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Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2017

Marc-David L. Seidel and Henrich R. Greve

In social theory, emergence is the process of novelty (1) creation, (2) growth, and (3) formation into a recognizable social object, process, or structure. Emergence is…

Abstract

In social theory, emergence is the process of novelty (1) creation, (2) growth, and (3) formation into a recognizable social object, process, or structure. Emergence is recognized as important for the existence of novel features of society such as new organizations, new practices, or new relations between actors. In this introduction to the volume on emergence, we introduce a framework for examining emergence processes and theories that have been applied or can be applied to each of the three stages. We also review each volume chapter and discuss their relation to each other. Finally, we make suggestions on the future of research on social emergence processes.

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Emergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-915-5

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Abstract

Purpose

To explore the essential elements of a ‘green art of living’: an enjoyable, elegant, graceful and simultaneously low impact lifestyle.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical analysis is based on a critical reading and literature study of the texts of various prominent ecological utopian thinkers in the history of political philosophy.

Findings

In an ecologically sustainable society first priority must be given to re-examination of the proper ‘ecological limits’ of the current lifestyles and ‘arts of living’ in the Western world. The exact form or shape that people give to their lives is less important than their overall commitment to live within the ecological boundaries set by our earth.

Originality/value

A green, ecologically responsible society cannot do without a certain degree of moderation, self-restraint and simpler and less consumption-oriented lifestyles. However, in this chapter it is shown that such a society will not lead to impoverishment and austerity. An ecological society founded on voluntary simplicity will not be frugal or poor, but creates ample opportunities for its citizens to lead attractive, pleasurable, fulfilling and high-quality lives.

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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2007

Andreas Chai, Peter E. Earl and Jason Potts

The task of this paper is to explore the interplay between fashion, consumer lifestyles and economic growth in the context of a world of technological change in which the…

Abstract

The task of this paper is to explore the interplay between fashion, consumer lifestyles and economic growth in the context of a world of technological change in which the menu of possibilities that consumers face is constantly changing and tending to increase in length. Our working definition of ‘fashion’ is simple, namely the tendency or behavioural norm of actors to adopt certain types or styles of customs or commodities nearly simultaneously, only to adopt a different type or style of custom or commodity in future periods. The demand spikes associated with fashion may pertain to newly introduced products or to products that have been around for some time; they may also occur in hybrid cases where a seemingly defunct product or genre is given a brief rebirth by being reincarnated in terms of a new technology.

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The Evolution of Consumption: Theories and Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1452-2

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Lars Kolvereid and Espen John Isaksen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of business growth expectations and subsequent accumulated sales revenues and employment costs. Hypotheses are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the antecedents of business growth expectations and subsequent accumulated sales revenues and employment costs. Hypotheses are derived guided by the theory of planned behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors followed a sample of 207 incorporated businesses started in May/June 2002 over a ten-year period. The hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

The results suggest that the entrepreneurs’ need for social cohesion, subjective norm with regard to business growth and perceived self-efficacy with regard to opportunity recognition are positively and significantly associated with business growth expectations. These expectations, reported at the time of business registration, accurately predict subsequent short-term as well as long-term accumulated sales revenues and labour costs, but this is not the case for entrepreneurs with novel business ideas.

Practical implications

Since entrepreneurs’ attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy are possible to change, the findings should interest policy makers and educators. Measures aimed at enhancing the antecedents of entrepreneurs’ growth expectations should be considered. The findings that growth expectations have a long-lasting effect on sales and employment stress the importance of entrepreneurs’ subjective expectations for outcomes in new businesses.

Originality/value

There is a lack of studies using a longitudinal design when investigating the link between initial business growth expectations and subsequent firm outcomes. This study contributes to the entrepreneurship literature in this regard by using high-quality secondary data to examine firm achievements.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Judit Kárpáti-Daróczi and Tibor János Karlovitz

We consider start-up companies that have been established for rapid growth and are active in the international market. In this study, we examine the conditions required…

Abstract

We consider start-up companies that have been established for rapid growth and are active in the international market. In this study, we examine the conditions required for starting a start-up. We analyze how it is possible to add value to an idea that makes a business unique. First, we’ll show you when to talk about start-up. The starting point is that a start-up company is organized on a community basis. This much greater knowledge is coupled with high-level technological competences. In addition, there is a need for some “big idea,” innovation, which investors see as fantasy. A new niche market must be found where hundreds of thousands of customers worldwide can be served without any geographical constraints. The founder must have a high-risk appetite, and even naughtiness, because the novelty he invented will narrow the market of others and harm the interests of others. Here’s a look at the financing options for start-ups. At the end of this chapter you will find case studies on different start-ups.

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Managing Customer Experiences in an Omnichannel World: Melody of Online and Offline Environments in the Customer Journey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-389-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Harold Glenn A. Valera, Mark J. Holmes and Gazi M. Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether or not the introduction of inflation targeting (IT) impacts on the mean-reversion properties of inflation and output growth.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether or not the introduction of inflation targeting (IT) impacts on the mean-reversion properties of inflation and output growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on eight Asian countries of which four are inflation-targeters, the authors employ a two-state Markov-switching model which characterizes the behavior of inflation and output growth as regime-dependent based on periods of stationarity or non-stationarity.

Findings

In contrast to a literature that offers mixed findings, the authors find the presence of stationary inflation and output growth in one regime for all IT countries, except for South Korea which is characterized by stationary output growth in both regimes. In the cases of South Korea and Thailand, IT reduces the probability of inflation remaining in a non-stationary regime. IT increases the probability of South Korea remaining in a regime of low persistence output growth. While IT is important in understanding behavior, so are other considerations such as exchange rate volatility, as well as the Asian and global financial crises.

Originality/value

In contrast to other unit root tests of inflation and output growth, a novelty of the approach is that the authors obtain new insights in terms of two concepts of stationarity that allow for inflation and output growth to switch between stationary and non-stationary regimes (partial stationarity), or between stationary regimes of differing degrees of persistence (varied stationarity).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2015

Arndt Lautenschläger

The paper explores the composition of employment in new innovative firms. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the mixture of job positions at the firm level…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper explores the composition of employment in new innovative firms. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on the mixture of job positions at the firm level measured by employees’ occupational position, their qualification and specialisation, as well as their origin. As there is little known about the structure and quality of employment in new firms, insights are helpful for policymakers who are engaged in regional development and job creation.

Design/methodology/approach

The database used for analysis comes from an interdisciplinary study on human-related success factors of business start-ups in the German state of Thuringia. Data were collected by means of 399 face-to-face interviews with the sole founder or the leading entrepreneur of a start-up firm. The findings are based on a multivariate data analysis using regression models.

Findings

The results indicate that temporary employment is more likely inherent in fast growing firms. Academic spin-offs prefer to hire people with a university education and scientific background. Furthermore, it is found that manufacturing firms have a relatively higher demand for staff with a professional education as well as a technical background. However, there is no support for the thesis that innovative firms contribute to combating structural unemployment at least in the short run.

Research limitations/implications

Results are limited to a particular geographical region. Researchers are strongly encouraged to conduct further research on the topic.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for policymakers in the field of unemployment reduction and employment creation.

Originality/value

The paper explores the link between innovation and the quality of employment in new business ventures. This approach is in contrast to the bulk of other studies dealing with new employment generation in terms of numbers.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Rosa Capolupo

This paper reviews one of the crucial issues in the recent growth literature concerning the hypothesis of cross country convergence of levels and growth rates of income…

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Abstract

This paper reviews one of the crucial issues in the recent growth literature concerning the hypothesis of cross country convergence of levels and growth rates of income per capita implied by the neo‐classical growth model, both in the Solow‐Swan and Rampsey‐Cass‐Koopmans versions. The alternative endogenous growth models, consistent with permanent income inequality, are considered. Convergence to a common income level versus divergence is discussed from a theoretical point of view. Then, empirical tests of the convergence property are presented. What emerges is that Barro type regressions and their findings about “conditional” convergence are questionable and cannot be used to give a definitive response on this issue.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Jaana-Piia Mäkiniemi

The study explores techno-work engagement, which is a positive and fulfilling state of well-being with respect to the use of digital technology at work. It provides…

Abstract

Purpose

The study explores techno-work engagement, which is a positive and fulfilling state of well-being with respect to the use of digital technology at work. It provides insight into the circumstances in which the educational use of ICT enhances work well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 60 Finns from the education sector wrote descriptions of situations in which they experienced techno-work engagement related to the use of educational technology. The responses were analysed qualitatively.

Findings

Participants experienced techno-work engagement not only when educational technology facilitated work, enabled progress and produced novelty value but also when working in collaboration and in a positive climate.

Originality/value

This first qualitative study of techno-work engagement deepens the understanding of positive well-being experiences associated with the use of educational technology. It also provides suggestions for leading technology-related work well-being in educational sector.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Norifumi Kawai and Tomoyo Kazumi

By drawing upon social cognitive and legitimacy perspectives, this study aims to explore the role of perceived social legitimacy as an informal institutional force that…

Abstract

Purpose

By drawing upon social cognitive and legitimacy perspectives, this study aims to explore the role of perceived social legitimacy as an informal institutional force that moderates the effects of female entrepreneurs’ self-efficacy and entrepreneurial tenacity on venture growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a data set of 308 Japanese female entrepreneurs, who are a subject of limited extant scholarly attention, to test the hypothesised relationships empirically.

Findings

Consistent with the unified framework, the study was able to identify that the acquisition of social legitimacy required by female entrepreneurs serves as a crucial safety net under which entrepreneurial self-efficacy and tenacity can significantly affect venture growth.

Research limitations/implications

The study highlights that high levels of entrepreneurial traits alone are not necessarily sufficient to guarantee women’s venture growth. In doing so, this study stimulates the development of theory on the complementary role of the social legitimacy of entrepreneurship in fueling and mobilising the female entrepreneurs’ cognitive resources as the key to venture growth in the Japanese context.

Practical implications

Policymakers should be dedicated to implementing more gender-specific policies designed to continually cultivate women’s cognitive attributes in tandem with the promotion of social awareness to embrace entrepreneurship as a promising career option.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in stimulating a debate on the underlying heterogeneity of female entrepreneurs in the performance outcomes of two entrepreneurial cognitive attributes. By integrating the concept of perceived social legitimacy, the study can respond to Miao et al. (2017), who sought further examination of untested boundary conditions in the cognitive characteristics-venture growth equation.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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