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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Russell Ashmore and Neil Carver

– The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

A Freedom of Information request was submitted to all trusts in England (n=57) and health boards in Wales (n=7) asking them to provide a copy of any policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4). Documents were analysed using content analysis. Specific attention was given to any deviations from the national Mental Health Act Codes of Practice.

Findings

In total, 41 (67.2 per cent) organisations had a policy on the implementation of Section 5(4). There was a high level of consistency between local guidance and the Mental Health Act Codes of Practice. There were however; different interpretations of the guidance and errors that could lead to misuse of the section. Some policies contained useful guidance that could be adopted by future versions of the national Codes of Practice.

Research limitations/implications

The research has demonstrated the value of examining the relationship between national and local guidance. Further research should be undertaken on the frequency and reasons for any reuse of the section.

Practical implications

Greater attention should be given to considering the necessity of local policy, given the existence of national Codes of Practice.

Originality/value

This is the only research examining the policy framework for the implementation of Section 5(4).

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 February 2006

Marcelle Chauvet and James D. Hamilton

Abstract

Details

Nonlinear Time Series Analysis of Business Cycles
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-838-5

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2018

I. N. Efremenko, T. V. Panasenkova and V. A. Larionov

In the post-industrial information society, the role of mass communication, public information, information space, social and political discourse, as well as the Internet…

Abstract

In the post-industrial information society, the role of mass communication, public information, information space, social and political discourse, as well as the Internet as a new communication environment becomes exceptional. According to the widespread view, the social system and history as a whole change not only the development of material production, but also the improvement of information resources. Information technologies are now widely used both in the activities of commercial organizations and public authorities. In this chapter, the authors discuss the key aspects of economic interaction of the world information economy and the features of the development of Russian society in this process.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Business and Financial Management in Eastern Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-449-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Anastasia A. Kurilova, Olga G. Zinovyeva, Larisa V. Popova and Svetlana Y. Shaldokhina

The purpose of the chapter is to determine social consequences of crises of economic systems and to evaluate the risks of transition of economic crisis from a stimulator…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to determine social consequences of crises of economic systems and to evaluate the risks of transition of economic crisis from a stimulator of economic development into source of social problems and, in particular, into social crisis.

Methodology

The authors use the methods of horizontal and trend analysis, as well as the method of regression analysis for determining the dependence of the index of happiness, calculated by the New Economic Foundation, on the growth rate of GDP in current prices according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In addition to this, regression analysis of dependence of unemployment rate according to the IMF on the index of economy digitization, calculated by Cisco, in 2018 is determined. The objects of the research are the leading developed countries (G7) according to the classification of the IMF and countries of BRICS (as representatives of developing countries).

Conclusions

As a result of the research, it is determined that traditionally studied indirect indicator of social consequences of innovational development of economy after the 2008 crisis – unemployment rate – is not very informative and is less studied; the index of happiness – which describes public moods with high precision – showed reverse dependence on growth of GDP in constant prices and on digitization of economy. The example of the 2008 crisis showed that developed and developing countries had new social problems in the period of post-crisis restoration of economy; these problems became more clearly expressed than in the period of decline. In the mid-term (by 2020–2025), crisis might transform from stimulator of economic development into a source of social problems.

Originality/value

The obtained results emphasize priority of sustainability of development of economic systems in the economic and social aspects.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Elena G. Popkova and Bruno S. Sergi

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the optimal path of development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian countries by performing a scenario…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to determine the optimal path of development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian countries by performing a scenario analysis of the development of social entrepreneurship and analyzing the opinions of interested parties regarding the outcome of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian states. The authors’ recommendations for the practical implementation of the optimal path of social entrepreneurship development are described.

The scenario analysis of statistical data showed that the existing practice of standardization of social companies’ activities hinders their executing their functions on raising the quality of life. With the expansion of freedom of social entrepreneurship, the population’s quality of life grows; on the contrary, the increase of state regulation leads to its reduction. The findings show that social entrepreneurship in Russia and Central Asian countries is interested in private investments and social companies’ employees. That is why the representatives of these categories of concerned parties support de-regulation. Consumers of social goods and services are interested in obtaining them freely and thus prefer standardization.

This chapter presents a new direction of social entrepreneurship analysis – by determining the correlation between economic freedom and quality of life. This opens an opportunity for thorough social entrepreneurship research based on authentic and objective quantitative (statistical) data. The obtained conclusions and offered recommendations allow using the mechanism of public–private entrepreneurship for turning social entrepreneurship into something more valuable and useful – a tool for increasing the quality of the population’s life.

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2018

E. A. Posnaya, E. V. Dobrolezha, I. G. Vorobyova and G. P. Chubarova

With this chapter, the authors reveal the content of the concept of economic capital, explore approaches to its evaluation, assess the implementation of the concept of…

Abstract

With this chapter, the authors reveal the content of the concept of economic capital, explore approaches to its evaluation, assess the implementation of the concept of economic capital in the national banking system, and identify problems and possible directions for development and convergence of the Russian approach with international requirements. As a result, the need to apply the model of economic capital in assessing bank capital is substantiated. A concept (from Latin “conception” – understanding a system) is a specific way of understanding (interpreting) an object, phenomenon, or process; that is, the main point of view on the subject and the guiding idea for its systematic coverage. This term is also used to refer to a leading idea and a constructive principle in scientific activity.

Initially, since 1988, under prudential supervision – a direct, quantitative-oriented approach, there existed a concept of regulatory capital, reflected in the document “International Convergence of Measurement Methods and Capital Standards” (Basel I). Regulatory capital was calculated to meet regulatory oversight standards. It was intended to cover unforeseen losses and reserves already identified; thereafter, expected losses were created.

The concept of regulatory capital proceeds from the premise that if capital must cover unexpected losses, it should be borne in mind that a surprise approximates uncertainty. Consequently, the theoretical possibility of occurrence of certain events is excluded and, hence, the methodical and practical ground of the concept of economic capital disappears, which is based on the assessment of default probability and the magnitude of its negative consequences for creditors.

The change in trends in banking regulation (the actions of supervisory authorities in matters of capital adequacy acquired a risk-oriented nature that takes into account the risks assumed by each bank and the quality of their management) led to the emergence of the concept of economic capital in 2004, which is reflected in the document “International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Standards of Capital: New Approaches” (Basel II).

According to this concept, commercial banks must have sufficient capital to cover not only credit and market, but also the operational risks. Thus, economic capital takes into account all the risky circumstances that a banking institution may encounter. The need to apply the method of economic capital in assessing the capital of a bank is justified and significant.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Business and Financial Management in Eastern Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-449-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2021

JianQin Xiang, Feicheng Ma and Haiyan Wang

Studies have indicated that international innovation collaboration has promoted technology transfer and knowledge spillover between countries. The conclusion of various…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies have indicated that international innovation collaboration has promoted technology transfer and knowledge spillover between countries. The conclusion of various international intellectual property (IP) treaties has played an essential role in optimizing the international innovation and collaboration environment. This study investigates the effect of IP treaties on international innovation collaboration and whether international IP treaties can promote collaboration between a country and other economies in the world.

Design/methodology/approach

After collecting and extracting the patent record data from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), a final dataset of 3,213,626 cooperative patents and 465,236 pairs of collaborations between two countries or regions is established. Based on the international patent collaboration data of 192 countries during 1976–2017, the changes in patent collaboration indicators after these countries joined 23 IP treaties are analyzed.

Findings

International IP treaties have significantly increased the number of patent cooperation countries of a country and its importance in international cooperation networks. The role of IP treaties is more manifested by the increased opportunities for a country's international innovation cooperation than its influence on global innovation; this is of extreme significance for developing countries to introduce advanced technologies.

Originality/value

Ginarte and Park (1997) have confirmed that IP treaties have helped to raise the level of IP protection. In this study, the increase in the degree centrality of the international innovation network is evidence of IP treaties to promote innovation cooperation. For a developing country, joining an intellectual property treaty may strengthen intellectual property protection and optimize its own international innovation cooperation methods.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Elena G. Popkova and Bruno S. Sergi

The purpose of this article is to determine the future proportion and variants of usage of human intellect and artificial intelligence (AI) in entrepreneurship of industry…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to determine the future proportion and variants of usage of human intellect and artificial intelligence (AI) in entrepreneurship of industry 4.0 that fits social entrepreneurship the most. It could be convergence (simultaneous utilization during the same entrepreneurial processes with the emphasis on unique features by the terms of the competition) or divergence (usage during different business processes by the terms of labor division).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors determine the influence of usage of human capital and AI on the efficiency of social entrepreneurship. The authors identify the perspective directions of usage of AI in social entrepreneurship and evaluate the readiness and interest in the implementation of these directions of concerned parties. The authors also model the optimal proportions and the variant of usage of human intellect and AI in social entrepreneurship in the conditions of Industry 4.0 in the future (until 2030).

Findings

It is found that social entrepreneurship will use the opportunities of Industry 4.0 for optimization of its activities until 2030, but will refuse from full automatization, using human intellect and AI at the same time.

Originality/value

The most perspective directions of application of AI at social companies are a collection of social goods and services, marketing studies and promotion of social goods and services. Neither convergence nor divergence of human and artificial intellectual capital does not fully conform to the interests of concerned parties. The most preferable (optimal) variant of usage of human intellect and AI in social entrepreneurship in the Industry 4.0 is human intelligent decision support.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Elena G. Popkova and Bruno S. Sergi

This paper aims to determine the trends and prospects of the development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Asian countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the trends and prospects of the development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Asian countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology includes trend, regression, and correlation analysis and scenario (imitation) modeling and elaborates on perspectives and recommendations for further development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Asia.

Findings

Despite the active development of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Asian countries (its share in the structure of GDP of these countries constituted 2.6% on average in 2018), it accounts for a small contribution to domestic development of socio-economic systems. These countries of Asia in 2018 were peculiar for low level of social freedoms (70th position in the world), low level of healthcare (51st position), moderate level of ecological effectiveness (61.33 points out of 100), moderate level of education (0.767 points out of 1) and low level of development of infrastructure (39 points out of 100). In the provision of social freedoms and healthcare, social entrepreneurship is least developed and is peculiar for a tendency for a decrease. The difference between demand and offer of social entrepreneurship causes an imbalance of the market of social (non-profit, volunteer and charity) services in these countries. This imbalance is to be overcome with the recent tendency of digitization of social entrepreneurship in Russia and Asian countries.

Originality/value

Digitization occupies the last position among the factors of the development of social entrepreneurship. Tax stimulation of social entrepreneurship is preferable, so it is recommended to pay primary attention to it until 2022, for the provision of the balance of the market of social services.

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2020

Aleksei V. Bogoviz

The purpose of the research is to determine the perspective directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to determine the perspective directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0 and to develop scientific and methodological recommendations for their implementation. For this, the directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital are described, monitoring of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital by the example of modern Russia (2019) is performed and scientific and practical recommendations for state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital are developed, with their approbation by the example of modern Russia (2019).

Design/methodology/approach

A method of expert evaluation is used for collection of the information and empirical data. The method of comparative analysis is used for comparing the successfulness of implementing the distinguished directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital (4.1) according to the official statistics to their current evaluation according to the interested parties. Also, future evaluation (forecasts) according to the interested parties (until 2045) is determined.

Findings

It is substantiated that during evaluation of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0, one cannot use only the official statistics, as these data are fragmentary and indirect. Fuller and more precise data are provided by assessment according to the interested parties. They allow determining the current and the future state of affairs and, based on it, compiling a forecast and developing a long-term strategy of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0.

Originality/value

The perspective directions of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital in Industry 4.0 are as follows: stimulation of competition in the market of intellectual capital, social risk management of the market of intellectual capital, managing international competition in the market of intellectual capital and ecological risk management of the intellectual capital market. As the experience of modern Russia shows, even at the initial stage of transition to Industry 4.0, the measures of state regulation of competition between human and artificial intellectual capital are not enough, but their deficit is moderate. In the course of development of Industry 4.0, the necessity for the measures of regulation will grow, and their deficit will increase. That's why there's a need for strategic approach to their implementation, which envisages their systemic reconsideration and supplementing. An author's algorithm is offered for this.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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