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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

J. Rossouw

Not‐for‐profit organisations often experience accounting problems when dealing with the restrictions that donors impose on how the organisations may spend funds. Part of…

Abstract

Not‐for‐profit organisations often experience accounting problems when dealing with the restrictions that donors impose on how the organisations may spend funds. Part of the accountability and stewardship that the managements of not‐for‐profit organisations assume is adhering to the wishes of donors and reporting compliance with restrictions. Fund accounting is a general phenomenon among not‐for‐profit organisations. The use of different funds usually stems from the restrictions imposed by donors, and funds are used to account for restricted resources. Separate funds are often used to separate restricted funds from other funds in these organisations, and to present information to the users of financial statements, indicating that the organisation has indeed complied with donor‐imposed restrictions. This article discusses the principles of some accounting standards already issued specifically for not‐for‐profit organisations in the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia, and presents the results of empirical research on how donor‐imposed restrictions could be recorded in the financial statements of not‐for‐profit organisations.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Andrea M. Scheetz and Aaron B. Wilson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether intention to report fraud varies by organization type or fraud type. Employees who self-select into not-for-profits may…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether intention to report fraud varies by organization type or fraud type. Employees who self-select into not-for-profits may be inherently different from employees at other organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a 2 × 2 experiment in which (n=107) individuals with a bookkeeping or accounting background respond to a fraud scenario. Analysis of covariance models are used for data analysis.

Findings

The authors find evidence that not-for-profit employees are more likely to report fraud and that reporting intention does not differ significantly by fraud type.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study include the simulation of a fraud through a hypothetical incident and the use of online participants.

Practical implications

This study expands the commitment literature by examining the role that commitment plays in the judgment and decision-making process of a whistleblower. Findings suggest affective commitment, which is an employee’s emotional attachment to the organization, and mediate the path between organization type and reporting intention. Affective commitment significantly predicts whistleblowing in not-for-profit organizations but not in for-profit organizations.

Originality/value

This research provides insight into how organization type influences whistleblowing intentions through constructs such as organizational commitment and public service motivation.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Mary Fischer

The ability of investors, taxpayers and researchers to compare financial statements issued by hospitals, universities and other governmental agencies is affected by their…

Abstract

The ability of investors, taxpayers and researchers to compare financial statements issued by hospitals, universities and other governmental agencies is affected by their understanding of current accounting and reporting rules. Publicly owned not-for-profit organizations report different financial results from those that are privately owned. This study looks at the historical events that brought about the accounting and reporting divergences, discusses the recognition and reporting differences, and explores the implications for statement users.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Marshal H. Wright, Mihai C. Bocarnea and Julie K. Huntley

This study examined donor development processes in a faithbased, 501(c)(3) publicly-supported, tax-exempt organizational setting. The conceptual framework is relationship…

Abstract

This study examined donor development processes in a faithbased, 501(c)(3) publicly-supported, tax-exempt organizational setting. The conceptual framework is relationship marketing theory as informed from a systems theory alignment perspective. Organization-public relationship (OPR) dynamically predicts donor willingness to contribute unrestricted funds. It is proffered that the discrepancy variable, “values-fit incongruence,” significantly affects this dynamic. This contention is explored by asking the following two questions: (a) does donor-organization values-fit incongruence significantly negatively predict donor willingness to contribute unrestricted funds, and b) is the OPR construct strengthened with the patent inclusion of values-fit incongruence as an interactive moderator variable. Results suggest values-fit incongruence significantly negatively predicts donor willingness to contribute unrestricted funds. The results also suggest the OPR model is not strengthened by patently including the values-fit incongruence variable, as it may already be latently accounted for.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Hina Khan and Donna Ede

The motivation behind this research is to remedy a gap in the literature on the role of branding within small to medium‐sized not‐for‐profit organisations that are not…

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Abstract

Purpose

The motivation behind this research is to remedy a gap in the literature on the role of branding within small to medium‐sized not‐for‐profit organisations that are not part of the charity or voluntary sector.

Design/methodology/approach

To understand the role precisely, a qualitative study based on in‐depth interviews with not‐for‐profit small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) was undertaken. The study identifies how these organisations develop their brands and the role that branding plays within such organisations. Two new models are presented to visually demonstrate the processes – a brand development matrix as a guide to the brand development decision process, and a focal model for the role of branding within not‐for‐profit SMEs.

Findings

Significantly, the study finds that employees play an important role as “ambassadors” of the brand. Forging links and working in partnerships were found to be exceptionally valuable in helping the organisations establish “a name” as well as raising awareness. Consequently, associations linked to the brand come from interactions that customers and other stakeholders have had with employees.

Research limitations/implications

The study was qualitative and, therefore, more subjective in nature.

Practical implications

This study sought to explore how not‐for‐profit SMEs develop their brands to begin to remedy a gap in the current literature. The objectives of the study that the researchers set out to achieve have been aided by the development of two new models. The findings show evidence of similarities between the more conventional models of branding, whilst also revealing new findings not currently in the literature.

Originality/value

The horizon for not‐for‐profit organisations is changing. This has put increasing pressure on such organisations to establish “a name” for themselves. Although a considerable amount has been published on the role of branding in large commercial organisations, the researchers believe this is the first study to explicitly explore the role of branding to not‐for‐profit SMEs (not part of the charity/voluntary sector).

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Ian Bruce

Not‐for‐profit organizations, sometimes called charities orvoluntary organizations, are assumed to be serving their customers well– but are they? A customer segmentation…

5824

Abstract

Not‐for‐profit organizations, sometimes called charities or voluntary organizations, are assumed to be serving their customers well – but are they? A customer segmentation is proposed of beneficiaries, supporters, stakeholders and regulators, each group having intermediaries through which the end customer may be reached. Lays out structural reasons why not‐for‐profits may not value or respect their customers, including excess demand, lack of competition, professional dominance and distance, lack of consumer research, lack of appreciation of supporters (both donors and volunteer service workers), comparatively lower salaries of staff, and argues that the “inter constituency tension” of the different and competing needs of beneficiaries, supporters, stakeholders and regulators plus the production orientation of many not‐for‐profits means that, in practice, customers are not sufficiently valued or respected.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Ana M. Viader and Maritza I. Espina

This paper aims to focus on governance theories and practice variables in Not-For-Profit Service Organizations. The research answers two questions: what the prevalent

3469

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on governance theories and practice variables in Not-For-Profit Service Organizations. The research answers two questions: what the prevalent governance practices of Not-for-Profit Service Organizations (NPSO) are, and whether there is a crossover among NPSO governance practices and For-Profit-Organization theories in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire to the 285 organizations within the defined parameters obtained a 18 percent response. Data were collected regarding the boards' predominant roles in the organizations' governance activities, the top executives' predominant roles in the organizations' operations and their interrelationship with the boards, and the boards' most common meeting agenda topics.

Findings

The findings prove that governance models in NPSO are mostly driven by Agency Theory (52 percent of the sample). Stewardship and Resource Dependence Theories also contribute to existing governance models (28 percent), while some of the organizations have developed Hybrid Models (20 percent) drawing from the various theories.

Research limitations/implications

The limited number of organizations participating in the research does not allow a generalization. However the diversity of organization types and sizes within the scope do provide a panoramic view of the not-for-profit service sector.

Practical implications

Having proved that there is a crossover of governance practices among For-Profit and Not-for Profit Organizations, this research opens the door to the evaluation of many other existing or potential crossovers in governance and other management elements.

Originality/value

This research is novel in its approach to look for similarities rather than differences between For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Organizations. The approach allows both sectors to learn from each other and seek for fresh improvement alternatives.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

E. Pieter Jansen

In many countries, governmental organizations decentralized their organization structures, leading to an increased relevance of performance information. This paper…

1623

Abstract

In many countries, governmental organizations decentralized their organization structures, leading to an increased relevance of performance information. This paper identifies two approaches to measure performance in the not‐for‐profit sector: an output‐focused and a throughput‐focused approach. Furthermore, the paper sets a contingency framework concerning the applicability of these two approaches. The two most important contingent variables, i.e., whether output can be identified and whether activities are repetitive, determine the possibilities to apply the two approaches. If it is possible to apply both approaches, the ambiguity of organizational objectives, the hierarchical position of information users and the relevance of efficiency and quality are additional contingent variables that influence the approach to assess performance. Finally, the paper identifies how the approach to measure performance relates to management control types. If none of the two approaches is applicable, the organization has to rely on a management control type without an explicit system to measure performance, i.e., political or judgmental control. Routine or trial‐and‐error control fit with both approaches to measure performance. Expert and intuitive control are control types that rely on output‐based approaches to measure performance.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Michael Preece

This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge…

Abstract

This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge management in the service industry is sparse. This research seeks to examine absorptive capacity and its four capabilities of acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation and their impact on effective knowledge management. All of these capabilities are strategies that enable external knowledge to be recognized, imported and integrated into, and further developed within the organization effectively. The research tests the relationships between absorptive capacity and effective knowledge management through analysis of quantitative data (n = 549) drawn from managers and employees in 35 residential aged care organizations in Western Australia. Responses were analysed using Partial Least Square-based Structural Equation Modelling. Additional analysis was conducted to assess if the job role (of manager or employee) and three industry context variables of profit motive, size of business and length of time the organization has been in business, impacted on the hypothesized relationships.

Structural model analysis examines the relationships between variables as hypothesized in the research framework. Analysis found that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities correlated significantly with effective knowledge management, with absorptive capacity explaining 56% of the total variability for effective knowledge management. Findings from this research also show that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities provide a useful framework for examining knowledge management in the service industry. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the perceptions held between managers and employees, nor between respondents in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Furthermore, the size of the organization and length of time the organization has been in business did not impact on absorptive capacity, the four capabilities and effective knowledge management.

The research considers implications for business in light of these findings. The role of managers in providing leadership across the knowledge management process was confirmed, as well as the importance of guiding routines and knowledge sharing throughout the organization. Further, the results indicate that within the participating organizations there are discernible differences in the way that some organizations manage their knowledge, compared to others. To achieve effective knowledge management, managers need to provide a supportive workplace culture, facilitate strong employee relationships, encourage employees to seek out new knowledge, continually engage in two-way communication with employees and provide up-to-date policies and procedures that guide employees in doing their work. The implementation of knowledge management strategies has also been shown in this research to enhance the delivery and quality of residential aged care.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Benjamin Hopkins and David Dowell

A substantial amount of previous literature has investigated recruitment and retention of workers in paid jobs in the for-profit sector. Additionally, some of this work…

Abstract

Purpose

A substantial amount of previous literature has investigated recruitment and retention of workers in paid jobs in the for-profit sector. Additionally, some of this work has developed differentiated recruitment and retention strategies for different groups of workers based upon their age. However, in the voluntary sector, potential for this type of tailoring remains an under-researched area.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyse data from a national survey from the United Kingdom (UK) (n = 16,966) using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square to investigate motivations to volunteer amongst younger and older volunteers and compare these to a core age group.

Findings

The authors find differences across different age cohorts in both motivations to volunteer and also in rewards sought from volunteering. By analysing these differences, the authors then develop a framework of tailored recruitment and retention strategies to maximise the potential pool of volunteers for organisations in the not-for-profit sector, whilst also optimising rewards for those who volunteer.

Originality/value

Although recruitment and retention are both core research themes in Employee Relations, a recent special issue on the not-for-profit sector noted that these processes were under-researched outside of a for-profit setting. Literature from the fields of human resource management (HRM) and not-for-profit management is synthesised and integrated.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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