the future.
Seven companies involved in nickel plating were visited. These companies were selected to provide a reasonable cross‐section of the UK nickel plating industry.
Concerning occupational exposure it would appear that most companies could comply with a reduced maximum exposure limit (MEL) for soluble nickel of 0.05 mg Ni/m3. There is a need to be better informed on the state‐of‐the‐art monitoring methods for airborne nickel species in the workplace. Companies need to be encouraged to start measuring their workplace exposure levels to build up a realistic database. This can be of value when discussing new proposals for exposure limits. In relation to environmental emissions it was concluded that discharge of residues to landfill sites is becoming more difficult. For emissions to water all companies met their consent limit although a reduction in consent limits would place a burden on many companies. Atmospheric nickel emissions from extraction systems appeared to be of minor importance.
The value of the paper lies in the collection of data during site visits, the cross‐section of nickel plating industry studied and the identification of further needs. All data and information presented in this study were collected during site visits and discussions with the operators and managers involved. The 16 companies visited provided a reasonable cross‐section of the UK nickel plating industry which is demonstrated with a discussion of the process information. The paper clearly identifies the areas where further actions are needed.
Aims to examine the impact of health and safety legislationemanating from the European Community and to analyse what effect, ifany, it will have on British occupational…
Aims to examine the impact of health and safety legislation emanating from the European Community and to analyse what effect, if any, it will have on British occupational health and safety law. An examination of the social action programmes shows that the pace of change has increased rapidly since the Single European Act was incorporated into the Treaty of Rome and became operative from July 1987. Because of rapid changes that are occurring on a broad front there was a need to be selective. Emphasizes to some extent, therefore, the construction industry because it would appear that European legislation is likely to have a major impact on British law and practice in this industry.
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate best approaches for facility radon management in a resource-limited environment such as a public university. Radon exposures are…
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate best approaches for facility radon management in a resource-limited environment such as a public university. Radon exposures are believed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. However, the degree to which typical indoor radon levels within settings such as the university campus contribute to lung cancer risk is controversial. The authors sought to develop a risk-balancing approach to safe and cost-efficient facility radon management.
The authors collected pilot monitoring data to determine radon activity levels at a large public university within a projected high-radon region of the southeastern USA, then reviewed scientific literature, trade literature and regulatory guidance to determine radon risk knowledge and best practices for mitigation. From this body of data and information, the authors determined the safest and most resource-effective means for campus radon management.
The developed program for comprehensive radon management included guidance on building selection for most effective use of monitoring, tiered response and mitigation strategies based on radon activity levels and faculty, staff and student education.
The radon management strategies might not be generalizable to facilities with usage patterns that differ from a public university, and should be extrapolated with caution.
This paper shows how building managers can address indoor radon in a manner that maximizes both safety and cost-efficiency.
This paper fulfills a need for evidence-based and prudent approaches to radon management for campuses with mixed residential, educational and occupational contexts and limited resources.
Aims to: familiarize the audience with the potentially seriousconsequences of exposure to lead and ways of preventing them; facilitateunderstanding of how massive…
Aims to: familiarize the audience with the potentially serious consequences of exposure to lead and ways of preventing them; facilitate understanding of how massive environmental contamination with lead occurred, and is still happening, with the expectation that this knowledge will be useful in designing strategies to reduce environmental contamination with lead and other toxic substances, in the future; emphasizes the relevance of lead to the subject‐matter of virtually every department in schools of arts and sciences in anticipation that some instructors will incorporate this information into their respective courses to increase their students′ awareness of this topic. Discusses some of the properties and uses of lead and its compounds and then indicates its ubiquitous presence in air, water, soil, dust and food. Considers some effects of exposure to lead and describes some pivotal contributions of various researchers. Explores the role of lead in history, in literature and in art. Briefly surveys occupational exposure to lead in the USA and elsewhere. Describes the reasons for, and consequences of, lead in petrol and in paint. Summarizes an outstanding paper on the topic of values and lead. Finally, based on an examination of a portion of the voluminous literature on lead, offers some opinions on this subject.
The purpose of this paper is to explore inhalation levels and dermal exposure to toluene among printing workers who wore no personal protective equipment; it is conducted…
The purpose of this paper is to explore inhalation levels and dermal exposure to toluene among printing workers who wore no personal protective equipment; it is conducted in a plastic bag factory. Using a charcoal cloth pad (CCP) as a dermal sampler to assess skin permeation of liquid toluene is also investigated.
In total, 27 stationary air samples as well as urine and dermal samples were collected over 9 days from 11 printing workers. Six pieces of CCP were wrapped on each of the workers’ fingers for the dermal sample collection. Air samples were collected and analyzed according to NIOSH No. 1501, and 65 post-shift urine samples were collected and analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with headspace sampler (GC-HS/FID). Multiple linear regression was employed to analyze the association between the studied variables.
The mean (SD) urinary toluene (UTol) level was 13.42 (9.72) ug/L. Toluene on the CCP (TolCCP) was a meaningful predictor for UTol (p-value=0.027) with r and r2 values of 0.441 and 0.195, respectively. The r and r2 of the model using the toluene time-weighted average concentrations in air were 0.739 and 0.546, respectively. The absorbed dose of toluene determined from the TolCCP ranged from 1.05 to 91.94 mg, accounting for 12.3 percent of the threshold limit value (TLV).
Dermal exposure was insignificant when workers wore respirators, but when not, dermal absorption could contribute to the overall uptake and exposure above the TLV. Appropriate gloves should be assigned to the workers to reduce dermal exposure to toluene.