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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2022

Liangzhi Yu

This study aims to investigate how understanding of objective knowledge (as defined by Karl Popper) is experienced by the knowledge recipient and the role that information…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how understanding of objective knowledge (as defined by Karl Popper) is experienced by the knowledge recipient and the role that information plays in such understanding.

Design/methodology/approach

Husserl's phenomenological approach is applied to a sample of undergraduate students' lived experiences of understanding, collected through diaries and interviews.

Findings

This study finds that understanding of certain objective knowledge develops as the knowledge appears and eventually gives itself to consciousness through the information conveying it; different degrees of givenness of the knowledge in consciousness is experienced by the mind as different levels of understanding; a relatively solid understanding is achieved when the knowledge emerges as an erected knowledge-object in consciousness. Understanding of complex objective knowledge requires not only adequate amount (dose) of information but also corroboration of manifold information sources and formats.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study apply to the understanding of objective knowledge as defined by Popper. Further research is needed to examine other types of understanding.

Practical implications

This study informs educators and LIS professionals the typical phases in the lived experience of understanding objective knowledge, and the role of information in facilitating the understanding; it urges the two professions to take such experience into consideration when designing courses and information products/services, respectively.

Originality/value

Drawing on Husserl's phenomenological approach, this study provides an intuitive account of understanding of objective knowledge, and clarifies a number of conceptual confusions within LIS concerning understanding. It may also have some cross-disciplinary relevance for reflecting education objectives and explaining the Aha! experience in psychology.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2007

Frederic Carluer

“It should also be noted that the objective of convergence and equal distribution, including across under-performing areas, can hinder efforts to generate growth

Abstract

“It should also be noted that the objective of convergence and equal distribution, including across under-performing areas, can hinder efforts to generate growth. Contrariwise, the objective of competitiveness can exacerbate regional and social inequalities, by targeting efforts on zones of excellence where projects achieve greater returns (dynamic major cities, higher levels of general education, the most advanced projects, infrastructures with the heaviest traffic, and so on). If cohesion policy and the Lisbon Strategy come into conflict, it must be borne in mind that the former, for the moment, is founded on a rather more solid legal foundation than the latter” European Commission (2005, p. 9)Adaptation of Cohesion Policy to the Enlarged Europe and the Lisbon and Gothenburg Objectives.

Details

Managing Conflict in Economic Convergence of Regions in Greater Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-451-5

Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Leonard Stokes

This study examines 117 verbs associated with 2,872 learning objectives, and 377 questions taken from 24 textbooks across the accounting curriculum. To determine the level…

Abstract

This study examines 117 verbs associated with 2,872 learning objectives, and 377 questions taken from 24 textbooks across the accounting curriculum. To determine the level of cognitive ability associated with the individual learning objectives I analyzed the verbs based upon Bloom's Taxonomy. To reach across the accounting curriculum I chose texts from Financial Accounting, Intermediate Financial Accounting, Advanced Financial Accounting, Managerial Accounting, Cost Accounting, and Auditing. Results of the analysis found that the authors used verbs at the lower learning levels of the cognitive domain. The verbs used by the author teams depend upon individual preference rather a specific segment of the cognitive domain. In addition, as the student progresses through the accounting curriculum some topics in upper level textbooks use learning objectives at the same level as in introductory level textbooks.

Details

Advances in Accounting Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-519-2

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2022

Kadir Dönmez

This study aims to evaluate the performance of the most popular multi-objective programming scalarization methods in the literature for the aircraft sequencing and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the performance of the most popular multi-objective programming scalarization methods in the literature for the aircraft sequencing and scheduling problem (ASSP). These methods are the weighted sum method, weighted goal programming, the ε-constraint method, the elastic constraint method, weighted Tchebycheff and augmented weighted Tchebycheff.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the ASSP for a single runway case was modeled using mixed-integer programming considering the safety and operational constraints and the objectives of the minimization of total delay and total flight time for a sample airport. The objectives were then combined by using the multi-objective programming scalarization methods and various expected times of arrival–departure samples were run for the mathematical models. Finally, the methods were evaluated in terms of the number of nondominated solutions, superior nondominated solution and the average solution time using the Measurement of Alternatives and Ranking according to Compromise Solution method, which is a popular multi-criteria decision-making method.

Findings

Augmented Weighted Tchebycheff was found to be the most effective approach to ASSP in terms of the evaluation criteria followed by Weighted Tchebycheff and then weighted sum method.

Practical implications

The methodology presented in this study could provide more efficient air traffic management in terminal maneuvering areas when multiple objectives need to be optimized.

Originality/value

Although there are studies including the comparison of several scalarization methods for other problems, the comparison of the methods for ASSP has not yet been handled in the literature. As there are several stakeholders in the air traffic system, ASSP includes several objectives, and as a result, this problem can benefit from analyses using this comparison.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 May 2017

Amitava Mitra

Processes, in practice, may involve more than one quality characteristic that are of interest. It is quite possible for such quality characteristics to not be independent…

Abstract

Processes, in practice, may involve more than one quality characteristic that are of interest. It is quite possible for such quality characteristics to not be independent of each other since the magnitude of one of the characteristics may influence the magnitude of the other characteristics. Under this setting, it is of interest to determine the optimal settings of the process parameters (usually the process mean and the process standard deviation of each quality characteristic) under various objectives. Some of the objectives may be conflicting to each other. In general, it may be possible for the decision-maker to prioritize the objectives. Using such a prioritized scheme, it is of interest to determine the optimal settings of the process mean and standard deviation for each quality characteristic that is being monitored. Such solutions could be labeled as “satisficing” solutions. Sensitivity analyses of the decision variables to the chosen objectives and parameter values are also investigated.

Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Richard D. Waters, Zifei Fay Chen and Lorena Gomez-Barris

Strategists long have advocated for incorporation of SMART objectives into communication campaigns but have failed to consider diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) as…

Abstract

Strategists long have advocated for incorporation of SMART objectives into communication campaigns but have failed to consider diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) as essential components. While the five elements of specificity, measurement, audience, realism, and time provide direction for the organization's success, non-DEI thinking often leads to unidirectional messaging which harms stakeholders and ultimately, organizations. By adopting SMART + IE objectives, campaign planners can ground the five SMART components with conversations about inclusion and equity so that the organization–public relationship does not become one-sided. Shifting from organization-centric efforts to socially responsible ones not only recognize traditionally marginalized community stakeholders, but it lifts their voices and participation in public relations programming. Incorporating DEI thinking as an organic element of the SMART + IE mindset could result in authentic action for moving public relations practice forward.

Details

Public Relations for Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-168-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Pingjun Jiang and Bert Rosenbloom

This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences…

Abstract

Purpose

This research reviews numerous studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external search in conventional marketing channels to investigate differences among these studies that have produced conflicting results. The findings provide a benchmark for future researchers and practitioners seeking to gain insight into consumer information search processes unfolding in the new environment of online, mobile, and social networking channels.

Methodology

A meta-analysis of an extensive array of empirical studies of the relationship between consumer knowledge and external information search was conducted. Regression analysis was used to test whether certain characteristics in the studies can explain variability in the effect sizes in which effect sizes are entered as dependent variables and moderators as independent variables.

Findings

Objective and subjective knowledge tend to increase search, while direct experience tends to reduce search. Consumers with higher objective knowledge search more when pursuing credence products. However, they search relatively less when pursuing search products. Consumers with higher subjective knowledge are much more likely to search in the context of experience products, but as is the case for objective knowledge having little effect on search for experience products, subjective knowledge has no significant effect on information seeking for search products. In addition, objective knowledge facilitates more information search in a complex decision-making context while higher subjective knowledge fosters more external information search in a simple decision-marketing context. Finally, the findings indicate that the knowledge search relationship reflects strong linkage in the pre-Internet era.

Originality

Relatively little is known about how the relationship between knowledge and information search varies across different types of products in simple or complex decision-making contexts. This study begins to fill this gap by providing insight into the relative importance of objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, and direct experience in influencing consumer information search activities for search, experience, and credence products in simple or complex decision-making contexts.

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2022

Fran Sérgio Lobato, Gustavo Barbosa Libotte and Gustavo Mendes Platt

In this work, the multi-objective optimization shuffled complex evolution is proposed. The algorithm is based on the extension of shuffled complex evolution, by…

Abstract

Purpose

In this work, the multi-objective optimization shuffled complex evolution is proposed. The algorithm is based on the extension of shuffled complex evolution, by incorporating two classical operators into the original algorithm: the rank ordering and crowding distance. In order to accelerate the convergence process, a Local Search strategy based on the generation of potential candidates by using Latin Hypercube method is also proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

The multi-objective optimization shuffled complex evolution is used to accelerate the convergence process and to reduce the number of objective function evaluations.

Findings

In general, the proposed methodology was able to solve a classical mechanical engineering problem with different characteristics. From a statistical point of view, we demonstrated that differences may exist between the proposed methodology and other evolutionary strategies concerning two different metrics (convergence and diversity), for a class of benchmark functions (ZDT functions).

Originality/value

The development of a new numerical method to solve multi-objective optimization problems is the major contribution.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Edyta Rudawska and Sanda Renko

The contemporary business world has been facing mounting criticism for quite a long time. The accusations relate to the short-sightedness of business decisions, strategies…

Abstract

The contemporary business world has been facing mounting criticism for quite a long time. The accusations relate to the short-sightedness of business decisions, strategies oriented solely to profit-making, hostile takeovers, a focus on cost reduction, employee redundancies, etc. This has led to a decline in trust towards business executives, as shown, for example, by the 2016 GfK Trust Index based on research conducted in 27 countries, including 13 European ones. According to the survey, managers and entrepreneurs are ranked 22nd out of 32 professions analysed (Trust in Professions, 2016). This relatively low level of trust in business managers, coupled with the new challenges created by a changing business environment which managers must cope with in order to stay in the market, means that contemporary companies have to change. Corporations are increasingly being challenged as to their function in society. Entrepreneurs must face the challenges connected not only with increasing competition or the development of new technologies, but also growing social expectations. This means that companies today must be managed not only effectively, but also responsibly. This chapter will present the findings of research on the place of sustainability marketing activities in the system of goals for contemporary organizations. To begin with, market trends will be discussed, which in today’s world to the greatest extent influence the marketing strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises in the food and drink sector, as well as the challenges such companies face nowadays. Next, a change in the significance of the strategic goals that these companies set for themselves will be discussed. The final part of the chapter will focus on sustainability aspects in the strategies adopted by SMEs.

Details

The Sustainable Marketing Concept in European SMEs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-039-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2019

John N. Moye

This chapter presents five differentiated models of curriculum, each designed with templates created from learning theories. The discipline of distributed leadership is…

Abstract

Chapter Summary

This chapter presents five differentiated models of curriculum, each designed with templates created from learning theories. The discipline of distributed leadership is chosen to develop a cognition-based curriculum, a behavior-based curriculum, a performance-based curriculum, a values-based curriculum, and collectively arranged into a competency-based curriculum. The research literature frames the attributes of a competency-based curriculum on psychological competence.

In this chapter, curricula are developed to demonstrate the process of adapting theories of learning, instruction, and environment into design templates with which to differentiate the dimensions and components of a curriculum. In these curricula, multiple conceptual frameworks are employed to translate the content and structure of the discipline into instructional objectives, instructional engagement, instructional experience, and instructional environment to align the instructional processes with the intended learning. For these demonstrations, the discipline of organizational leadership is chosen due to the multidimensional structure of this discipline and the opportunities it presents to differentiate the curriculum and learning. Each component of the curriculum adapts an appropriate framework to align and interconnect the instructional processes into an optimized learning experience. The result is curricula that have a coherent flow horizontally across the components for each outcome as well as interconnectedness vertically between the outcomes. This approach creates coherence, alignment, and interconnectedness to the curricula and order to the learning process for the learners.

This methodology is applied to design the curriculum for five instructional modules. Module 1 focuses on dualistic thinking developed through a cognition-based curriculum. Module 2 presents a multiplistic learning experience through a behavior-based curriculum. Module 3 presents relativistic learning through a performance-based curriculum. Module 4 delivers complex learning through a values-based curriculum. Module 5 compiles these four modules into a competency-based curriculum model.

Each of these modules employs a unique set of theories to configure the components of the curricula to reflect the structure of each discipline. The use of each theory is explained and demonstrated in the design process.

Details

Learning Differentiated Curriculum Design in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-117-4

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