Search results

1 – 10 of over 179000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 November 2021

Mohammad Mahdi Ershadi and Mohamad Sajad Ershadi

Appropriate logistic planning for the pharmaceutical supply chain can significantly improve many financial and performance aspects. To this aim, a multi-objective

Abstract

Purpose

Appropriate logistic planning for the pharmaceutical supply chain can significantly improve many financial and performance aspects. To this aim, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed in this paper that considers different types of pharmaceuticals, different vehicles with determining capacities and multi-period logistic planning. This model can be updated based on new information about resources and newly identified requests.

Design/methodology/approach

The main objective function of the proposed model in this paper is minimizing the unsatisfied prioritized requests for pharmaceuticals in the network. Besides, the total transportation activities of different types of vehicles and related costs are considered as other objectives. Therefore, these objectives are optimized hierarchically in the proposed model using the Lexicographic method. This method finds the best value for the first objective function. Then, it tries to optimize the second objective function while maintaining the optimality of the first objective function. The third objective function is optimized based on the optimality of other objective functions, as well. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II-multi-objective particle swarm optimization heuristic method is designed for this aim.

Findings

The performances of the proposed model were analyzed in different cases and its results for different problems were shown within the framework of a case study. Besides, the sensitivity analysis of results shows the logical behavior of the proposed model against various factors.

Practical implications

The proposed methodology can be applied to find the best logistic plan in real situations.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors have tried to use a multi-objective optimization model to guide and correct the pharmaceutical supply chain to deal with the related requests. This is important because it can help managers to improve their plans.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Billy Sung, Nicole Hartley, Eric Vanman and Reyhane Hooshmand

The paper aims to examine whether (1) deviation of design (i.e. objective design newness) is distinct to consumers' perception of design newness (i.e. subjective design…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine whether (1) deviation of design (i.e. objective design newness) is distinct to consumers' perception of design newness (i.e. subjective design newness) and (2) subjective design newness rather than objective design newness evokes the emotion of interest and enhances product evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

In total five sets of quasi-experiments were conducted on the natural manipulations of design newness. Specifically, the first four studies examine consumers' perception of design newness, feeling-of-interest and product evaluation toward old and new Apple's iOS (i.e., iPhone OS) icons when a new Apple's iOS is released. The fifth study generalized the findings to the new design of XiaoMi MiPhone.

Findings

Across five quasi-experimental studies, the authors found that (1) consumers do not necessarily perceive an objectively new design to be subjectively new; (2) subjective design newness, but not objective design newness, evokes interest and (3) interest, in turn, enhances product evaluation and behavioral intention toward an innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The current finding extended the current literature on design newness by demonstrating that subjective (vs objective) design newness provides a more holistic account of consumers' interest and positive product evaluation toward the innovations.

Practical implications

The research showed that simply updating or altering the design of a product does not evoke consumers' perception of design newness and positive product evaluation. Instead, designer and managers must explore ways to evoke consumers' perception of novelty, complexity, unfamiliarity, atypicality and difference. Furthermore, the current finding demonstrated that subjective design newness can be used to evoke consumer interest and, therefore, result in positive purchase evaluation.

Originality/value

The current research is the first to examine (1) the difference between objective and subjective design newness, (2) the emotional response toward design newness and (3) the emotion of interest as a mediator that explain the strong relationship between design newness and positive product evaluation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Kazhal Gharibi and Sohrab Abdollahzadeh

To maximize the network total profit by calculating the difference between costs and revenue (first objective function). To maximize the positive impact on the environment…

Abstract

Purpose

To maximize the network total profit by calculating the difference between costs and revenue (first objective function). To maximize the positive impact on the environment by integrating GSCM factors in RL (second objective function). To calculate the efficiency of disassembly centers by SDEA method, which are selected as suppliers and maximize the total efficiency (third objective function). To evaluate the resources and total efficiency of the proposed model to facilitate the allocation resource process, to increase resource efficiency and to improve the efficiency of disassembly centers by Inverse DEA.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of a closed-loop logistics network for after-sales service for mobile phones and digital cameras has been developed by the mixed-integer linear programming method (MILP). Development of MILP method has been performed by simultaneously considering three main objectives including: total network profit, green supply chain factors (environmental sustainability) and maximizing the efficiency of disassembly centers. The proposed model of study is a six-level, multi-objective, single-period and multi-product that focuses on electrical waste. The efficiency of product return centers is calculated by SDEA method and the most efficient centers are selected.

Findings

The results of using the model in a case mining showed that, due to the use of green factors in network design, environmental pollution and undesirable disposal of some electronic waste were reduced. Also, with the reduction of waste disposal, valuable materials entered the market cycle and the network profit increased.

Originality/value

(1) Design a closed-loop reverse logistics network for after-sales services; (2) Introduce a multi-objective multi-echelon mixed integer linear programming model; (3) Sensitivity analysis use Inverse-DEA method to increase the efficiency of inefficient units; (4) Use the GSC factors and DEA method in reverse logistics network.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Aija Liisa Laitinen, Tanja Tilles-Tirkkonen, Leila Karhunen and Sanna Talvia

The importance of food education in primary schools has been globally recognised. However, more detailed definitions of its learning objectives are rarely found. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of food education in primary schools has been globally recognised. However, more detailed definitions of its learning objectives are rarely found. The study aimed to define multisectoral themes and learning objectives for food education in primary education in Finland.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive three-round Delphi study was conducted with experts in food education in various organisations. In the first questionnaire, the participants were asked to define possible objectives for food education related to general objectives for basic education. Respondents of the first questionnaire formed a research panel (n = 22). These panellists were then invited to complete the second (n = 16) and third questionnaires (n = 12), where the objectives were further modified. Qualitative content analysis and Bloom's taxonomy were applied in the process of creating the learning objectives.

Findings

In the iterative process, 42 learning objectives for food education in primary schools were defined. Further, “Sustainability and ethics of food systems” was defined as the cross-cutting theme of food education. In addition, 13 subthemes were defined, which fell into three thematic categories: personal (e.g. feelings), practical (e.g. eating) and intangible (e.g. culture) issues.

Originality/value

The defined learning objectives for a holistic food education may be used in advancing primary school curriculum in Finland and perhaps other countries.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Serdal Temel, Anne-Laure Mention and Alp Eren Yurtseven

Embracing a large set of innovation objectives and collaborating with diverse partners have been promoted as a means to improve innovation performance. However, empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

Embracing a large set of innovation objectives and collaborating with diverse partners have been promoted as a means to improve innovation performance. However, empirical evidence on the relationships between breadth of objectives, breadth of cooperation and innovation performance is limited, particularly in the context of emerging economies. A larger number of objectives and cooperation partners inevitably increases the complexity in organizational alignment, and cooperation eventually leads to diminishing returns. This study adds to the debate on the costs and benefits of cooperation for innovation. Understanding the optimal levels of the breadth of objectives and cooperation supports managerial decision-making and productivity in the practice of cooperation for innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

Operationalizing breadth of innovation objectives and cooperation via the Turkish Community Innovation Survey data, self-reports reflecting 5,863 firm-level responses between 2006 and 2008 are analysed using tobit and probit models. The maximum likelihood estimator is used to find the optimal levels for breadth of objectives and cooperation.

Findings

Firms with greater breadth of innovation objectives experience higher innovation performance; those with greater breadth of cooperation also experience higher innovation performance, but our results indicate the existence of optimal levels of breadth for both innovation objectives and cooperation.

Research limitations/implications

The authors extend the logic that there is no safety in numbers in cooperation for innovation. If the aim is to enhance innovation performance, managers and policymakers need to pay attention to the number of innovation objectives and the amount of cooperation pursued by firms. However, innovation success may be closely associated with a firm's dynamic capabilities and ability to mobilize its resources. Drawing on organizational learning theories, future research could explore why a lower than maximum level of cooperation may be more conducive to reaching levels of enhanced innovation performance and whether this level is influenced by cognitive processes.

Originality/value

The authors draw attention to the ideal number of innovation objectives and number of cooperating partners required to enhance innovation performance, thus contributing to the debate on the complex relationships between innovation, performance and cooperation in the unique setting of a large developing economy.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Kim Shyan Fam

The present study considers how clothing and shoe retailers in New Zealand, Portugal and Hungary manage promotion campaigns and looks at the objectives that are most…

Downloads
3224

Abstract

The present study considers how clothing and shoe retailers in New Zealand, Portugal and Hungary manage promotion campaigns and looks at the objectives that are most important to these retailers as well as the marketing activities that are undertaken to reach these objectives. Change‐of‐season sales are found to be the most frequently used sales type by the retailers studied and these sales are linked with objectives of moving a volume of stock and activities such as co‐ordination of media across all forms. Secondary sales types include Christmas and general sales, and these are linked with other promotional objectives and activities such as increasing profit and dollar sales, and stock management.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Vaidyanathan Jayaraman

There have been numerous extensions of the maximum covering location problem that has been developed in the last decade to deal with facility location. Most of the…

Downloads
1819

Abstract

There have been numerous extensions of the maximum covering location problem that has been developed in the last decade to deal with facility location. Most of the research, however, addresses a single attribute or objective. In the case when a single criterion such as minimizing average response time to access a service facility is insufficient to address the interests of the decision maker, multiple objectives must be employed. Qualitative factors like customer service and market demand as well as quantitative factors like distribution and operating costs need to be appropriately weighted and used in a mathematical programming model. We develop a multi‐objective model for a service facility location problem that simultaneously sites facilities and allocates demand for products from different customer zones. We apply this model to “real‐world” data and show the practical advantages of using this model to solve capacitated service logistics problems.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Graham Kenny

This article seeks to review how objectives are conventionally designed for organizations before detailing a new and proven approach based on the author's many years of

Downloads
7632

Abstract

Purpose

This article seeks to review how objectives are conventionally designed for organizations before detailing a new and proven approach based on the author's many years of research and consulting experience. The practical situation on which the article aims to focus is strategic planning, a process in which CEOs, middle managers and directors on boards find themselves frequently involved.

Design/methodology/approach

The outlined objective‐setting methodology is the result of more than two decades of action research. The author has worked with organizations across all sectors – private, public and not‐for‐profit – to develop meaningful and measurable objectives during the course of designing their strategic plans.

Findings

Most organizations flounder when it comes to objective setting. They come up with lists of objectives that are a mixture of quantified and non‐quantified items or restatements of mission, vision and values; they are often vague and general and are assembled as one undifferentiated block, i.e. not segmented according to an organization's key stakeholders. No wonder managers find the conventional process of objective‐setting both frustrating and ineffective. In contrast, the author has found that the approach outlined in this article engages participants and produces clear and measurable outcomes.

Originality/value

Organizations in all sectors – business, government and not‐for‐profit – can benefit greatly by re‐thinking their current practices and changing the way they go about designing their objectives. The approach outlined herein has solved many conceptual and practical problems managers face and led to the design of organization objectives that really shape precise strategies.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Stella Banyana Mosimege and Tyanai Masiya

Many developing countries such as South Africa have been introducing measurement of results to improve public service delivery. The practice of development of performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Many developing countries such as South Africa have been introducing measurement of results to improve public service delivery. The practice of development of performance measures in the public service emanates from pressure exerted by citizens who are calling for more efficiency and effectiveness in delivering services. This article examines the implementation of the audit of pre-determined objectives at the Department of Basic Education (DBE).

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a qualitative case study approach. Secondary sources of data were used in order to analyse the DBE's challenges in managing performance information. Key secondary documents used include the AGSA annual audit reports as well as the DBE 2010/11–2014/15 Strategic Plan and Annual Performance Plans (APP) that provide the pre-determined objectives selected by the Department to measure performance for the five-year period.

Findings

The findings indicate that there are shortcomings in the processes of managing performance information. Based on the findings, it is incumbent upon the senior management of the DBE to strive towards understanding and improving their oversight roles and responsibilities in the management of pre-determined objectives.

Originality/value

The study generates a deeper understanding of what has been happening when pre-determined objectives were developed, reported or assessed in the DBE. This will assist the Department and similar public institutions to make further improvements in order to achieve pre-determined objectives.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

Tony Manning

The purpose of this paper is to explore why objective setting is often found difficult and consider what to do about it. The paper critically assesses the two main…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore why objective setting is often found difficult and consider what to do about it. The paper critically assesses the two main managerial perspectives on objective setting before summarising evidence-based research on what works. Based on this literature review, the paper develops a contingency model of objective setting. It then describes how to use this model in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a review of the managerial and evidence-based literature on objective setting to develop a contingency model of objective setting. It describes how this model is operationalised by developing a scale to measure the differences between jobs and the situations they operate in. The model is represented diagramatically. Guidance is given on how to use the model in practice.

Findings

Result-centred and process-centred approaches to objective setting are described and critically assessed. Evidence-based research describing the relationship between objective setting and performance is also presented. In general, clear and specific goals that are challenging but realistic have a moderate effect on performance. However, this only holds for straightforward and predictable tasks. When prior knowledge is needed to perform a task or when the task is complex, a general goal, behavioural goal or learning goal is more effective. Parallels between the managerial perspectives and the contrasting situations form the basis of a contingency model of objective setting.

Research limitations/implications

The relevant theory is described and critically examined. This provides useful descriptions of two different ways to go about setting objectives. The conclusions of recent studies and reviews using evidence-based research are described. They establish both what works and when it works. Taken together, these insights provide a foundation on which to develop a contingency model of objective setting.

Practical implications

There is no one right way to set objectives. Different situations require different approaches. It is possible to assess situations and establish the appropriate combination of perspectives. It is then possible to develop an appropriate set of objectives for the situation. Guidance is given on how to use this approach in practice. The overall approach is rooted in theory and evidence-based research.

Social implications

The application of this model in the workplace can help individuals to perform more effectively. It can also help line managers, learning and development specialists, and human resource professionals to help individuals to perform more effectively. In so doing, the model helps organisations to function more effectively. This has wider implications for the economy and society.

Originality/value

The paper is original in that it brings together both management theory and evidence-based research to develop a contingency model of objective setting. This model as a whole and the method of assessing job characteristics are original.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 179000