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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Sam Middlemiss and Margaret Downie

The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse the impact of recent case law on the various evidential requirements in the area of indirect sex and indirect race…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse the impact of recent case law on the various evidential requirements in the area of indirect sex and indirect race discrimination in employment. It is intended to distil from the case law a comprehensive summary of the evidential requirements which an applicant in such a case must meet in order to succeed.

Design/methodology/approach

The evidential issues and the requirements to be fulfilled by an applicant in such cases will be identified and analysed by means of a review of the case law in this area.

Findings

Despite attempts of the courts to clarify the evidential requirements in this type of case, the law in this area remains complicated and confusing. Close analysis of the case law results in the identification and clarification of particular evidential “hurdles” which an applicant must clear in order to succeed.

Originality/value

The effect of these requirements results in a burden on an applicant in a case of indirect discrimination which is difficult to meet and the identification and clarification of the main issues will allow an applicant to focus on these requirements and increase the chances of a successful outcome. In this way the protection afforded by the law on indirect discrimination will become more effective. The findings are also useful in explaining to managers the nature and impact of the case law in this area.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Sarah James

Abstract

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Norizan Mohd Kassim, Mohamad Najdawi, Zeina Al Azmeh and Hissa Sadiq

The purpose of this research is to examine the importance of organizational change involving an implementation of a reform project in a higher learning institution in

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine the importance of organizational change involving an implementation of a reform project in a higher learning institution in Qatar. The project was aimed at enhancing the institution's corporate image and value in its effort to be an institution of choice in the country.

Design/methodological/approach

Based on the results of two separate focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and was then sent to 8,000 respondents. Data from 866 usable questionnaires were analyzed using a rating scale to identify the degree of agreement among the respondents with respect to a number of statements posed to them as well as using an independent‐sample t‐test to determine whether differences exist between male and female students with regards to the statements.

Findings

Results showed that the respondents agreed with all of the statements pertaining to image, value, academic levels, campus life and the reform project carried out by the higher educational institution under study. Academic levels appeared to be extremely important because it is an essential element in building and enriching both the image and the value of the institution and is of particular importance to attract new students. With the enhanced image resulting from the reform project, the institution is moving in the right direction towards becoming an excellent institution which will be sought after by both Qatari and international students.

Practical implications

The implications of this study suggest that the top management needs to consider the identified variables in their effort to boost the image and value of the institution. They should also focus on individual needs in order to implement the changes successfully.

Originality/value

The findings from this study reveal the nature of professional practice in a higher education institution, demonstrates the impact of this work context on practices, and provides concrete strategies for managing organizational change in building and enriching its image and value.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Chung‐ying Cheng

This paper aims to inquire and argue for a renovated model of Confucian political leadership as a way of political governance rooted in a philosophy of humanity and its…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to inquire and argue for a renovated model of Confucian political leadership as a way of political governance rooted in a philosophy of humanity and its potential for development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is primarily critical and constructive through philosophical analysis and synthesis of ideas and insights into nature of man and political leadership in light of Confucian texts and practices.

Findings

Based on reflection and analysis, the classical model of political leadership is shown to consist of core values of virtues and visions in classical Confucianism. By conceptual reconstruction a new Confucian model is formulated in such a way in which ethics of utilities and ethics of justice and righteousness are incorporated. The author further shows how it can be realized in different functions of modernized political and economic leadership. The author finds that this move resulted in achieving an essential transformation toward a more realistic application and practice in a global world.

Practical implications

In so far as the new model deals with a process of normative harmonization in which it can be further enhanced by comprehensive considerations of intrinsic human values and future development of humanity as a whole, this model provides a practical method for meeting the urgent needs on different levels of leadership and management for creative and world‐oriented attitude‐building, policy‐making and strategic seminar‐course designing for graduate and executive training in contemporary business schools.

Originality/value

The author has innovatively constructed the new Confucian model and show how political leadership in this model has the capability and ability to persevere in seeking harmony and harmonization among traditions and nations in the global world. The author has also explained how and why morality when properly supported can be a global leading power for bringing harmony and harmonization to the world. The author has formed a new concept of political leadership force and named it the moral power in addition to but not separated in its persuasion from hard power, soft power and smart power of Joseph Nye. The author's formulation and argument for the new model with its moral power constitute a highly significant contribution to the understanding of Confucian political leadership in contemporary global contexts.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 30 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Mark Butler

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of the key jurisprudence of the European Court and to present the argument that a more conservative approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of the key jurisprudence of the European Court and to present the argument that a more conservative approach is being adopted when considering the objective justification defence in dismissals by reason of retirement.

Design/methodology/approach

A review approach is adopted in the paper, with a primary focus on recent European Court decisions, whilst appreciating existing literature on the position of retirement cases. Attempts were made to draw together the evidence which suggests a shift in approach to objective justification in this context.

Findings

The paper reveals that the approach being adopted in retirement cases appears to be devaluing the age discrimination protections, through allowing individual, subjective reasons to justify less favourable treatment, despite the express wording of the Parent Directive precluding such an approach. It is highlighted that this could have damaging practical implications by placing a much lighter burden on employers when arguing objective justification of retirement dismissals.

Research limitations/implications

The paper's main limitation is that it only considers case law from the European Court, without considering the approach adopted in any of the EU member states, where the eventual approach will be decided. However, this paper provides useful analysis of the approach being adopted in the European Court which is the ultimate interpreter of EU law, whilst questioning whether it is the correct approach.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to examine the shifting approach to objective justification in retirement cases.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

F.T.S. Chan, M.H. Chan, H. Lau and R.W.L. Ip

This paper presents an overview and guidance for manufacturing companies which are preparing to invest in advanced manufacturing technology (AMT). The purpose of this…

Abstract

This paper presents an overview and guidance for manufacturing companies which are preparing to invest in advanced manufacturing technology (AMT). The purpose of this paper is to explain the reasons why the company may encounter problems while adopting AMT, and to look at the many suggestions offered by the relevant literature for improving the performance of evaluation in AMT investment. According to the four major steps in adopting AMT (i.e. strategic planning, justification, training and installation, and routinization and implementation), the research work here aims to assist managers or investors to recognize problems at each step, thus offering appropriate ways to avoid and/or solve those problems. It is believed that improved justification methods will encourage more firms to invest in AMT and to realize the benefits these investments can offer.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Jean L. Noble

Because computer‐integrated manufacturing is a complex, high‐risk investment that is difficult to cost justify, many companies have refrained from using it and reaping its…

Abstract

Because computer‐integrated manufacturing is a complex, high‐risk investment that is difficult to cost justify, many companies have refrained from using it and reaping its benefits. The answer is not to avoid CIM, but to modify the cost‐justification techniques.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Jo Carby‐Hall

Discusses the long existing and confusing problems of establishing the relationship of who is, and who if not, a dependent worker. Reflects developments which have…

Abstract

Discusses the long existing and confusing problems of establishing the relationship of who is, and who if not, a dependent worker. Reflects developments which have occurred in British law as it affects the employment field, plus an evaluation and analysis of some of the different types of employment relationships which have evolved by examining, where possible, the status of each of these relationships. Concludes that the typical worker nowadays finds himself in a vulnerable position both economically and psychologically owing to the insecurity which exists.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1975

D.W.G. Clements

Libraries, like other organizations, are bodies trying to achieve certain objectives within set financial constraints and it is desirable that they operate as effectively…

Abstract

Libraries, like other organizations, are bodies trying to achieve certain objectives within set financial constraints and it is desirable that they operate as effectively as possible trying to achieve their objectives. Many libraries and information services have been developed on the understanding that they are ‘a good thing’ and this offers considerable scope for confusion about operating objectives and justification of the library's existence. It is therefore essential that the overall objectives of the library and information service are defined as far as possible and that progress towards these objectives is measured and monitored. The definition of objectives need not be difficult and indeed consideration of a ‘Management by Objectives’ approach could be of use in helping to define meaningful objectives. The hard core of any system that aims at measuring and monitoring progress towards stated objectives is costing. It is therefore essential that libraries are familiar with problems of costing and with the handling of financial information because it is of use in controlling day‐to‐day operations, in improving overall effectiveness, in ensuring an adequate and effective case is made out for the library or information budget and in planning for the future.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2021

Hila Axelrad, Alexandra Kalev and Noah Lewin-Epstein

Higher pensionable age in many countries that are part of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and a shrinking pension income force older people…

Abstract

Purpose

Higher pensionable age in many countries that are part of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and a shrinking pension income force older people to postpone their retirement. Yet, age-based discrimination in employers' decisions is a significant barrier to their employment. Hence, this paper aims to explore employers' attitudes regarding the employment of workers aged 60–70, striving for a better understanding of age discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 30 managers, experts and employees in retirement age in Israel.

Findings

Findings reveal a spectrum of employers' attitudes toward the employment of older workers. The authors' analytical contribution is a conceptual typology based on employers' perceived ability to employ older workers and their stated attitudes toward the employment of older workers.

Social implications

The insights that emerge from this research are fundamental for organizational actors' ability to expand the productive, unbiased employment of older workers.

Originality/value

By understanding employers' preferences and perspectives and the implications on employers' ability and/or willingness to employ older workers, this research will help policymakers formulate and implement policy innovations that address these biases.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

Keywords

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