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Article

Hugh Kingsley

Understandings of administrative practice do not seem to reflect the current status of administrative practice, and when administrative practice is conceptualised as an…

Abstract

Understandings of administrative practice do not seem to reflect the current status of administrative practice, and when administrative practice is conceptualised as an iceberg it becomes clear that much of this knowledge was derived through the application of the research method structured observational studies. However, argues that the application of this research method in an unstructured form is where greater insights and more current knowledge of administrative practice can be gained.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Wendi Cross and Jennifer West

The positive outcomes demonstrated in programme efficacy trials and the apparent ineffectiveness of programmes in community settings have prompted investigators and…

Abstract

The positive outcomes demonstrated in programme efficacy trials and the apparent ineffectiveness of programmes in community settings have prompted investigators and practitioners to examine implementation fidelity. Critically important, but often overlooked, are the implementers who deliver evidence‐based programmes. This article distinguishes fidelity at the programme level from implementer fidelity. Two components of implementer fidelity are defined. It is proposed that implementer adherence and competence are related but unique constructs that can be reliably measured for training, monitoring and outcomes research. Observational measures from a school‐based preventive intervention are used to illustrate the contributions of implementer adherence and competence. Distinguishing implementer adherence to the manual from competence in programme delivery is the next step in child mental health programme implementation research.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article

Evert Gummesson

To bring to the fore, the importance of observational methods in research in marketing.

Abstract

Purpose

To bring to the fore, the importance of observational methods in research in marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis and reflective comments based on experience of the use of qualitative methods.

Findings

Research in marketing tends to stick to mainstream, verbal methods (words and numbers) which do not give deep enough access to marketing reality. As the bulk of communication is non‐verbal more use of observation, researcher involvement and direct experience is called for.

Research limitations/implications

Recommended use of more observational methods among researchers in marketing.

Practical implications

Closer access to marketing reality provided by observational methods can offer practitioners better market data and better marketing models and theory and thus an improved base for decisions and action.

Originality/value

Especially, to put demand on academic researchers and market research institutes to offer insights that go beyond mere words and numbers.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Jamie S. Walton

The need for random assignment in sexual offending programme evaluation is clear. Decades of high dependence on weak-inference methodology, that of observational studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The need for random assignment in sexual offending programme evaluation is clear. Decades of high dependence on weak-inference methodology, that of observational studies, has inhibited professional agreement regarding the effects of programmes. Observational studies have a place in evaluation research when more rigorous scientific designs precede them, as occurs in neighbouring fields of drug development and health. If, however, observational studies remain the only method used to evaluate sexual offending programmes, the field will continue to endure uncertainty with confident causal inferences regarding their effects remaining elusive. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a literature review and discussion.

Findings

The case for random assignment is made alongside a rebuttal of arguments against their use.

Originality/value

This is an original look at the need for random assignment in sexual offending programme evaluation taking into account existing studies and discussion topics.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Abstract

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Mounir Kehal

The post-globalization epoch has placed academic institutions internationally in competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and capable decisions have come to…

Abstract

Purpose

The post-globalization epoch has placed academic institutions internationally in competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and capable decisions have come to provide the comparative edge. Academia has turned to explicit – and even conceptualizing on tacit – knowledge management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the intellectual capital needed to succeed, in response to the employment market demand for its products. To be able to do that, you must be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows. The use of web-based technologies in academic institutions for their diverse practices has been widespread in colleges and universities for several decades. These applications include surveying stakeholders, assessing classes, reporting on faculty development and assurance of learning (AoL) data to mention a few. Further advances have led to the integration of applications that not only enable the sharing of knowledge but which also support the reporting requirements necessary to obtain and retain accreditation, for example; likewise, satisfy the supply of intellectual capital to the employment marketplace. The purpose of this paper is to portray the relationship between AoL and accreditations at large in business schools, with the particular articulation of a modus operandi and relevant model that could facilitate curriculum improvement likewise.

Design/methodology/approach

Observational research (or field research) is a type of correlational (i.e. non-experimental) research in which a researcher observes ongoing behavior. There are a variety of types of observational research, each of which has both strengths and weaknesses. A select set of business schools and leading accreditation agencies have been observed and reported upon in pertinence with the expected practices and modus operandi toward assuring learning.

Findings

The use of web-based technologies in academic institutions for their diverse practices has been widespread in colleges and universities for several decades. These applications include surveying stakeholders, assessing classes, reporting on faculty development and AoL data to mention a few. Further advances have led to the integration of applications that not only enable the sharing of knowledge but which also support the reporting requirements necessary to obtain and retain accreditation; likewise, satisfy the supply of intellectual capital to the employment marketplace. In this paper, the author aims to portray the relationship between AoL and assessment at large with real-life examples and approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Observational research types are organized by the extent to which an experimenter intrudes upon or controls the environment. Observational research is particularly prevalent in the social sciences. It is a social research technique that involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting. This differentiates it from experimental research in which a quasi-artificial environment is created to control for spurious factors, and where at least one of the variables is manipulated as part of the experiment. Henceforth, other research methods may be engaged in to quantify and investigate the phenomenon of AoL vs international practices reported upon as per internal and external forces acting on business schools.

Practical implications

The diversity of approaches followed by business schools and encouraged by accreditations agencies is immense and at times may be connected to the choices such schools make as to how they ought to measure the learning curves of their constituents. Herein, a practical AoL approach is transcribed, as liaised with assessment and evaluation data.

Social implications

Academia has turned to explicit – and even conceptualizing on tacit – knowledge management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the intellectual capital needed to succeed, in response to the employment market demand for its academic products and services. To be able to do that, you must be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows.

Originality/value

This research is conceptualized upon as per the international standards and expectations from the field with an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business framework in mind and aims to link AoL to curriculum management and through e-Assessment in a practical manner.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article

Jonathan Boote and Ann Mathews

In comparison to other techniques of data collection, observation rarely appears as a research methodology in the marketing literature: this may be because the technique…

Abstract

In comparison to other techniques of data collection, observation rarely appears as a research methodology in the marketing literature: this may be because the technique is regarded as time‐consuming or as delivering data which lack the depth and qualitative richness of other research methodologies. In this article, the authors attempt to demonstrate that this is not the case. Far from providing superficial, “thin” information, the case forming the basis of this study demonstrates that observation delivers data which cannot be obtained using any other method. Considers the use of observation as an exploratory, qualitative, research technique and discusses when its use is appropriate. The main focus of the paper is a study carried out for Whitbread plc to highlight micro issues for consideration in the siting of different restaurant concepts.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Ruth Strudwick

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the tensions between being covert and overt during ethnographic observations. The example of an ethnographic study of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the tensions between being covert and overt during ethnographic observations. The example of an ethnographic study of the culture in a diagnostic imaging department will be used to provide examples.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a reflection on an ethnographic study, focussing on the participant observation.

Findings

This paper discusses the author’s reflections on the covert and overt nature of ethnographic observation.

Originality/value

The discussion is of value to all ethnographic researchers who experience this tension.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

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Article

Joanne Mackellar

The purpose of this paper is to review the techniques involved in participant observation and to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the method as related to event research.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the techniques involved in participant observation and to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the method as related to event research.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the literature examines applications of the research method and discusses the steps of the research cycle. Using the example of the Swell Sculpture Festival, participant observation is demonstrated to be a highly appropriate method to gather data on interactions and relationships through the recording of behaviour, conversation and experience in situ.

Findings

Participant observation has been used to inform the development of management strategies, including management of crowd behavior, public risk and safety.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that methods of participant observation can be used to gain a deeper understanding of social dynamics of audiences and the affective dimensions of their behaviour. It is suggested that the method is highly appropriate to the context of event environments, where the use of surveys can interrupt the flow of the event experience for audiences, or be made impossible by the structure of the event.

Practical implications

The case study demonstrates the application of the methodology by event managers to gaining a better understanding of audience behaviour and expectations.

Originality/value

The methods of participant observation, as part of the broader qualitative research paradigm, are somewhat neglected by event researchers, despite their utility in other disciplines such as retail, education and tourism. This paper highlights the potential of the method for use in future studies of events and their audiences.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Book part

Melissa Cox Norris

Why does the idea of marketing generate such negative reactions from many in the academic library world? Research on the word “marketing” in the Oxford English Dictionary…

Abstract

Why does the idea of marketing generate such negative reactions from many in the academic library world? Research on the word “marketing” in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) reveals that usage of the term can be traced back to 1561 when it meant simply “to buy or sell” (Oxford English Dictionary, 2004, http://dictionary.oed.com/). As early as 1884, the meaning began to change to “bringing or sending (a commodity) to market,” which encompasses not just the selling of a product, but the “systematic study of all the factors involved in marketing a product” (Oxford English Dictionary, 2004, http://dictionary.oed.com/). Is it the idea of “selling” that offends so many in libraries? Or do some dislike the suggestion of libraries having “products” much as companies do?

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-338-9

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