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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

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Abstract

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Book part

Francis John Troyan and Megan Madigan Peercy

Situated within the recent scholarship on core practices in teacher education, this chapter presents a collaborative self-study that explored one aspect of our developing…

Abstract

Situated within the recent scholarship on core practices in teacher education, this chapter presents a collaborative self-study that explored one aspect of our developing practice as teacher educators through examination of Francis’s use of mediation in lesson rehearsal. Using examples from his practice, we explore the following research question: How does a teacher educator learn to provide mediation to create a responsive zone of proximal development within lesson rehearsal?

Specifically, we use Vygotskian sociocultural theory to examine Francis’s use of mediation during the rehearsal of the core practice supporting interaction and target language comprehensibility (I-TLC), one of the core practices addressed in his world language teacher preparation program. This self-study of mediation in lesson rehearsal illuminated Francis’ evolving practice as a facilitator of lesson rehearsal of novice teachers who are culturally and linguistically diverse, and who are preparing to use practices that are responsive to culturally and linguistically diverse students.

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Self-Study of Language and Literacy Teacher Education Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-538-0

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Book part

Eucman Lee and Phanish Puranam

Expertise in designing organizations is an important construct for scholars interested in studying the micro-foundations of organizational performance. We investigate the…

Abstract

Expertise in designing organizations is an important construct for scholars interested in studying the micro-foundations of organizational performance. We investigate the existence and nature of this expertise in this chapter. Conceptualizing the designing of organizations as a problem-solving process, we describe the underlying structure of this problem space. Further, we propose that this process of problem solving should look different for “greenfield” design problems and for “brownfield” redesign problems. We test our arguments through a comparison of the think-aloud verbal protocols of 16 subjects with greater experience with organization design problems (experts) and 16 subjects with significantly lower experience with organization design problems (novices). The results suggest that the parts of the problem that experts focus on are different from those that novices focus on, and expertise matters differently for design and redesign problems.

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Article

Mustafa Suphi Erden and Aude Billard

The purpose of this study is to develop a robotic training system for the hand movements during manual welding. The system provides real-time notice-feedback with sound or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a robotic training system for the hand movements during manual welding. The system provides real-time notice-feedback with sound or light alarms, whenever the welding hand vibrates beyond the nominal level observed with professional welders.

Design/methodology/approach

The large variations of hand movements are detected by monitoring the deviation of the tool position from a smooth curve estimated in real time by a Kalman filter. An alarm is generated in the form of a flashing light or beep sound whenever the deviations exceed a predetermined threshold. The performance of hand movements is measured in terms of the variations of the position data. Twelve novice and five professional welders took part in the experiments and answered a questionnaire that assessed the usability and work load of the system.

Findings

Compared to the sound alarms, the light alarms resulted in a larger and statistically significant decrease in the variation of hand movements of the novice welders and brought the level of variation close to that of the professional welders. The alarms did not result in a significant decrease in the variation of hand movements of the professional welders. The responses to the questionnaire indicated that both professional and novice welders found the system useful and they did not experience any significant work load.

Social implications

The system developed in this study can ease the training of novice welders, by speeding up the learning and reducing the need for human tutors.

Originality/value

This study is first to provide real-time notice-feedback for training while manual welding, based on a comparison of the performances of novice and professional welders.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article

Anne Sihvonen and Pertti Vakkari

This study explores how experts and novices in pedagogics expanded queries supported by the ERIC thesaurus, and how this was connected to the search effectiveness in an…

Abstract

This study explores how experts and novices in pedagogics expanded queries supported by the ERIC thesaurus, and how this was connected to the search effectiveness in an easy and a difficult search task. The expert group consisted of 15 undergraduates in pedagogy and the novice group of 15 students with no previous studies in this field. Their search logs were recorded and a pre‐ and post‐search interview was conducted. The results show that the number and type of terms selected from the thesaurus for expansion by experts improved search effectiveness, whereas there were no connections between the use of thesaurus and improvement of effectiveness among novices. The effectiveness of expansions varied between the facets of the queries. Thus, a vital condition for benefiting from a thesaurus in query expansion to improve search results is sufficient familiarity with the search topic. The results suggest also that it is not in the first place the number of terms used in expansion, but their type and quality that are crucial for search success.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 60 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Quan Lu, Jiyue Zhang, Jing Chen and Ji Li

The purpose of this paper is to examine the difference between experts and novices when reading with navigational table of contents (N-TOC). Experts refer to readers with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the difference between experts and novices when reading with navigational table of contents (N-TOC). Experts refer to readers with high level of domain knowledge; novices refer to readers with low level of domain knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed a controlled experiment of three reading tasks (including fact finding task, partial understanding task, and full-text understanding task) on an N-TOC system for 35 post-graduates of Wuhan University who have rich experience in reading with N-TOC. Participants’ domain knowledge was measured by pre-experiment questionnaires; reading performance data including score, time, navigation use, and evaluation of N-TOC were collected.

Findings

The results showed that there was significant difference in neither navigation use nor participants’ evaluation, but domain experts performed significantly better in both score and time of all tasks than domain novices, which revealed an “illusion of control” phenomenon that rich experience in reading with N-TOC enabled domain novices to achieve the same performance as domain experts. In addition, this research found that N-TOC was not suitable for domain novices to solve full-text understanding task because of “cognitive overload” phenomenon.

Originality/value

This study makes a good contribution to the literature on the effect of domain knowledge on reading performance during N-TOC reading and how to provide better digital reading service in the field of library science and information science.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article

Li‐Chen Tsai, Sheue‐Ling Hwang and Kuo‐Hao Tang

Expert and novice readers tag documents with different descriptions; this study is intended to discover which readers would generate the most reliable and most…

Abstract

Purpose

Expert and novice readers tag documents with different descriptions; this study is intended to discover which readers would generate the most reliable and most representative sets of tags.

Design/methodology/approach

One group of experts and one group of novices were recruited. These two groups were asked to provide tags for document bookmarks in a Mozilla Firefox browser. In the experimental analysis we defined two measures – similarity and relevance – to describe the differences between the two groups.

Findings

Tags chosen by experts yielded better similarity and relevance values in all analyses. Tags chosen by the expert group had higher commonality in pairwise similarity analysis; moreover, the relevance analysis showed that tags chosen by experts reflected better understanding of the content.

Originality/value

Tagging behavior has become highly popular on the web, and its study has commercial merit. Tags from experts represent the structure behind the knowledge involved; expert representation may be vastly more helpful than novice representation for promoting understanding of content in an era characterized by an explosion of information.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article

Jarle Aarstad, Inger Beate Pettersen and Karl-Erik Henriksen

Previous studies demonstrate that novice entrepreneurs access fewer resources than experienced portfolio entrepreneurs. From an entrepreneurial learning perspective, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies demonstrate that novice entrepreneurs access fewer resources than experienced portfolio entrepreneurs. From an entrepreneurial learning perspective, the purpose of this paper is to investigate why they differ in terms of accessing critical resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors studied entrepreneurs in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry, which is conservative with strict regulatory regimes and overall high-entry barriers, and in which a good reputation is crucial. Hence, the authors argue that the industry is well suited for a study of the research questions.

Findings

The novices’ mind-sets were anchored in technological ideas and they had problems in prioritizing the critical business relationships and market opportunities. They were also unwilling to compromise on ownership control and to disclose business secrets. Portfolio entrepreneurs, on the other hand, acknowledged that technology had had little value if they could not convince market actors. Therefore, they proactively aimed to establish business relations early in the process. They emphasized that a major lesson was to avoid developing excessive attachment to the product but to be willing to share the risks and profits with other industry and market actors.

Research limitations/implications

The authors had a limited number of cases, and future contributions should aim to study a larger pool of enterprises, preferably in different industries and national contexts.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that novices can learn from the willingness to compromise, in terms of ownership control and disclosure of confidential information to business partners, shown by experienced entrepreneurs. They should also be more willing to involve potential customers at an early stage to gain market knowledge and access.

Originality/value

From a learning perspective, this is the first study investigating why novice and experienced entrepreneurs differ in terms of accessing critical resources.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article

Asma Khatun and S.M. Zabed Ahmed

The aim of this paper is to empirically examine the usability of the Koha OPAC from a user perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to empirically examine the usability of the Koha OPAC from a user perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of usability tests with Koha were carried out at a private university in Bangladesh. Both experienced and novice users participated in these tests. Experienced users participated only once, whereas novices took part in three successive sessions. At first, novices’ initial performance was recorded. Then, they performed the same tasks after a short training tutorial. Novices again participated in the retention experiment with the same tasks after four weeks. A set of seven tasks was given to the users to see their performance in terms of time taken, number of errors made and success scores. Performance data were captured through a computer screen recording software, and satisfaction scores were obtained using a modified version of Questionnaire on User Interface Satisfaction (QUIS). Comparisons of performance and satisfaction with Koha OPAC were made between experienced users and novices’ initial, learning and retention experiments and amongst novices’ three test sessions.

Findings

The results showed significant performance difference between experienced and novices’ initial session. Novices could easily pick up the functionality of Koha OPAC when a brief training was provided. The comparative analysis of performance between experienced users and novices’ learning showed no significant difference between these sessions. There was a significant difference between experienced and novices’ retention in terms of success scores. The comparison amongst novices’ initial, learning and retention sessions showed significant performance differences in time taken and errors made. The QUIS results also showed significant differences in subjective satisfaction for several items between experienced users and naïve sessions, and for one item amongst novices’ three experiments.

Originality/value

This is a pioneering study of the task-based usability of Koha OPAC. The findings from this study will encourage researchers to empirically examine the usability of other open-source ILSs, which might result in improved user performance and satisfaction with these systems.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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