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Article

Frederick Warner

The recently established SCOPE‐RADTEST (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment‐Radioactivity from Nuclear Test Explosions) programme is examining releases of…

Abstract

The recently established SCOPE‐RADTEST (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment‐Radioactivity from Nuclear Test Explosions) programme is examining releases of radioactivity due to nuclear detonations which have occurred at various test sites around the world, for peaceful and military purposes, taking into consideration both ecological and human effects. Presents the background to this programme, together with a summary of the proceedings of RADTEST’s North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advanced Research Workshop meetings held during 1994 in Vienna, Austria, and Barnaul, Russia, and of the 1995 meeting in Brussels/Liège, Belgium.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article

G. Hensley

The Reprocessing Engineering Division of British Nuclear Fuels undertakes the design of nuclear chemical plants for construction and subsequent operation at the Sellafield…

Abstract

The Reprocessing Engineering Division of British Nuclear Fuels undertakes the design of nuclear chemical plants for construction and subsequent operation at the Sellafield Works of the Reprocessing Operations Division. Plant construction cannot take place until it has been demonstrated that the chosen design will allow the plant to operate in an adequately safe manner, corresponding to an extremely low level of risk. Risk, or the cumulative frequency and consequences of all potential hazards, is evaluated by means of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA).

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article

Päivi Tampere, Kaja Tampere and Vilma Luoma-Aho

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the authority communication and its relationship to citizens during a disaster. This analysis is crucial for organisations to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the authority communication and its relationship to citizens during a disaster. This analysis is crucial for organisations to help them understand the different ways in which crises are perceived by citizens, and the reactions they may cause. The results will help authorities in planning their crisis communication.

Design/methodology/approach

Facebook comments written by authorities and citizens are studied and analysed in an exploratory case study related to the 2011 catastrophe in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant via content analysis.

Findings

The analysis of Facebook comments revealed that authorities have to be prepared for communicating with citizens with diverging interests, who have different perceptions on a crisis and that relation is not the same with those different profiles of citizens.

Research limitations/implications

This case study only focusses on the Fukushima debate from the point of view of the authorities and citizens.

Practical implications

This study argues that it is crucial for both authorities and public relations practitioners to acknowledge that competing opinion holders are challenging each other and authority online, and that crisis communication should be planned accordingly.

Originality/value

The participant profiles can help organisations to clarify citizens’ crisis perceptions that can emerge in online discussions. Practitioners need to concentrate on determining how to get their voice heard so that there are perceived credible and legitimate actors.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article

Iyad Mohammad Jadalhaq and Enas Mohammad Alqodsi

This study aims to illustrate the special liability regime applying to a nuclear operator for damage caused to individuals, property and natural resources, after the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to illustrate the special liability regime applying to a nuclear operator for damage caused to individuals, property and natural resources, after the United Arab Emirates (UAE) implemented the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963 through Federal Law No. 4 of 2012. This paper contrasts this special regime with the default regime of civil liability set out in the UAE Civil Code. The comparison helps clarify the legal nature of nuclear operator liability, the extent of protection it affords to the parties injured in a nuclear incident, the conditions under which it obtains, as well as the different damage headings it allows.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a desk-based legal research.

Findings

The main novelties enshrined in the special liability regime for nuclear facility operators are the adoption of an objective approach (strict liability) and the introduction of exceptions different from those contemplated in the default regime spelled out in the UAE Civil Code, thereby affording greater protection to victims of nuclear leakages.

Originality/value

This paper is a first in-depth commentary of UAE Federal Law No. 4 of 2012 Concerning Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage. Considering the UAE’s dualistic approach to the implementation of international obligations, and the present lack of reliable alternative avenues towards compensation beyond private operator liability, the overview provided here will be of value to regional and international practitioners – including from neighbouring countries to the UAE (Oman, Qatar, Bahrain) – that are not currently signatories to any convention on nuclear liability.

Details

Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9407

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Article

Liisa Sallinen, Inkeri Ruuska and Tuomas Ahola

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding on stakeholder influence in large projects, using nuclear power plant projects and a governmental stakeholder that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding on stakeholder influence in large projects, using nuclear power plant projects and a governmental stakeholder that influences them as the empirical example. The authors focus on examining the means used by the stakeholder to influence the projects.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts the descriptive single case study approach, using data from 18 semi‐structured interviews. The authors interviewed experts at a governmental stakeholder organization, but in order to gain insight from outside the governmental stakeholder, they also interviewed two other organizations: an energy company, and the highest administrative ministry in the nuclear industry.

Findings

The governmental stakeholder bases its influence on regulations and laws. This paper points out the distinct means that are used by the governmental stakeholder to influence nuclear projects: means that restrain, and also means that enable and advance projects. Both types of means are used at the same time. Enabling means include, among others, allowing projects and firms to contribute to the very same regulations that control the projects.

Originality/value

Much of the earlier research emphasizes government influence as negative to projects, but this paper shows an example of a stakeholder whose influence also includes aspects that are beneficial for projects. The governmental stakeholder can also be understood as a stakeholder that combines two stakes: its own legal stake, and society's moral stake. In carrying society's stake in projects, the governmental stakeholder acts as an intermediary.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article

During the design of the Atlas I.C.B.M. it was considered necessary to conduct full‐scale combined structural loading and aerodynamic heating tests for the purpose of…

Abstract

During the design of the Atlas I.C.B.M. it was considered necessary to conduct full‐scale combined structural loading and aerodynamic heating tests for the purpose of proving the ability of the nose adaptor and thrust barrel to withstand the combined effects of load and temperature. The following items were required to perform the tests: heating elements to radiate 450 sq. ft. of specimen area at a maximum rate of 10,000 B.T.U/sq. ft./hr., 1,500 KVA at 44 volts for six mins., controller, three variable pressure regulators for programming 3,000 lb./sq. in. hydraulic pressure to the loading cylinders, six‐channel programmer for varying heating and loading rates, a method for relating the capabilities of the equipment to the desired heat and load curves. Descriptions arc given of the heating equipment, heat controller, load controller, programmer, preliminary heat tests, preliminary load tests and test programmes as used by the Systems Test Laboratory of Convair‐Astronautics. As experience was gained by testing the need for preliminary tests was greatly reduced. The method described continues to be a valuable tool for performing full‐scale missile structural tests.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article

Lanre‐Abass Bolatito Asiata

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risk arising from technological devices, such as closed circuit television (CCTV) and nuclear power plants and the consequent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risk arising from technological devices, such as closed circuit television (CCTV) and nuclear power plants and the consequent effect on the rights to privacy and security of individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents critical and conceptual analyses of CCTV, nuclear power plants and the rights of individuals. It also analyses how communitarianism and liberal individualism would respond to right‐infringements and risk‐imposition. It draws on W.D. Ross's prima facie and actual duties to explain the pre‐eminence of duty when certain duties conflict in a bid to improve technology.

Findings

The paper discovers the importance of rights to individuals, particularly the rights to privacy and security. It shows that, in some situations, government's duty to respect the right to the privacy of individuals conflicts with the duty to provide public goods, such as CCTV. The paper, therefore, stresses that one duty has greater moral force than the other. In essence, the more incumbent duty can be employed by government in justifying right‐infringement and risk‐imposition, though this does not disvalue the rights of individuals.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into ways of addressing questions such as: when is it morally acceptable or justifiable to expose others to risk? When is infringement on people's rights permissible? Also, the paper is relevant to those in the areas of ethics and technology because it offers an ethical analysis of risk‐imposition and right‐infringement by examining how ethical theories, such as communitarianism and liberal individualism, would assess risks resulting from CCTV and nuclear energy. It argues that consent is not enough to justify risk‐imposition and right‐infringement. It concludes by drawing on W.D. Ross's prima facie and actual duties as a means of justifying risk‐imposition and right‐infringement by government.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article

From earliest times the land and all it produced to feed and sustain those who dwelt on it was mankind's greatest asset. From the Biblical “land of milk and honey”, down…

Abstract

From earliest times the land and all it produced to feed and sustain those who dwelt on it was mankind's greatest asset. From the Biblical “land of milk and honey”, down through history to the “country of farmers” visualised by the American colonists when they severed the links with the mother country, those who had all their needs met by the land were blessed — they still are! The inevitable change brought about by the fast‐growing populations caused them to turn to industry; Britain introduced the “machine age” to the world; the USA the concept of mass production — and the troubles and problems of man increased to the present chaos of to‐day. There remained areas which depended on an agri‐economy — the granary countries, as the vast open spaces of pre‐War Russia; now the great plains of North America, to supply grain for the bread of the peoples of the dense industrial conurbations, which no longer produced anything like enough to feed themselves.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 86 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

K. Arshak and O. Korostynska

Thin films of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) mixtures were investigated for γ‐radiation dosimetry purpose. Samples were fabricated using thermal vacuum…

Abstract

Thin films of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) mixtures were investigated for γ‐radiation dosimetry purpose. Samples were fabricated using thermal vacuum evaporation technique. The electrical properties of mixed oxides thin films [(TeO2)1−x(In2O3)x, where x=0 and 10 per cent by weight] and their changes under the influence of γ‐radiation were investigated. Samples with contacts having a planar structure showed increase in the values of current with the increase in radiation dose up to a certain dose level. Thin films in the form of pn‐junctions were fabricated with (TeO2)1−x(In2O3)x as p‐type material and sulphur as n‐type material. These pn‐junctions exhibited Zener diode behaviour. The current‐voltage characteristics for as‐deposited and γ‐irradiated samples were recorded. The level of response for all the fabricated devices was found to be highly dependent on the composition of the exposed material.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

Nda Muhammad, Mohd Shalahuddin Adnan, Mohd Azlan Mohd Yosuff and Kabiru Abdullahi Ahmad

Sediment measurement is usually accessible on a periodic or distinct basis. The measurement of sediment (suspended and bedload), especially in the field, is vital in…

Abstract

Purpose

Sediment measurement is usually accessible on a periodic or distinct basis. The measurement of sediment (suspended and bedload), especially in the field, is vital in keeping essential data of sediment transport and deposition. Various techniques for measuring sediment have been used over time each with its merits and demerits. The techniques discussed in this paper for suspended sediment include bottle, acoustic, pump, laser diffraction, nuclear and optical. Other techniques for bedload measurement are; River bedload trap (RBT), CSU/FU bedload trap, Helley–Smith, Polish Hydrological Services (PIHM) device, pit and trough, vortex tube, radioactive traces and bedload–surrogate technologies. However, the choice of technique depends on multiple factors ranging from budget constraint, availability of equipment, manpower and data requirement. The purpose of this paper is to present valuable information on selected techniques used in sediment measurement, to aid researchers/practitioners in the choice of sediment measurement technique.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a general review of selected field techniques used in sediment measurement (suspended and bedload). Each techniques mode of operation, merits and demerits are discussed.

Findings

This paper highlights that each technique has its peculiar merits and demerits. However, two techniques are generally preferred over others; the bottle sampling and the Helley–Smith sampler for measuring suspended and bedload sediment. This is because the applicability of these techniques is quite widespread and time-tested.

Originality/value

This review paper provides an in-depth description and comparison of selected existing field sediment measurement techniques. The objective is to ease decision-making about the choice of technique, as well as to identify the suitability and applicability of the chosen technique.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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