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Article
Publication date: 28 October 1990

Zahir A. Quraeshi, Mushtaq Luqmani and Ugur Yavas

Many U.S. companies fear investing in Third World countries because of the political risk associated with such ventures. Recent events in Iran, Nicaragua, El Salvador, the…

Abstract

Many U.S. companies fear investing in Third World countries because of the political risk associated with such ventures. Recent events in Iran, Nicaragua, El Salvador, the Philippines and others have under scored such concerns, making U.S. businesses reluctant to participate in some of the fastest growing markets in the Third World. Such political risks need not be so worrisome ‐ many U.S. business people remain unaware of how the Overseas Private Investment Corporation can substantially reduce risks by insuring companies against such uncertainties. This paper discusses the ways through which OPIC can alleviate political risk and compares OPIC’s insurance with the programs of private political risk insurers.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

James C. Baker

The World Bank established the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) in 1985 as the first truly global agency which insures foreign investments against political…

Abstract

The World Bank established the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) in 1985 as the first truly global agency which insures foreign investments against political risks. MIGA is now in its fifth full year of operations and has been more successful than originally forecast. This paper will discuss the formation of MIGA and includes an analysis of its operations to date. When appropriate, comparisons will be made between MIGA operations and those of the U.S. investment insurance agency, OPIC, the Overseas Private Investment Company, as well as private market insurers. Selected cases of MIGA guarantees are discussed in the paper.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

M. Anaam Hashmi

A widely used strategy to cope with the dangers of foreign investment by hedging against potential losses is political risk insurance. All multinational corporations are…

Abstract

A widely used strategy to cope with the dangers of foreign investment by hedging against potential losses is political risk insurance. All multinational corporations are subject to political risk perils. Political risk is defined as the adverse effect on the value of a business arising out of direct or indirect actions by a foreign government. Broadly speaking, there are six different types of political risk: confiscation, expropriation and nationalization; contract repudiation and frustration; unfair regulatory environment; currency inconvertibility; contingency; and war risk. Similarly, policies available can be defined according to these six categories. In summary, political risk insurance addresses losses which occur because of politically motivated decisions.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1996

Llewellyn D. Howell and Donald Xie

States that foreign investors have clamoured into Asia in the 1990s hoping to tap into the spectacular economic growth, but have often done so without awareness of…

Abstract

States that foreign investors have clamoured into Asia in the 1990s hoping to tap into the spectacular economic growth, but have often done so without awareness of existing or likely future political and social conditions which could affect their investments and business operations. Adds that political risk insurance is available from agencies such as the World Bank’s MIGA or the US government’s OPIC, but projecting needs for such insurance has not been a consistent practice. Reveals that business publications, such as The Economist, and firms such as Business Environment Risk Intelligence, Inc. (BERI), provide regular projections of political risk based on a variety of observed political and social variables. Examines choice of these variables in an Asian context and assesses statistically the forecasting capability of The Economist and BERI models. Finds that the existence of underlying theory makes a positive difference in the ability of the models to forecast correctly and to provide useful advice to foreign investors. Indicates that both models include variables representing conditions that clearly indicate future trouble for investors. Shows that, with some revisions, existing models of political risk can be useful in guiding investment and trade.

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Management Decision, vol. 34 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Kernaghan Webb

The aims of this paper are: to explore the nature of political risk insurance (PRI) contracts as a form of regulation in the context of mining projects in developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper are: to explore the nature of political risk insurance (PRI) contracts as a form of regulation in the context of mining projects in developing countries; to examine how PRI providers factor corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and practices of applicants in their initial decisions to provide PRI; to examine how CSR criteria are reflected in the terms of PRI contracts; to understand how failure to exercise good CSR practices by recipients of PRI affects insurance coverage; to shed light on how good CSR practices which minimize risk to companies and communities can be or are rewarded through PRI contracts; to identify opportunities for reform.

Design/methodology/approach

This article adopts a conceptual approach through analysis of the practical effects and public policy implications associated with use of PRI contracts as a regulatory mechanism to promote good CSR practices.

Findings

PRI contracts represent a form of proactive risk management used by investors. Because of the significant regulatory effect of the CSR provisions of PRI contracts provided by state‐based agencies, there is considerable potential for and value associated with greater transparency in the implementation of such contracts.

Originality/value

This article sheds light on the regulatory dimensions associated with the CSR provisions of PRI contracts. This represents a new contribution to the literature on CSR contracts, which until this point has focused largely on the CSR aspects of supply chain contracts.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 54 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Tracking progress on Power Africa.

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Markus Schaal, Guven Fidan, Roland M. Müller and Orhan Dagli

The purpose of this paper is the presentation of a new method for blog quality assessment. The method uses the temporal sequence of link creation events between blogs as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the presentation of a new method for blog quality assessment. The method uses the temporal sequence of link creation events between blogs as an implicit source for the collective tacit knowledge of blog authors about blog quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The blog data are processed by the novel method for the assessment of blog quality. The results are compared to Google Page Rank with respect to the Gold Standard, the BlogRazzi Bookmark Rank.

Findings

The method is similar or better than Google Page Rank with respect to the chosen Gold Standard.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this paper is the introduction of a novel method for blog quality assessment. Even though its superiority to other and more established methods cannot be proven in the context of this limited study, it enriches the toolset available for blog quality assessment and may become important for a deeper understanding of organizational learning.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Ngurah Agus Sanjaya Er, Mouhamadou Lamine Ba, Talel Abdessalem and Stéphane Bressan

This paper aims to focus on the design of algorithms and techniques for an effective set expansion. A tool that finds and extracts candidate sets of tuples from the World…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the design of algorithms and techniques for an effective set expansion. A tool that finds and extracts candidate sets of tuples from the World Wide Web was designed and implemented. For instance, when a given user provides <Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesian Rupiah>, <China, Beijing, Yuan Renminbi>, <Canada, Ottawa, Canadian Dollar> as seeds, our system returns tuples composed of countries with their corresponding capital cities and currency names constructed from content extracted from Web pages retrieved.

Design/methodology/approach

The seeds are used to query a search engine and to retrieve relevant Web pages. The seeds are also used to infer wrappers from the retrieved pages. The wrappers, in turn, are used to extract candidates. The Web pages, wrappers, seeds and candidates, as well as their relationships, are vertices and edges of a heterogeneous graph. Several options for ranking candidates from PageRank to truth finding algorithms were evaluated and compared. Remarkably, all vertices are ranked, thus providing an integrated approach to not only answer direct set expansion questions but also find the most relevant pages to expand a given set of seeds.

Findings

The experimental results show that leveraging the truth finding algorithm can indeed improve the level of confidence in the extracted candidates and the sources.

Originality/value

Current approaches on set expansion mostly support sets of atomic data expansion. This idea can be extended to the sets of tuples and extract relation instances from the Web given a handful set of tuple seeds. A truth finding algorithm is also incorporated into the approach and it is shown that it can improve the confidence level in the ranking of both candidates and sources in set of tuples expansion.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Using the very latest Visiongauge equipment, Excellon UK has launched a 24‐hour turnaround service to provide extremely accurate verification of drilled PCBs for process…

Abstract

Using the very latest Visiongauge equipment, Excellon UK has launched a 24‐hour turnaround service to provide extremely accurate verification of drilled PCBs for process certification or machine calibration. The service allows customers to ensure optimum drill performance and to keep approval records without the time and cost of OPIC or CMM.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Yoonjae Jeong and Dongman Lee

The purpose of this study is to improve the egocentric search speed for important documents in neighbouring blogs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the egocentric search speed for important documents in neighbouring blogs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a rapid egocentric search scheme that narrows down the search space to more important blogs. To determine which blogs are more valuable among a user's neighbouring blogs, a heuristic function is developed that predicts the authority scores on the basis of the local information of the blog. The proposed approach improves the speed of the egocentric search process and the quality of retrieved documents.

Findings

A blog is a new medium that is receiving considerable attention. Its links enable one to acquire information about social relations between bloggers in a blog space, and these relations reflect bloggers' interests. Therefore, the ability to search documents in linked blogs is significant for bloggers. An egocentric search method is proposed to search for documents in such neighbouring blogs. However, it takes considerable time to find the most valuable documents in a user's neighbouring blogs when many blogs are linked to that user's blog.

Originality/value

This study shows that the number of neighbouring blogs, which are linked to a blog with trackbacks and comments, is important for estimating the authority of a blog. In the experimental results this method performs about five times faster than the egocentric search using a breadth‐first search strategy in searching for the top 5 per cent of the most important documents in the neighbouring blogs.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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