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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Xiao Jiang and Tat Leung Chan

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosol dynamics of the particle coagulation process using a newly developed weighted fraction Monte Carlo (WFMC) method.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosol dynamics of the particle coagulation process using a newly developed weighted fraction Monte Carlo (WFMC) method.

Design/methodology/approach

The weighted numerical particles are adopted in a similar manner to the multi-Monte Carlo (MMC) method, with the addition of a new fraction function (α). Probabilistic removal is also introduced to maintain a constant number scheme.

Findings

Three typical cases with constant kernel, free-molecular coagulation kernel and different initial distributions for particle coagulation are simulated and validated. The results show an excellent agreement between the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the corresponding analytical solutions or sectional method results. Further numerical results show that the critical stochastic error in the newly proposed WFMC method is significantly reduced when compared with the traditional MMC method for higher-order moments with only a slight increase in computational cost. The particle size distribution is also found to extend for the larger size regime with the WFMC method, which is traditionally insufficient in the classical direct simulation MC and MMC methods. The effects of different fraction functions on the weight function are also investigated.

Originality Value

Stochastic error is inevitable in MC simulations of aerosol dynamics. To minimize this critical stochastic error, many algorithms, such as MMC method, have been proposed. However, the weight of the numerical particles is not adjustable. This newly developed algorithm with an adjustable weight of the numerical particles can provide improved stochastic error reduction.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Mohammad Ali Taghikhani and Zahra Taghikhani

Using appropriate solution techniques for transformer inrush current transient study is of great prominence owing to the inevitable inclusion of differential equations…

Abstract

Purpose

Using appropriate solution techniques for transformer inrush current transient study is of great prominence owing to the inevitable inclusion of differential equations leading to complicated analysis procedures. This study aims to propose an analytical-numerical method to accurately analyze the three-phase three-limb core-type transformer inrush current in different cases considering the nonlinear behavior of the iron core.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method focuses on acquiring equations for inrush current and also the magnetic core flux by the application of a simulation-based iterative approach. In this regard, multiple integral equations are solved taking the time intervals into account. Then several derivations and integrations of matrix terms are substituted into the obtained results so as to simplify the solution process.

Findings

The method provides notable enhancements in computation time and also excellent qualities of accuracy compared with conventional numerical methods.

Practical implications

The proposed method is simulated for two three-phase transformers via MATLAB software. The obtained simulation results have been also compared with experimental tests.

Originality/value

Actually, the analytical-numerical method is capable of computing higher number of iterations in a shorter time efficiently, while making use of the conventional numerical procedures may not result in expected convergences. The simulation results of the proposed analytical-numerical technique illustrate a close agreement with the experimental test, and hence, verify the method preciousness.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Shuenn‐Yih Chang

It has been verified that the WBZ‐α method of Wood, Bossak and Zienkiewicz can have unconditional stability and numerical dissipation for linear elastic systems. However…

Abstract

Purpose

It has been verified that the WBZ‐α method of Wood, Bossak and Zienkiewicz can have unconditional stability and numerical dissipation for linear elastic systems. However, it is still unclear about its performance in the solution of nonlinear systems analytically. Hence, this study proposes to analytically investigate its numerical characteristics for solving nonlinear systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Two parameters are introduced to facilitate the basic analysis for nonlinear systems. One is the step degree of nonlinearity, which describes the stiffness change within a time step, and the other is the step degree of convergence, which describes the convergence error due to an iteration procedure.

Findings

It is theoretically proved that the sub‐family of WBZ‐α method of −1≤α<0, β=(1/4)(1−α)2 and γ=(1/2)−α is unconditionally stable and has desired numerical dissipation for any nonlinear systems even with the presence of convergence error. These theoretical results are confirmed by numerical examples.

Originality/value

This analytical study reveals that the performance of the WBZ‐α method for nonlinear systems is in general the same as that for linear elastic systems.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Michael M. Grigor’ev

The paper gives the description of boundary element method(BEM) with subdomains for the solution ofconvection—diffusion equations with variable coefficients and…

Abstract

The paper gives the description of boundary element method (BEM) with subdomains for the solution of convection—diffusion equations with variable coefficients and Burgers’ equations. At first, the whole domain is discretized into K subdomains, in which linearization of equations by representing convective velocity by the sum of constant and variable parts is carried out. Then using fundamental solutions for convection—diffusion linear equations for each subdomain the boundary integral equation (in which the part of the convective term with the constant convective velocity is not included into the pseudo‐body force) is formulated. Only part of the convective term with the variable velocity, which is, as a rule, more than one order less than convective velocity constant part contribution, is left as the pseudo‐source. On the one hand, this does not disturb the numerical BEM—algorithm stability and, on the other hand, this leads to significant improvement in the accuracy of solution. The global matrix, similar to the case of finite element method, has block band structure whereas its width depends only on the numeration order of nodes and subdomains. It is noted, that in comparison with the direct boundary element method the number of global matrix non‐zero elements is not proportional to the square of the number of nodes, but only to the total number of nodal points. This allows us to use the BEM for the solution of problems with very fine space discretization. The proposed BEM with subdomains technique has been used for the numerical solution of one‐dimensional linear steady‐state convective—diffusion problem with variable coefficients and one‐dimensional non‐linear Burgers’ equation for which exact analytical solutions are available. It made it possible to find out the BEM correctness according to both time and space. High precision of the numerical method is noted. The good point of the BEM is the high iteration convergence, which is disturbed neither by high Reynolds numbers nor by the presence of negative velocity zones.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

A. Savini

Gives introductory remarks about chapter 1 of this group of 31 papers, from ISEF 1999 Proceedings, in the methodologies for field analysis, in the electromagnetic…

Abstract

Gives introductory remarks about chapter 1 of this group of 31 papers, from ISEF 1999 Proceedings, in the methodologies for field analysis, in the electromagnetic community. Observes that computer package implementation theory contributes to clarification. Discusses the areas covered by some of the papers ‐ such as artificial intelligence using fuzzy logic. Includes applications such as permanent magnets and looks at eddy current problems. States the finite element method is currently the most popular method used for field computation. Closes by pointing out the amalgam of topics.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Xiao Jiang and Tat Leung Chan

The purpose of this paper is to study the soot formation and evolution by using this newly developed Lagrangian particle tracking with weighted fraction Monte Carlo…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the soot formation and evolution by using this newly developed Lagrangian particle tracking with weighted fraction Monte Carlo (LPT-WFMC) method.

Design/methodology/approach

The weighted soot particles are used in this MC framework and is tracked using Lagrangian approach. A detailed soot model based on the LPT-WFMC method is used to study the soot formation and evolution in ethylene laminar premixed flames.

Findings

The LPT-WFMC method is validated by both experimental and numerical results of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and Multi-Monte Carlo (MMC) methods. Compared with DSMC and MMC methods, the stochastic error analysis shows this new LPT-WFMC method could further extend the particle size distributions (PSDs) and improve the accuracy for predicting soot PSDs at larger particle size regime.

Originality/value

Compared with conventional weighted particle schemes, the weight distributions in LPT-WFMC method are adjustable by adopting different fraction functions. As a result, the number of numerical soot particles in each size interval could be also adjustable. The stochastic error of PSDs in larger particle size regime can also be minimized by increasing the number of numerical soot particles at larger size interval.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

N. Brännberg and J. Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE)applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metalforming, non‐metal forming and powder…

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Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming and powder metallurgy are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on the subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for the last five years, and more than 1100 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Vahed Ghiasi, Husaini Omar, Bujang B. Kim Huat, Ratnasamy Muniandi, B. Zainuddin and Yusof

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the numerical methods in tunnel engineering and their capabilities to indicate the fracture and failure in all kinds of tunneling…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the numerical methods in tunnel engineering and their capabilities to indicate the fracture and failure in all kinds of tunneling methods such as New Austrian Tunneling Method, tunnel boring machine and cut‐cover. An essential definition of numerical modeling of tunnels to determine the interaction between geo‐material (soil and rock) surrounding the tunnel structure is discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Tunnel geo‐material (soil and rock) interaction requires advanced constitutive models for the numerical simulation of linear, nonlinear, time‐dependent, anisotropic, isotropic, homogenous and nonhomogeneous behaviors. The numerical models discussed in this paper are developed in finite element method (FEM), finite deference method (FDM), boundary element method and discrete element method and these tools are used to illustrate the behavior of tunnel structure deformation under different loads and in complicated conditions. The disadvantage of this method is the tunnel lining assumed an independent structure under fixed load which is unable to model soil‐lining interaction. Predicting the effect of all natural factors on tunnels is the most difficult method. The above‐mentioned numerical methods are very simple and quick to use and the results are conservative and practical for users. One of the most significant advantages of the numerical method is in predicting the critical area surrounding the tunnel and the tunnel structure before making the tunnel construction due to different loads.

Findings

Numerical modeling is used as control method in reducing the risk of tunnel construction failures. Since some factors such as settlement and deformation are not completely predictable in rock and soil surrounding the tunnel, using numerical modeling is a very economical and capable method in predicting the behavior of tunnel structures in various complicated conditions of loading. Another benefit of using numerical simulation is in the colorful illustrations predicting the tunnel behavior before, during and after construction and operation.

Originality/value

There are not many conducted studies using numerical models to tunnel structures that estimate the critical zones. As some of the methods available have limitation in simulating and modeling the whole tunnel design factors, numerical modeling seems to be the best option, because it is fast, economical, accurate and more interesting in predicating critical zones in tunnel. However, what softwares predict are not always the same as real ground nature conditions in which there is tunnel.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Seyi F. Olatoyinbo, Sarma L. Rani and Abdelkader Frendi

The purpose of this study is to investigate the accuracy and applicability of the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) method for large-eddy simulations (LES) of decaying…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the accuracy and applicability of the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) method for large-eddy simulations (LES) of decaying isotropic turbulence.

Design/methodology/approach

In an earlier paper, the FDV method was successfully demonstrated for simulations of laminar flows with speeds varying from low subsonic to high supersonic Mach numbers. In the current study, the FDV method, implemented in a finite element framework, is used to perform LESs of decaying isotropic turbulence. The FDV method is fundamentally derived from the Lax–Wendroff Scheme (LWS) by replacing the explicit time derivatives in LWS with a weighted combination of explicit and implicit time derivatives. The increased implicitness and the inherent numerical dissipation of FDV contribute to the scheme’s numerical stability and monotonicity. Understanding the role of numerical dissipation that is inherent to the FDV method is essential for the maturation of FDV into a robust scheme for LES of turbulent flows. Accordingly, three types of LES of decaying isotropic turbulence were performed. The first two types of LES utilized explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models, namely, the constant-coefficient Smagorinsky and dynamic Smagorinsky models. In the third, no explicit SGS model was employed; instead, the numerical dissipation inherent to FDV was used to emulate the role played by explicit SGS models. Such an approach is commonly known as Implicit LES (ILES). A new formulation was also developed for quantifying the FDV numerical viscosity that principally arises from the convective terms of the filtered Navier–Stokes equations.

Findings

The temporal variation of the turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy and the energy spectra are presented and analyzed. At all grid resolutions, the temporal profiles of kinetic energy showed good agreement with t(−1.43) theoretical scaling in the fully developed turbulent flow regime, where t represents time. The energy spectra also showed reasonable agreement with the Kolmogorov’s k(−5/3) power law in the inertial subrange, with the spectra moving closer to the Kolmogorov scaling at higher-grid resolutions. The intrinsic numerical viscosity and the dissipation rate of the FDV scheme are quantified, both in physical and spectral spaces, and compared with those of the two SGS LES runs. Furthermore, at a finite number of flow realizations, the numerical viscosities of FDV and of the Streamline Upwind/Petrov–Galerkin (SUPG) finite element method are compared. In the initial stages of turbulence development, all three LES cases have similar viscosities. But, once the turbulence is fully developed, implicit LES is less dissipative compared to the two SGS LES runs. It was also observed that the SUPG method is significantly more dissipative than the three LES approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Just as any computational method, the limitations are based on the available computational resources.

Practical implications

Solving problems involving turbulent flows is by far the biggest challenge facing engineers and scientists in the twenty-first century, this is the road that the authors have embarked upon in this paper and the road ahead of is very long.

Social implications

Understanding turbulence is a very lofty goal and a challenging one as well; however, if the authors succeed, the rewards are limitless.

Originality/value

The derivation of an explicit expression for the numerical viscosity tensor of FDV is an important contribution of this study, and is a crucial step forward in elucidating the fundamental properties of the FDV method. The comparison of viscosities for the three LES cases and the SUPG method has important implications for the application of ILES approach for turbulent flow simulations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 41 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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