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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2014

Aljaž Kunčič and Andreja Jaklič

This chapter examines the role of formal and informal institutions in foreign direct investment (FDI) dynamics.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the role of formal and informal institutions in foreign direct investment (FDI) dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

We examine the effects of the quality of legal, political, and economic formal institution as well as the effect of institutional distance (based on new dataset) on bilateral inward FDI stocks in 34 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries for the period 1990–2010 using a gravity specification. Additionally, we also examine FDI for the effects of a specific informal institution – attitude of the public toward economic liberal issues. Reactions of FDI to liberal and nonliberal public opinion (part of informal institutions) are examined with and without controlling for formal institutions.

Findings

Findings show that the quality of legal and political institutions are important determinants of FDI, that legal and political institutional distance are both significant obstacles to FDI, and that public opinion also matters. We find that it is important to control for formal institutions when looking at the effect of informal institutions, and that both past liberal and nonliberal public opinion correlate with FDI, but only nonliberal public opinion significantly reduces inward FDI directly.

Research limitations/implications

Results are relevant for enterprises’ investment strategies, marketing strategies influencing public opinion as well as for policy makers, and governmental agencies involved in investment promotion programs.

Originality/value

Exploring the interplay between formal and informal institutions, institutional quality, institutional distance, and their effect on FDI in a bilateral panel.

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Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

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Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2017

Giuseppe Delmestri and Mara Brumana

Kostova, Roth and Dacin called in 2008 for the advancement of a theoretical conception of the multinational corporation (MNC) that takes into account both power…

Abstract

Kostova, Roth and Dacin called in 2008 for the advancement of a theoretical conception of the multinational corporation (MNC) that takes into account both power relationships among actors and the structure of its internal institutional field. While micro-political scholars of MNCs have started to answer the former part of the call regarding power, the second part has not been thoroughly addressed yet. Furthermore, the agentic aspects typical of power games and the structural aspects characterizing institutional fields have not been fully combined in a multi-level perspective of MNCs so far. Leaning on Bourdieu, we suggest an answer to the pending call. We theorize the MNC as a playing field of power emerging around the issue of finding a meta-rate of conversion of the actors’ capitals constituted in national fields. We conceive such issue field in a dynamic state due to the constant entry and exit of new players (e.g. through mergers, acquisitions or divestitures). This results in the need to continuously test the validity of exchange rates. The role of the metainstitutional field level of the MNC as a global category is also discussed.

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Multinational Corporations and Organization Theory: Post Millennium Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-386-3

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2006

Torben Beck Jorgensen

While Norway, Sweden, and Denmark share many historic, political, and cultural features, their state systems and public administration exhibit important differences…

Abstract

While Norway, Sweden, and Denmark share many historic, political, and cultural features, their state systems and public administration exhibit important differences. Likewise, Nordic administrative sciences reflect a significant degree of ethnocentric diversity. Although as a whole, since the 1960s, Scandinavian academic public administration has witnessed rapid growth, an emphasis on local–regional government, and highly sophisticated scientific-empirical research, as opposed to professional training or narrow application of technical–legal methodologies.

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Comparative Public Administration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-453-9

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Malin Tillmar

Women’s entrepreneurship is often seen as the solution of both economic growth and gender equality. This is despite academic knowledge of the gendered preconditions for…

Abstract

Purpose

Women’s entrepreneurship is often seen as the solution of both economic growth and gender equality. This is despite academic knowledge of the gendered preconditions for entrepreneurship in many contexts. This paper aims to focus on the gendering of commercial justice, a precondition for entrepreneurship. Informed by gender perspectives on women’s entrepreneurship and previous studies on commercial justice in East Africa, this paper sets out to explore the experiences of urban women entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an interview study with women entrepreneurs and representatives of support organizations in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The interviews were conducted in Kiswahili, and access was enabled through dialogues with local partner organizations such as the Tanzanian Chamber of Commerce.

Findings

Findings are that with formal legal rights, the informal institutions imply that the marital status of the women, and the attitude of their husbands, is the overarching determinants for the commercial justice perceived as available to them. This has implication for many policy areas, such as entrepreneurship support, women’s empowerment and labour market policy. Theoretically, the findings highlight the importance of studying the informal institutions affecting women’s entrepreneurship around the globe. Concerning commercial justice in particular, three dimensions of gendering are identified.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on a qualitative interview study. Further studies with varying methods are needed to further explore the gendering of commercial justice in Tanzania, East Africa and beyond.

Practical implications

A major practical implication of the study is the insight that business for development, will not automatically lead to business for equality, on a general level. The gender bias is also reproduced in everyday business life, for example, thorough access to commercial justice. Special measures to target the gender equality issue are, therefore, necessary. Another implication of the findings regard the importance of Alternative Dispute Resolution initiatives, affordable to women small and medium enterprise-owners.

Originality/value

While other obstacles to women’s entrepreneurship in the developing contexts have been well explored, the gendering of perceived commercial justice has not received sufficient attention in previous studies. Studies applying a gender theoretical perspective on entrepreneurship in the explored context are still needed.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Fredrick M. Nafukho and Machuma A. Helen Muyia

The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of entrepreneurship education and training in Kenya as a strategic approach to addressing the unemployment problem…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of entrepreneurship education and training in Kenya as a strategic approach to addressing the unemployment problem among the school and university graduates in Kenya and Africa in general.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a critical review of the literature method to achieve its purpose and to answer the key research question. The literature search included a computerized search of accessible and available material on entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial spirit, entrepreneurship education and training programs, history of entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship models, Africa and entrepreneurship development.

Findings

It is shown that the development of entrepreneurial spirit and competencies should be a lifelong process. Addressing Africa's socioeconomic development in an entrepreneurial way requires learning successful lessons from within and without Africa. Specific examples of successful use of entrepreneurship to develop micro, small and medium‐sized enterprises in Africa and other parts of the world, especially the USA, are cited in the paper. A case study of using technology to promote entrepreneurship in Africa is provided.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited since it is based on a review of the literature. Quantitative and qualitative research studies focusing on entrepreneurship and socioeconomic development in Africa are recommended.

Originality/value

There are limited studies that focus on the issue of entrepreneurship and socioeconomic development in Africa. This paper and the special issue in particular have laid down pioneering ground work for research on entrepreneurship and socioeconomic development in Africa.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Efthimia Mavridou, Konstantinos M. Giannoutakis, Dionysios Kehagias, Dimitrios Tzovaras and George Hassapis

Semantic categorization of Web services comprises a fundamental requirement for enabling more efficient and accurate search and discovery of services in the semantic Web…

Abstract

Purpose

Semantic categorization of Web services comprises a fundamental requirement for enabling more efficient and accurate search and discovery of services in the semantic Web era. However, to efficiently deal with the growing presence of Web services, more automated mechanisms are required. This paper aims to introduce an automatic Web service categorization mechanism, by exploiting various techniques that aim to increase the overall prediction accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes the use of Error Correcting Output Codes on top of a Logistic Model Trees-based classifier, in conjunction with a data pre-processing technique that reduces the original feature-space dimension without affecting data integrity. The proposed technique is generalized so as to adhere to all Web services with a description file. A semantic matchmaking scheme is also proposed for enabling the semantic annotation of the input and output parameters of each operation.

Findings

The proposed Web service categorization framework was tested with the OWLS-TC v4.0, as well as a synthetic data set with a systematic evaluation procedure that enables comparison with well-known approaches. After conducting exhaustive evaluation experiments, categorization efficiency in terms of accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure was measured. The presented Web service categorization framework outperformed the other benchmark techniques, which comprise different variations of it and also third-party implementations.

Originality/value

The proposed three-level categorization approach is a significant contribution to the Web service community, as it allows the automatic semantic categorization of all functional elements of Web services that are equipped with a service description file.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Muhammad Azam Roomi and Pegram Harrison

The purpose of this paper is to understand the gender‐related challenges of Pakistani women entrepreneurs, to explore these women's particular capacity‐building needs, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the gender‐related challenges of Pakistani women entrepreneurs, to explore these women's particular capacity‐building needs, and to assess the impact of capacity‐building programs on the establishment and performance of the women's enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins with a review of various theoretical contexts through which to understand women's entrepreneurship in an Islamic socio‐cultural context. From this, the paper derived two working propositions: women in Islamic Pakistan face particular barriers to becoming entrepreneurs; these barriers can be reduced by women‐only training in entrepreneurial competences. These propositions are examined in a three‐part longitudinal process: a field survey to gather information about the training needs of current and potential women entrepreneurs, the design and delivery of a women‐only training module, a follow‐up survey with participants, 18 months later. Subjects and participants were randomly selected, and segmented according to entrepreneurial factors and characteristics.

Findings

Results confirm that the barriers perceived by women entrepreneurs in Islamic Pakistan can be alleviated through women‐only training that allows participants to develop capital and competences. Greater clarity about learning outcomes desired and achieved by women entrepreneurs in an Islamic socio‐cultural context can be a basis for designing improved training and education programmes, with a view to women's economic empowerment.

Practical implications

For women entrepreneurs living in an Islamic society, this analysis has implications for understanding the importance and effectiveness of entrepreneurial training especially in a women‐only setting. For policy makers, it turns the spotlight on the need for creating an environment conducive to female entrepreneurship consistent with socio‐cultural structures and gender asymmetries.

Originality/value

There are no comparable previous data on the learning preferences and outcomes of this particular demographic group.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Panagiotis Barlas, Ivor Lanning and Cathal Heavey

Data science is the study of the generalizable extraction of knowledge from data. It includes a variety of components and develops on methods and concepts from many…

Abstract

Purpose

Data science is the study of the generalizable extraction of knowledge from data. It includes a variety of components and develops on methods and concepts from many domains, containing mathematics, probability models, machine learning, statistical learning, computer programming, data engineering, pattern recognition and learning, visualization and data warehousing aiming to extract value from data. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of open source (OS) data science tools, proposing a classification scheme that can be used to study OS data science software.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed classification scheme is based on general characteristics, project activity, operational characteristics and data mining characteristics. The authors then use the proposed scheme to examine 70 identified Open Source Software. From this the authors provide insight about the current status of OS data science tools and reveal the state-of-the-art tools.

Findings

The features of 70 OS tools are recorded based on the criteria of the four group characteristics, general characteristics, project activity, operational characteristics and data mining characteristics. Interesting results came from the analysis of these features and are recorded here.

Originality/value

The contribution of this survey is development of a new classification scheme for examination and study of OS data science tools. In parallel, this study provides an overview of existing OS data science tools.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2015

Peer Hull Kristensen

This paper is concerned to show how the Danish political elite interpreted and responded to the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for the Danish economy. In…

Abstract

This paper is concerned to show how the Danish political elite interpreted and responded to the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for the Danish economy. In particular, the paper describes how this interpretive construction focused primarily on three features of the Danish context to the exclusion of other perspectives; the first was an emphasis on the problems of the financial sector, of interest rates and state finances; the second was that Danish productivity increases were falling behind other comparable countries and part of the solution required new strategies towards labour and unemployment benefits; thirdly, the adverse effects of the crisis were causing an increase in government expenditure and a decline in government revenues which was rapidly becoming unsustainable. As a consequence, the Danish elite fell into the broader interpretation of the crisis embedded in the dominant view within the EU institutions as well as among the international financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank, that a period of austerity and fiscal consolidation was the required remedy, even though this was likely to be pro-cyclical in its effects. However, the paper shows that alternative data which is more reflective of Denmark’s position in the global economy and the trajectory and form of its growth over the last decade reveals that the interpretation of the Danish elite has been too narrow and neglects the distinctive roots of Denmark’s competitive strengths. Indeed, by responding in the way which they have, the Danish elite is in danger of undermining the very conditions of Denmark’s competitiveness.

Details

Elites on Trial
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-680-5

Keywords

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