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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Selin Ögel Aydın and Metin Argan

Nutritional disorders and unhealthy nutrition, which are recognised as the causes of many widespread health problems (overweight, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular…

Abstract

Purpose

Nutritional disorders and unhealthy nutrition, which are recognised as the causes of many widespread health problems (overweight, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc.) have emerged as a significant problem that requires resolution. The purpose of this study is to influence dietary preferences and to reduce current health issues by using gamification as a social marketing tool. To this end, the decision-making processes affecting food choices in individuals based on calorific content were evaluated and the effectiveness of gamification in encouraging consumers to make lower-calorie choices was examined.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design was used to determine the effect of gamification on the dietary preferences of consumers. An independent factorial design (between groups) in which multiple variables were tested with different subjects was used to test the factors that were thought to affect the food choices made by the participants from gamified and non-gamified menus.

Findings

In Study 1, menus (gamified vs non-gamified) and nutritional consciousness (low vs high) had a significant main effect on the total calorie count of the selected foods. In Study 2, menus (gamified with prices vs non-gamified with prices) had a significant main effect on the total calorie count of the selected foods, while nutritional consciousness (low vs high) did not. A significant interaction was observed between menus and nutritional consciousness.

Practical implications

Gamification can be used as an important publicity tool for promoting public health using different influential factors such as price.

Originality/value

This study shows that people can change their food preferences positively through gamification. It shows further how people tend to evaluate the price of their food rather than the calorie count when making dietary preferences. Gamification can, therefore, be considered a promising social marketing tool for improving public health.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Alina Jaroch, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Alicja Kowalkowska, Emilia Główczewska-Siedlecka and Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which can be reversible or less severe through appropriate nutritional interventions. In the present study, to test the efficiency of…

Abstract

Purpose

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which can be reversible or less severe through appropriate nutritional interventions. In the present study, to test the efficiency of individualized nutritional intervention was conducted a comprehensive assessment of the nutritional status of frail older adults and evaluation of the effect of nutritional intervention on the nutritional status of pre-frail older patients.

Design/methodology/approach

Frail older adults (n = 43; mean age 84.6 ± 6.4 years old; 81.4% women) had nutritional status assessed using nutritional anthropometry, body composition, and food frequency questionnaire. Pre-frail patients (n = 16; mean age 68.4 ± 5.5 years old; 81.3% women) for eight weeks were consuming 1.0 g protein/kg BW/day. Robust older adults formed a control group (n = 29; mean age 69.3 ± 5.3 years old; 82.8% women).

Findings

Frail older adults had weight and muscle mass loss, and their diet variety was sufficient. After the intervention, pre-frail patients increased their protein consumption by 25.8% (P = 0.002). An increase in lean body mass (+1.0 kg), skeletal muscle mass (+0.3 kg) and improvement in physical performance was also observed.

Originality/value

An individual diet for pre-frail older adults can reverse weight loss and increase lean body mass, furthermore preventing or delaying the development of frailty syndrome. Moreover, increased protein consumption improves physical performance of pre-frail older adults.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Asuncion Hernandez-Fernandez, Ines Kuster-Boluda and Natalia Vila-Lopez

Rates of diseases caused by poor diet have seen no reduction in recent years. In this scenario, nutritional information labels and health claims could play a decisive role…

Abstract

Purpose

Rates of diseases caused by poor diet have seen no reduction in recent years. In this scenario, nutritional information labels and health claims could play a decisive role in modifying product attitudes and purchase intention (consequently, eating habits). In this frame, the first objective is to analyze the role of three antecedents on attitudes toward nutritional labels and credibility from health claims. These three starting antecedents are as follows: psychological characteristics of the consumer associated with eating disorders, body image attitudes and affective reactions (pleasure and arousal). Second, this paper aims to analyze if both elements (attitudes toward nutritional labels and credibility from health claims) improve (or not) food product attitudes and then, its purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised 300 young people between 18 and 25 years old. They provided their opinion about a healthy product by completing a structured and personal questionnaire after inspecting the packaging. Path analysis with partial least squares (PLS) was carried out to test the hypotheses stated.

Findings

First, psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders (self-concept and self-esteem) have a positive significant influence on body image attitudes. Second, attitudes toward their body image have a great effect on the perception that these consumers have about the information provided by healthy food packaging. Insofar as those whose attitudes toward their body image is “damaged” seek in the nutritional label indications that make them feel calm understanding that the food they are going to buy is not harmful to their health. Moreover, credibility from health claims improves positive attitudes toward the nutritional label. On the contrary, those consumers with higher punctuations in body image assigned lower values to those items concerning nutritional information and health claims in the packaging. Third, if attitudes to nutritional information improve, then product attitudes improve too. Fourth, if product attitudes improve, then purchase intention improves too. So, food product managers should be aware of the need to improve product attitudes by working on the packaging (label and claim) to improve purchase intention.

Originality/value

First, although previous literature has investigated individual psychological characteristics related to food disorders in the health area, the study of these specific individual psychological characteristics (ineffectiveness, perfectionism, interpersonal distrust, interceptive awareness, maturity fears), is under-researched in the marketing discipline. Second, to date, different authors have investigated how important the use of credibility from health claims in packaging can be in terms of increasing product attitudes and purchase intention, as well as the development of positive attitudes toward nutritional information on the label. However, the joint study of both information sources in the packaging (credibility from health claims and attitudes toward nutritional labels) remains under-investigated.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Ilija Djekic and Nada Smigic

– This paper aims to present results from a research that analyzed the quality of labels available in the Serbian food market and consumers’ attitudes toward food labels.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present results from a research that analyzed the quality of labels available in the Serbian food market and consumers’ attitudes toward food labels.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 899 food labels have been analyzed in relation to the presence of legally required information, their readability to average consumer and presence of nutritional/health claims and/or nutritional information. In parallel, 400 respondents were interviewed in the survey of consumers’ attitudes regarding labels.

Findings

Results revealed that 38.2 per cent of food products hold labels that are not fully readable to average consumers. Regarding basic label information, 11 per cent of foods have missing information in terms of series/lot identification. The majority of the products (87.4 per cent) have only basic nutritional information with 4.6 per cent of products holding nutritional claims. Consumers with active sport activities showed higher awareness of nutritional information. There were no statistically significant differences between smokers and non-smokers regarding their attitudes toward nutritional information. Age and education play a significant role in ranking nutritional facts. The most important nutritional information is fat content, followed by sugar and vitamins.

Research limitations/implications

The nature of the study did not allow conclusions regarding causal relationship between food products and consumers as well as if nutritional information affects consumers’ choices and purchasing patronage.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are worthy, as they report the Serbian consumers’ understanding of labels and nutritional information as well as the status food labels sold in the Serbian market.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance…

2362

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance of various socioeconomic and environmental factors which may have significant role in determining nutritional status of preschoolers in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Household food availability, childcare practices, and child health status being focused as proximate determinants of child nutritional status pose problems for the simple regression analysis. An ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation of the regression with nutrition as an outcome and these three proximate variables as determinants could be biased for two reasons. First, there may be unobserved variables that are relegated to the error term but are correlated with the variables included on the right side. Second, explanatory variables may exit that are endogenous or codetermined with the outcome variable and hence are correlated with the error term. The approach to address these problems is to use instrumental variables (IV) approach. The credibility of the IV approach will rest on the ability to find variables that are correlated with the suspected endogenous explanatory variables but that do not affect the outcome variable (other than through the explanatory variable being instrumented).

Findings

The results from empirical analysis shows that factors on the maternal and household level are more important determinants of child nutritional status. Food availability, childcare practices and child health (diarrhea) are significantly related to child nutritional status. Household size has negative and significant impact on child nutritional status. Household income has an important and significant impact on child nutritional status. Childcare practices are negatively and significantly related to child nutritional status. This may suggest that as childcare practices improve, they may complement the need for other sources of improved energy for preschooler's nutritional status. The findings suggest that women's education plays a very important role in improving children's nutritional status and that the nutrition status among children depends on both better sanitary conditions and on dietary intake.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to data limitation present analysis employed child calorie adequacy ratio (CCAR) as a proxy of child nutritional status. For that to estimate, commonly used measures are nutrient intake, caloric adequacy ratio and relative caloric allocation.

Practical implications

A key message of this research is that significant achievement could be made toward reducing malnutrition through actions in sectors that have not been the traditional focus of nutritional interventions like improved hygiene conditions.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child nutritional status with the help relative more robust analytical technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Dan Petrovici, Andrew Fearne, Rodolfo M. Nayga and Dimitris Drolias

The primary purpose is to examine the factors that affect the use of nutritional facts, nutrient content claims and health claims on food label use in the United Kingdom.

3403

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose is to examine the factors that affect the use of nutritional facts, nutrient content claims and health claims on food label use in the United Kingdom.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports the results of a survey of over 300 face‐to‐face interviews with shoppers of Asda, Morrisons and Sainsbury – three of the major supermarkets in the UK.

Findings

Product class involvement factors, individual characteristics, health‐related factors (nutritional knowledge, health locus of control, perceived need of dietary change), situational, attitudinal and behavioral factors were found to be significant factors affecting the use of nutritional information and nutritional and health claims on food labeling. While the use of nutritional information and health claims increases with the stated importance of “nutrition” and “family preferences”, it is less likely among shoppers for whom “taste” is an important driver of food purchasing behaviour. There is also evidence of mistrust in health claims, as indicated by the negative relationship between the consideration of such claims and the stated importance of “quality” and perceived need to “change dietary quality” – the more discerning shoppers are the least likely to consider health claims.

Originality/value

The study provides evidence that a wider range of product class involvement factors is necessary to predict the use of nutritional information and nutritional and health claims on food labeling. It also offers a conceptualization of health‐related factors to include health locus of control as a predictor of the acquisition of nutrition and health information.

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Chien‐Huang Lin, Hung‐Chou Lin and Sheng‐Hsien Lee

This paper seeks to explore the effect of mood states and gender on the relationship between health‐related information and variety seeking (VS) behavior among food products.

1181

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore the effect of mood states and gender on the relationship between health‐related information and variety seeking (VS) behavior among food products.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted to examine the moderating effects of mood states and gender on the relationship between health‐related information and VS.

Findings

The results indicate that sad people incorporate more VS than happy people when health warnings and nutritional labeling are absent, but sad and happy people tend to converge to similar levels of VS when health warnings and nutritional labeling are present. Moreover, males incorporate less VS than females when health warnings are present, while females incorporate less VS than males when nutritional labeling is present.

Practical implications

In the absence of health warnings and nutritional labeling, it is a wiser way for leading brands to cultivate positive consumer moods by utilization of humorous ads, so that they do not search for varied products. For less well‐known brands, inducing negative consumer moods is a better way to encourage brand switching. Further, providing nutritional labeling will strengthen consumer brand loyalty by reducing their VS, especially for females. As the health warnings reduce the VS for males, marketers may take advantage of this effect by associating brand names with health warnings.

Originality/value

As VS is found to be related to over‐consumption, it is important to investigate the effects of health‐related information on VS. However, little empirical evidence has been found on the effect of health‐related information on VS behavior. Further, this study takes into consideration moderating factors as it is important for marketers to realize how health‐related information interacts with the consumer's VS behavior under different mood states and gender. The findings demonstrate that the relationship between health‐related information and VS is moderated by mood states and gender differences, an important contribution to the research on VS behavior.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Nevin Sanlier and Nurcan Yabanci

This study was aimed at assessing the anthropometry and the nutritional status of a sample of the elderly in Turkey. It was designed as a cross‐sectional study using the…

2703

Abstract

Purpose

This study was aimed at assessing the anthropometry and the nutritional status of a sample of the elderly in Turkey. It was designed as a cross‐sectional study using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) scores to assess the nutritional status of the elderly living alone, with their family, and in nursing homes.

Design/methodology/approach

The work was planned and carried out so as to assess nutritional status and MNA of 429 elderly people, aged 65 years and over living with their family (n  =  246), in nursing homes (n  =  127) or alone (n  =  56). Body weight, height, mid upper arm and calf circumference of elderly people was measured and they were asked personal questions. The list of questions included if the person pursues an independent life, the number of meals and food groups they consumed, the answers of which were scored and then assessed. With regard to MNA scale, a score of <17 is regarded as an indication of malnutrition, 17–23.5 indicates a sign for malnutrition risk and 24 and higher signifies normal level. The data were analysed with SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Means, standard deviations and cross tabulation tables were used as descriptive statistics. Pearson's correlation coefficients were determined in correlation analysis.

Findings

A statistical analysis of the scores shows that 5.4 per cent of the elderly people living alone, 2.4 per cent of those living in nursing homes and 0.4 per cent living with families could be regarded as malnourished. It was also found that elderly people living in nursing homes have more risk for malnutrition. MNA scores, based on measurements such as body weight, BMI (body mass index) and mid upper arm indicated a significant correlation with the malnutrition.

Practical implications

MNA appears to be a practical and reliable method to assess the nutritional status of elderly people and more importance should be attached to those living alone or in nursing homes to prevent their nutritional problems.

Originality/value

Assesses the nutritional status of the elderly living alone, with their family or in nursing homes in Turkey.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Torben Hansen, Ashesh Mukherjee and Thyra Uth Thomsen

This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely…

2198

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely attitude towards nutritional claims.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of qualitative study the paper investigates the notion that consumers experience anxiety about health outcomes during food choice. Further, by means of structural equation modelling based on two studies with representative samples of Danish consumers, the paper investigates the effects outlined above.

Findings

The authors show that anxiety during food choice increases information search in four product categories – ready dinner meals, salad dressing, biscuits, and cakes. Further, the results show that the positive effect of anxiety on information search is stronger when consumers have a less favourable attitude towards nutritional claims on the product label.

Practical implications

The results suggest that anxiety during food choice is desirable from the consumer welfare point of view since it leads to more informed consumers. The results also indicate that public policy makers should educate consumers to be critical about nutritional claims, since this would increase consumers' propensity to search for health information. In turn, from a managerial point of view this suggests that providers of healthy food should provide extended health information for consumers that are sceptical about nutritional claims since their scepticism towards this type of condensed information will in fact motivate extended information search.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to research in marketing on food choice and consumption: a consumption area that is important but difficult to navigate due to an increasing complexity of nutritional information at the point of sale. This paper demonstrates that situational, choice‐based anxiety and scepticism towards nutritional claims may actually be good things by prompting consumers to undertake search, and hence ultimately make more informed choices.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Ji Yan, Kun Tian, Saeed Heravi and Peter Morgan

This paper aims to investigate consumers’ demand patterns for products with nutritional benefits and products with no nutritional benefits across processed healthy and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate consumers’ demand patterns for products with nutritional benefits and products with no nutritional benefits across processed healthy and unhealthy foods. This paper integrates price changes (i.e. increases and decreases) into a demand model and quantifies their relative impact on the quantity of food purchased. First, how demand patterns vary across processed healthy and unhealthy products is investigated; second, how demand patterns vary across nutrition-benefited (NB) products and non-nutrition-benefited (NNB) products is examined; and third, how consumers respond to price increases and decreases for NB across processed healthy and unhealthy foods is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Here, a demand model quantifying scenarios for price changes in consumer food choice behaviour is proposed, and controlled for heterogeneity at household, store and brand levels.

Findings

Consumers exhibit greater sensitivity to price decreases and less sensitivity to price increases across both processed healthy and unhealthy foods. Moreover, the research shows that consumers’ demand sensitivity is greater for NNB products than for NB products, supporting our prediction that NB products have higher brand equity than NNB products. Furthermore, the research shows that consumers are more responsive to price decreases than price increases for processed healthy NB foods, but more responsive to price increases than price decreases for unhealthy NB foods. The findings suggest that consumers exhibit a desirable demand pattern for products with nutritional benefits.

Originality/value

Although studies on the effects of nutritional benefits on demand have proliferated in recent years, researchers have only estimated their impact without considering the effect of price changes. This paper contributes by examining consumers’ price sensitivity for NB products across processed healthy and unhealthy foods based on consumer scanner data, considering both directionalities of price changes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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