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Article

Chris Hatton and Eric Emerson

The purpose of this paper is to present data drawn from the Department for Education (DfE)concerning trends in the number of children identified as having a learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present data drawn from the Department for Education (DfE)concerning trends in the number of children identified as having a learning disability within state schools in England.

Design/methodology/approach

Data based on the school census conducted by the DfE was examined annually for 2009/2010 to 2014/2015, to determine the number of children identified as having moderate learning difficulty (MLD), severe learning difficulty (SLD) or profound multiple learning difficulty (PMLD) within state schools in England, at two levels: having a Statement of Educational Needs/Education Health Care Plan, or at School Action Plus.

Findings

The number of children identified as MLD reduced substantially over time, for both statemented children and children identified at the School Action Plus level. In contrast, the smaller number of statemented children with SLD or PMLD increased over time, in line with increasing school rolls and epidemiological trends.

Research limitations/implications

Further work is needed to understand the sharp reduction in the number of children being identified as having MLD within schools, and the educational support being offered to this group of children. Better information is also needed on children with learning disabilities not being educated in the state school sector.

Originality/value

This paper highlights important trends in the identification of children with learning disabilities in state schools in England, with consequences for how large groups of children are being supported.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Book part

Jessica S. Bean

This paper uses newly compiled data from two surveys of female home workers undertaken by the Women’s Industrial Council in London in 1897 and 1907 to investigate various…

Abstract

This paper uses newly compiled data from two surveys of female home workers undertaken by the Women’s Industrial Council in London in 1897 and 1907 to investigate various issues related to their work and wages. The reports detail the occupations, average weekly earnings and hours, marital status, and household size, composition, and total income of approximately 850 female home workers, offering a unique, and as yet unused, opportunity to explore the labor market characteristics of the lowest-paid workers in the early twentieth century. Analysis of the data reveals that the female home workers who were surveyed were drawn overwhelmingly from poor households. Home workers were older than female factory workers, most were married or widowed, and the majority of married workers reported that their husbands were out of work, sick, disabled, or in casual or irregular work. Weekly wages and hours of work varied considerably by industry, but averaged about 7–9s. and 40–45 hours per week, with many workers reporting the desire for more work. The relationship between hours of work (daily and weekly) and hourly wages was negative, and the wives and daughters of men who were out of the labor force due to unemployment or illness tended to work longer hours at lower wages, as did women who lived in households where some health issue was present. These findings lend support to contemporary perceptions that women driven into the labor force by immediate household need were forced to take the lowest-paid work, whether because they lacked skill and experience or bargaining power in the labor market.

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Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-782-6

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Article

Song and Seung‐Min

This paper is to develop a quality measure to evaluate the quality level of child care service in the regional level. By utilizing the biannual intensive child care…

Abstract

This paper is to develop a quality measure to evaluate the quality level of child care service in the regional level. By utilizing the biannual intensive child care statistical reports, ten variables are integrated and summarized as a quality measure for child care service in regional level by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Conclusively, it is possible to get a comprehensive measure and the measure obtained from data between 2003 and 2008 illustrates the difference in child care service quality among regions over years. With the measure developed by this research, each region can also get very good insight into what kinds of factors of child care service should be paid more attention to in order to improve the quality of its child care service. Moreover, the measure obtained in this paper is proven reliable and robust in that it reflects the quality of child care service in each region and gives us statistically uniform quality scores with a different data set.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Book part

John A. Pandiani, Christine VanVleck and Steven M. Banks

A first, basic question regarding the complexity of systems of care addresses the degrees to which individuals who are served by one program or service sector are also…

Abstract

A first, basic question regarding the complexity of systems of care addresses the degrees to which individuals who are served by one program or service sector are also served by another program or service sector during the same time period. Program managers need to know whether and to what degree the young people on their caseload are also on the caseload of another specified program. The need for service coordination between community mental health and juvenile justice programs in the same geographical region, for instance, is indicated by the number of young people on both programs. This information also provides higher level system managers with an indication of the degree to which the community mental health program is serving this group of young people who have an elevated need for mental health services. Where there are integrated information systems or where individual information systems share unique person identifiers, caseload integration can be directly measured. In the absence of the ability to share unique person identifiers, information about caseload overlap may be derived using the statistical technology of Probabilistic Population Estimation (PPE).

Details

Research on Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-416-4

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Article

Tomoko Kanata and N.J. Banks

The main aim of this article is to consider the different representations of lone‐mother families in Japan and Britain and to compare and analyse some of the issues which…

Abstract

The main aim of this article is to consider the different representations of lone‐mother families in Japan and Britain and to compare and analyse some of the issues which lone‐mother families in the two countries face in the light of three considerations: social policy, specific forms of support networks and changing family structures in the wider context. The focus on these issues is helpful in understanding a significant difference in the relative percentages of lone‐parent family in Britain and Japan. The paper focuses on lone‐mothers rather than fathers, because mothers in both countries are in general poorer and facing more hardship than lone fathers.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article

Luigi Aldieri and Concetto Paolo Vinci

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the correlation between the educational level and the number of children in Italy, where a very low fertility rate may be observed.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the correlation between the educational level and the number of children in Italy, where a very low fertility rate may be observed.

Design/methodology/approach

Since the number of children ever born is a count variable, Poisson regression is the suitable statistical procedure used to conduct the empirical analysis. First, the authors estimate the correlation between the female's education and her number of children, and then the authors use also partner's education to take into account the family dimension. Furthermore, in the context of fertility, zero observations might be due either to the choice not to have children, or to the impossibility of becoming a mother. For this reason, the authors adopt also a more appropriate tool, that is a zero‐inflated Poisson regression.

Findings

From the empirical results, a significant negative correlation may be observed between the level of education and the number of children.

Originality/value

There are other studies in the literature focusing on the correlation between female participation rate and her fertility rate in the Italian case. In those frameworks, the education variable is usually considered as a control variable. The paper's contribution to the literature is twofold: on one hand the authors develop a theoretical model giving an intuition reason of mechanism underlying the fertility behaviour of families; on the other hand, the authors implement more appropriate empirical models to test for this hypothesis, taking education as the main variable.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part

Donald C. Wood

Japanese preschools have been the subject of extensive ethnographic investigation over the last 40 years or more. However, the market for preschools in Japan has received…

Abstract

Japanese preschools have been the subject of extensive ethnographic investigation over the last 40 years or more. However, the market for preschools in Japan has received almost no such attention. This market is rapidly changing, for the recent sharp decrease in the number of children in the country has resulted in a growing struggle on the part of kindergartens to attract children, largely by catering to the needs of mothers, for their survival. This chapter, by considering children as a common-pool resource (CPR) for which kindergartens quietly vie with one another, examines the situation in the capital city of Akita Prefecture, and shows how mothers – and also households – have been able to benefit in terms of convenience due to competition among kindergartens for their children.

Details

Economic Development, Integration, and Morality in Asia and the Americas
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-542-6

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Book part

Alessio Fusco and Nizamul Islam

This paper investigates the effect of household size, and in particular of the number of children of different age groups, on poverty, defined as being in a situation of

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of household size, and in particular of the number of children of different age groups, on poverty, defined as being in a situation of low income. We apply various static and dynamic probit models to control for the endogeneity of the variables of interest and to account for unobserved heterogeneity, state dependence, and serially correlated error components. Using Luxembourg longitudinal data, we show that the number of children of different age groups significantly affects the probability of being poor. However, the magnitude of the effect varies across different specifications. In addition, we find strong evidence of true poverty persistency due to past experience, spurious poverty persistency due to individual heterogeneity, and transitory random shocks.

Details

Inequality, Redistribution and Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-040-2

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Book part

Rosalind Chait Barnett

Major demographic trends are affecting the work schedules of U.S. employees with likely consequences for health and quality-of-life outcomes. These trends include long…

Abstract

Major demographic trends are affecting the work schedules of U.S. employees with likely consequences for health and quality-of-life outcomes. These trends include long work hours, at least for some groups of employees, and an increasing proportion of employees in the U.S. and other countries who are working nonstandard work schedules. This chapter contains a review of the empirical literature linking the number of hours worked and the distribution of those hours at the individual and couple level to a variety of outcomes, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In addition, because the majority of U.S. workers live in dyads (Jacobs & Gerson (2004). The time divide: Work, family and gender inequality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), major attention is given to the impact of work hours on the employee's spouse as well as on the employee. It is also noted that the relationship between work hours and outcomes might be different among employed single women with children. Data are presented from two new studies conducted by my research team to fill some of the critical knowledge gaps. Finally, I suggest some directions for future research.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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