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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

F.B. Bruno, T.L.K. Silva, R.P. Silva and F.G. Teixeira

The purpose of this paper is to propose a web‐based tool that enables the development and provision of learning designs and its reuse and re‐contextualization as…

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1839

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a web‐based tool that enables the development and provision of learning designs and its reuse and re‐contextualization as generative learning objects, aimed at developing educational materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The use of learning objects can facilitate the process of production and delivering of educational material and their reuse and re‐contextualization in different scenarios – such process is due to the current development stage of information and communication technologies (ICTs), which allow easy access to products and services related to them. ICTs combined with instructional design theories, lead to the emergence of new generations of distance learning, which add educational content to web‐based services. From this combination rises a hybrid mode of education, which combines tools for face‐to‐face and distance learning (blended learning).

Findings

The use of the web as a platform for production and management of learning objects comes as a solution for storage and sharing. The utilization of objects is justified when its reusability is facilitated. This gives rise to possibilities in a client‐server environment, where information is centralized and available anywhere in the network.

Research limitations/implications

The combination of ICT and instructional design theories has potential and could result in hybrids which are yet to be fully understood and explored. This can enhance blended learning provision.

Originality/value

The paper presents a tool in which the learning designs work as structures built on XML, based on concept maps, which act as an interaction layer between the learning objects, organizing the content to be available.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2004

Ignatz Heinz and Ursula Suter‐Seuling

Interactivity is crucial for the attractiveness of eLearning content. The complexities of these interactions have continually increased with the introduction of virtual…

Abstract

Interactivity is crucial for the attractiveness of eLearning content. The complexities of these interactions have continually increased with the introduction of virtual reality visualisations and animated learning agents. However, the trend to streamline and standardise the content production for eLearning according to standards like Extensible Markup Language [XML]1 and Shareable Content Reference Model [SCORM]2 as well as the need to maintain these abstractions especially in Knowledge‐Based Environments (FitzGerald and Lester 1997) has rather been decreasing the average level of interactivity in eLearning recently. The development of presentation layers with sufficient dynamic flexibility often failed. Facing this problem, the authors have developed an object‐based implementation approach serving the display of standard cognitive learning interactions as well as advanced dialogue and Virtual Reality‐based learning methods. After implementing the approach in a variety of large‐scale publishing projects we report on the concept and our experience in these projects.

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Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Gerrit Hiddink

Observes that the widespread use of the World Wide Web for educational purposes creates many opportunities for reusing learning material. However, many factors are…

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1674

Abstract

Observes that the widespread use of the World Wide Web for educational purposes creates many opportunities for reusing learning material. However, many factors are involved that may decrease the amount of actual reuse that occurs. Presents a theoretical model of these factors, one of which is the physical layout of learning objects. Approaches this problem by separating the layout of learning objects from their content. This is achieved by describing the content in the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and the layout in the eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL). The architecture of a prototype is presented showing how this technology can be used in an online learning environment.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2012

Chung Sheng-Hung

This paper focuses on the integration of the learning objects and knowledge map as the learning sequence suggestion in the mobile learning environment and explains the…

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1469

Abstract

This paper focuses on the integration of the learning objects and knowledge map as the learning sequence suggestion in the mobile learning environment and explains the technologies involved, the applications and the issues of usability, accessibility, evaluation and effectiveness. Mobile learning has open up new path for learning support and opportunities to reach wider audience (learner) for education. This research focuses on using the knowledge map to store the characteristics of each learning object via concept schemas and represent the corresponding learning accessibility in the mobile learning environment. The proposed architecture provides a medium for the learning accessibility of learners through mobile applications and wireless portable devices such as smart phones, PDAs and tablet PCs. The approach using the combination of "touch" and "observe" spatial learning objects provides an intelligent solution to creating, sharing and improving the efficiency of mobile learning. The proposed mobile learning environment architecture consists of knowledge map components mainly, navigation, concept schemas and learning object path. By using these knowledge structures, this study may enhance and enrich the concept and activity of adaptive learning in different individuals and communities. The spatial knowledge map constructed was useful in identifying the characteristics of the learning objects (e.g., learning object 1: lesson with navigating sentences, learning object 2: lesson with navigating sentence and code explanation, etc) and automatically matches the most appropriate learning contentand path suitable for learners. The architecture of the platform discussed in this study using the learning objects approach and knowledge map would facilitate a more widespread use of mobile learning, including courses or modules delivery of individualised learning path and learning style analysis.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

H. Frank Cervone

This paper aims to provide an overview of the issues related to developing a digital repository for learning objects. Given the unique nature of digital learning objects

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1357

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overview of the issues related to developing a digital repository for learning objects. Given the unique nature of digital learning objects, compared to other types of digital materials, several factors must be considered when establishing a learning object repository.

Design/methodology/approach

The conclusions of the paper are drawn from a review of the current state of the learning object repository market.

Findings

The issues related to creating digital learning object repositories are, in some cases, significantly different from those in creating “traditional” digital repositories. Staffing, metadata, and use considerations must be carefully considered in this unique environment.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in the current literature by providing a general overview of the current state of software and related practices in the learning object repository area.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Lori A. Mardis and Connie Jo Ury

The purpose of the paper is to share the types, uses, and students' recommendations about reusable digital learning objects at Northwest Missouri State University, which…

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1083

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to share the types, uses, and students' recommendations about reusable digital learning objects at Northwest Missouri State University, which can be used or adapted by other libraries in both online and on‐ground information literacy instruction environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The rationale for incorporation of learning objects, their application, and uses is discussed. Examples of successful applications of learning objects in online and on‐ground instructional classes are provided. Models for developing one's own learning objects are included. A survey and analysis for soliciting students' opinions about the reuse of learning objects is included.

Findings

The paper provides suggestions for developing and evaluating learning objects. This includes successful applications of digital learning objects in traditional and online information literacy classes. It shares easy to incorporate learning objects that can be used in tutorials or on‐ground bibliographic sessions and includes a student survey about reuse of learning objects, analysis of survey results, and suggestions for survey improvement.

Research limitations/implications

The survey population was small. The librarians plan to replicate the survey with a larger audience. The survey may be adapted for use by other academic libraries.

Practical implications

The paper provides links to libraries of digital learning objects that instruction librarians can immediately begin linking to and using in tutorials or information literacy sessions.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that access to a library of learning objects enables use of learning objects and enhances ideas for locally created prototypes. The survey can be easily adapted to other library environments to gather suggestions for reuse of local learning objects.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

Ingrid Maria Carlgren

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theoretical reflection on learning study as a research approach. The focus is on description and reflection on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theoretical reflection on learning study as a research approach. The focus is on description and reflection on the methodology of learning study as paedeutic research. This research is for, not on, teachers, i.e. research into problems and challenges faced by teachers in their professional practice. Learning study as paedeutic research is about the content and processes of formation/Bildung in relation to specific learning objects. Its focus is on subject-specific ways of knowing as well as how such knowing is enabled through teaching.

Design/methodology/approach

The point of departure is a perspective on research approaches as practices, i.e. as activities with certain aims as well as ways of “making” knowledge. Based on a description of the knowledge machinery in a learning study, i.e. those mechanisms that together generate new knowledge, the knowledge claims that can be made are discussed together with the theoretical underpinning of the arguments. The knowledge machinery is described in relation to how it is organised around the delimitation and analysis of an object of Learning as well as designing and evaluating ways to make the critical aspects of this object of learning visible. As an epistemological underpinning, some aspects of pragmatic philosophical thinking regarding the relationship between theory and practice are outlined. Based on that the research process may be described as a development of means-ends relationships – from unconscious empirical relationships to conscious staging of internal and theoretical relations. Abduction is an important tool for this meaning-making.

Findings

Learning study can be described as a particularistic, theory-building research approach concerning the knowing of specific learning objects as well as how they can be taught and learnt. The knowledge that is generated in learning study is theoretical and describes aspects of the teaching and learning of specific objects of learning. The research process can be described in terms of specification where practice is gradually supplied with a more differentiated meaning. A learning study is organised around a specific object of learning that functions as an open and unfolding object of knowledge. It combines a practice-based development of theory with a theory-based development of practice.

Originality/value

The development of the thinking about learning study as research for, rather than on, teachers is paedeutical research. A contribution to reflection on the knowledge machinery and knowledge claims of such research.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Keith Wood

The purpose of this paper is to address two questions: Can student teachers use variation theory to design and review lessons? Can exposure to variation in designs for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address two questions: Can student teachers use variation theory to design and review lessons? Can exposure to variation in designs for lessons with the same intended object of learning develop student teachers understanding of design?

Design/methodology/approach

The student teachers were undertaking an English‐medium education degree, a feature of which was peer teaching, with the teachers collaborating planning, teaching and reflecting on lessons. A sample of individual student teachers’ written reflections on the design and effect of 15 lessons involving seven objects of learning was collected and analysed using a comparative method. The lesson designs in terms of the pattern of variation and critical aspects afforded, and the teachers’ evaluations of the lessons, are described.

Findings

Four critical cases show how variation in the enacted object of learning created by the student teachers in their lessons, and in the lived object of learning of their students, impacted on the lived object of learning to teach of those student teachers. In the design and enactment of their lessons, student teachers used variation to effect in ten out of 15 lessons taught.

Originality/value

The use of the variation framework appeared to be successful in varying what had previously been invariant for many student teachers, who had themselves been educated in teacher‐centric classrooms. Its use offered a systematic, evidence‐based approach to designing, teaching and reviewing lessons, and, therefore, an opportunity to integrate the roles of teacher and learner in pursuit of the object of learning. By specifying the variation framework as a design tool, and not a method of teaching, the opportunity is opened up for further critical investigation of its usefulness in initial teacher education.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Christian Vidal-Castro, Alejandra Andrea Segura Navarrete, Victor Menendez-Dominguez and Claudia Martinez-Araneda

This paper aims to address the need to ensure the quality of metadata records describing learning resources. We propose improvements to a metadata-quality model…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the need to ensure the quality of metadata records describing learning resources. We propose improvements to a metadata-quality model, specifically for the compliance sub-feature of the functionality feature. Compliance is defined as adherence level of the learning object metadata content to the metadata standard used for its specification. The paper proposes metrics to assess the compliance, which are applied to a set of learning objects, showing their applicability and usefulness in activities related to resources management.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology considers a first stage of metrics refinement to obtain the indicator of the sub-feature compliance. The next stage is the proposal evaluation, where it is determined if metrics can be used as a conformity indicator of learning object metadata with a standard (metadata compliance). The usefulness of this indicator in the information retrieval area is approached through an assessment of learning objects where the quality level of its metadata and the ranking in which they are retrieved by a repository are correlated.

Findings

This study confirmed that the best results for metrics of standardization, completeness, congruence, coherence, correctness and understandability, which determine the compliance indicator, were obtained for learning objects whose metadata were better labelled. Moreover, it was found that the learning objects with the highest level of compliance indicator have better positions in the ranking when a repository retrieves them through an exact search based on metadata.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, only a sub-feature of the quality model is detailed, specifically the compliance of learning object standard. Another limitation was the size of the learning objects set used in the experiment.

Practical implications

This proposal is independent from any metadata standard and can be applied to improve processes associated with the management of learning objects in a repository-like retrieval and recommendation.

Originality/value

The originality and value of this proposal are related to quality of learning object metadata considered from a holistic point of view through six metrics. These metrics quantify both technical and pedagogical aspects through automatic evaluation and supported by experts. In addition, the applicability of the indicator in recovery systems is shown, by example to be incorporated as an additional criterion in the learning object ranking.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Eva Björkholm

Knowledge concerning the meaning of the object of learning is an important contribution of Learning study. The purpose of this paper is to generate this kind of knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge concerning the meaning of the object of learning is an important contribution of Learning study. The purpose of this paper is to generate this kind of knowledge and show how it can be developed and refined in the different phases of a Learning study.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports on a Learning study in primary technology education conducted with students aged six to seven years old, with the aim to explore a specific object of learning; to construct a linkage mechanism for transferring and transforming movement.

Findings

The findings show several aspects to discern by the learner in order to grasp the object of learning and reveal how this knowledge was gradually developed during the Learning study. The presumed aspects, those identified in the pre- and post-test, as well as how they were elaborated in the lesson contributed to refining the meaning of the object of learning.

Originality/value

In Learning study, knowledge concerning the meaning of the object of learning is generated. By empirically demonstrating the development and specification of this knowledge during a Learning study, this paper will contribute to the discussion of knowledge products from Learning studies as well as to knowledge concerning what there is to know in order to develop a specific capability in technology education.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

Keywords

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