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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Vitor Medeiros, Carla Marques, Anderson Rei Galvão and Vitor Braga

The aim of this study is to explore which factors of entrepreneurship and innovation influence economic development under the quadruple helix model, contrasting Southern…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore which factors of entrepreneurship and innovation influence economic development under the quadruple helix model, contrasting Southern and Northern Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, secondary data are collected from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor databases, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and Global Competitiveness Index, for four countries in the North and four Southern European countries, for the period from 2007 to 2015. Data was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software and subjected to several multivariate statistical tests.

Findings

The results show a statistically significant difference in the variables of the four quadruple helix model dimensions. This means that Northern European countries (Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden) display better results on innovation and entrepreneurship than Southern European countries (Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal). The results also showed that per capita gross domestic expenditure on R&D is positively related to government and university dimensions, with significant differences between Southern and Northern European countries.

Originality/value

It is hoped that this study will contribute to new evidence on the factors of innovation and entrepreneurship that are decisive for economic development. To the traditional quadruple helix model, control variables were added to meet the endogenous characteristics of the countries.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Rodoula H. Tsiotsou

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a cross-cultural perspective using cultural proximity (supra-national level) as a proxy of culture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify cross-cultural differences in service evaluations and specifically, in hotel appraisals among tourists from Central, Eastern (including Post-Soviet States), Northern and Southern Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach has been taken by studying online user-generated ratings of hotels on Trip Advisor. In total, 1,055 reviews of five hotels in Greece were used for the study.

Findings

Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variances results confirm cultural differences in overall service evaluations and attributes (value, location, sleeping quality, rooms, cleanliness and service) of tourists from various European regions. Specifically, Eastern Europeans uploaded more reviews than any other European group, whereas Northern Europeans were more generous in their appraisals than Eastern, Southern and Central Europeans.

Practical implications

The results of the study could be used for segmentation purposes of the European tourism market and for recognizing, which aspects of their services need to be improved based on the segments they serve. Moreover, managers should encourage Northern and Eastern Europeans to upload their reviews as both groups are more generous in their evaluations. Moreover, the findings are useful to marketers of other services.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study that examines cross-cultural differences in hotel appraisals from a supra-national perspective including developed (Northern and Western Europe), developing (Southern Europe) and emerging tourism markets (Eastern Europe).

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Cihan Aydiner and Erin Rider

This study aims to clarify the labor market participation of highly educated Turks who moved or were exiled to the Western countries after the July 15th, 2016 Coup attempt…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to clarify the labor market participation of highly educated Turks who moved or were exiled to the Western countries after the July 15th, 2016 Coup attempt in Turkey. These recent Turkish flows create a compelling case for researching higher education connections and the administration of justice in migration policies/practices related to highly educated people's job market participation. This study aims to expand the discussion on migration policies, practices, job market participation, how highly skilled migrants perceive them in various contexts and understand the complexity of highly educated migrants' incorporation into destination countries and their perspectives and lived experiences with policy practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary source of the data is the semi-structured 30 interviews with the highly educated Turkish immigrants and refugees in Western countries, which enables comparative data from individuals of the same origin. The qualitative data have been transcribed, coded and analyzed according to the grounded-theory design from this vulnerable community. The high education was determined as graduation from 4-years colleges, which was recognized by destination countries. Our methodological tools were driven by the obstacles to collect data from politically sensitive, forced, or exiled migrants.

Findings

First, this article challenges the assumption that incorporating job market participation is a smooth process for highly educated migrants who moved to Western countries. Second, highly educated immigrants tried to reach their previous statuses and life standards as fast as possible by working hard, making sacrifices and developing innovative strategies. The immigrants in Europe have faced greater obstacles with policies while participating in the job market. Third, the importance of networking and the active usage of social media platforms to communicate with other immigrants in similar situations facilitated the job market participation and job preferences of highly educated migrants. Fourth, while fast job market participation experiences of immigrants in Northern America were increasing their positive feelings regarding belonging, people who have similar skillsets in Europe experienced more problems in this process and felt alone.

Research limitations/implications

The research results may lack generalizability due to the selected research approach. Further studies are encouraged to reach more population for each country to compare them.

Practical implications

Consequently, higher education may be a more vital decision point in migration policies and practices. This study contributes to a better understanding of these factors by showing the perspectives and experiences of highly educated migrants comparatively. Thus, it broadens the discussion about migration policies and job market participation of highly educated migrants.

Social implications

Building on this work, the authors suggest more studies on the temporary deskilling of highly educated migrants until they reach re-credentialing/education or training to gain their former status.

Originality/value

First, while most studies on immigrants' labor market participation and highly educated immigrants focus on voluntary migrants, this study examines underrepresented groups of involuntary migrants, namely forced migrants and exiled people, by focusing on non-Western Muslim highly educated Turks. Second, the trouble in the Middle East continues and regimes change softly or harshly. There is a growing tendency to examine these topics from the immigrants' perspective, especially from these war-torn areas. This article adds to this discussion by stating that rather than forced migration due to armed conflict, the immigrants from Turkey – the non-Arab Muslim state of the Middle East – are related to political conditions. Lastly, drawing on the relationship between social change in the origin country and migration and addressing the lack of reliable and comparative data, this study focuses on same origin immigrants comparatively in eight different countries.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Soo-yong Byun, Hee Jin Chung and David P. Baker

Building on the first cross-national study that had demystified various assumptions about the worldwide use of shadow education two decades ago, we analyze data from the…

Abstract

Building on the first cross-national study that had demystified various assumptions about the worldwide use of shadow education two decades ago, we analyze data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment to examine the cross-national pattern of the use of shadow education by families in 64 nations and use improved statistical estimation methods. Focusing on fee-paying out-of-school classes, we find a continued, and likely an intensified pattern of the cross-national use of shadow education in the contemporary world. Approximately about one-third of all 15-year-old students from 64 countries/economies across the world use this form of shadow education. Students of higher socioeconomic status, females, and students in urban areas and general programs are more likely to use fee-paying services, while families and students turn to these services to address academic deficiencies in general. In addition, students from poorer countries more extensively rely on shadow education than students from wealthier countries after controlling for other variables. Students in South-Eastern and Eastern Asian countries are more likely to pursue shadow education than their counterparts in many other regions. Implications of these findings for theories of education and society as well as for educational policy in relation to shadow education are discussed.

Details

Research in the Sociology of Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-077-6

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Maria Teresa Medeiros Garcia and Rafael Figueira

The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of homeownership in Europe.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of homeownership in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a logit model that predicts whether an individual is a homeowner or not was estimated. Wave 6 (2015) from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe was used, through a sample of 46,003 respondents across all Europe and through four subsamples (Eastern, Southern, Northern and Western Europe).

Findings

The findings reveal that several factors influence homeownership, namely, geographic location, age, gender, number of children, marital status, job situation, household income, high education, years of education, political orientation and holding bonds, stocks, mutual funds, bank accounts, saving accounts, individual retirement account or life insurance. Different results were obtained when the four subsamples were considered.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings provide an attempt to disentangle the main factors influencing homeownership. However, only individuals above 50 years of age were considered because of the database characteristics.

Practical implications

This paper provided insights to consider public policies that try to increase homeownership rates.

Social implications

The results put in evidence the likelihood characteristics of a homeowner. Therefore, public policies should address those who do not fulfill those when promoting higher homeownership rates. For example, attention should be given to low and middle-income individuals.

Originality/value

The paper emphasised the characteristics of a homeowner in Europe, contributing to the discussion on this topic among policymakers, practitioners and researchers in Europe.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Nicolas Fleury

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role played by parental education endowments vs intergenerational transmission of education in education differences between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role played by parental education endowments vs intergenerational transmission of education in education differences between second-generation immigrants and natives for the French case.

Design/methodology/approach

First, estimates of human capital accumulation functions are performed by using a representative sample of the French population. Second, the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique is implemented to underline the specific roles of differences in parental education endowments and of differences in intergenerational transmission in education between origins.

Findings

The econometric estimates of human capital accumulation function parameters underline that the determinants of education level (and their magnitude), differ substantially between natives and migrants. They also underline evidence of heterogeneity in the intergenerational transmission of education among the different origins of migrants in France. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition results show that parental education endowments account differences for a significant part of the education gaps among origins. No evidence is found that differences in parental transmissions of education explain these gaps.

Originality/value

The paper focusses on France, a country with a rich history of immigration in the twentieth century. The econometric analysis is based on a rich source of data for France that allows studying intergenerational mobility in education and also distinguishing natives from second-generation migrants based on their geographical origin.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

V. Duwicquet, E.M. Mouhoud and J. Oudinet

The aim of this paper is to estimate the dynamic of international migration between the different regions of the world for 2030 and to measure the impact of different kind

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to estimate the dynamic of international migration between the different regions of the world for 2030 and to measure the impact of different kind of migration policies on the economic and social evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

The change and migration forecasting are estimated for regions of the world using macroeconomic Cambridge Alphametrics Model.

Findings

The crisis and its aggravation thus clearly favour scenarios of immigration policy along the “zero migration” or “constant migration”. These choices of migration policies reinforce the deflationary process resulting in reduced opportunities for renewed growth in industrial areas and are not offset by the dynamism of growth in emerging countries. Paradoxically, the developed countries which are most durably affected by the crisis are also those that have ageing population and are in high need of skilled and unskilled labor.

Practical implications

Three options are possible: one going along the depressive process by espousing restrictive immigration policies that remain expensive. The second involves a highly selective immigration policy. Under these conditions the demographic revival already appearing would be reinforced by a rejuvenation of the population brought about by a more open immigration policy. Political and institutional factors play a fundamental role in the emergence of this optimistic assumption and the rise of isolationism in Europe and the ghettoization of suburban areas can hinder the application of such a policy of openness to migration. The third scenario, the mass migration scenario, allows letting go of the growth related constraints and getting out of the deflationist spiral. This pro-active approach could cause public opinions to change in line with public interest. This scenario of mass migration has more of a chance to see the light under a growth hypothesis. However, restrictive policies weaken the prospects of sustainable recovery causing a vicious cycle that can only be broken by pro-active policies or by irresistible shocks.

Originality/value

From specific estimations, four immigration regimes have been built that cut across the major regions of the model: the “core skill replacement migration regime” based on selective policies using migration to fill high-skilled labor needs (United Kingdom, West and Northern Europe, Canada, Australia, and USA), “mass immigration and replacement” applies to South Europe, East Asia High Income, and part of West Asia (Gulf countries), “big fast-growing emerging regions of future mass immigration,” notably China, India and “South-South migration” based on forced migration much of it by climate change, which may likely occur in South Asia, part of West Asia, and, most of Africa (without South Africa). Migrations in transit countries (Central America to USA, and East Europe to UK and West Europe) are based on low skilled migrants in labor-intensive sectors.

Details

Foresight, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Ciara O'Dwyer

Regulation is the tool preferred by policy-makers to manage the quality of residential care for older people. However, it remains unclear which form of regulation is most…

Abstract

Purpose

Regulation is the tool preferred by policy-makers to manage the quality of residential care for older people. However, it remains unclear which form of regulation is most effective. The residential care sector for older people in Europe offers a unique opportunity to explore this issue as countries vary in how they control quality in the sector. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a comparative approach, collating secondary data from various sources and conducting qualitative comparative analysis on the data.

Findings

Three regulatory approaches were in operation – many Northern European countries operate on a self-regulatory basis, and are associated with the highest quality. Many continental countries, the UK and Ireland operate a command-and-control regulatory approach, with a moderate standard of care. Mediterranean and Eastern European countries have limited regulation, with care of a lower standard. However, the type of regulation appears to be a product of the prevailing culture and philosophy of care within each country. Thus, quality outcomes are a measure of financial investment in care.

Social implications

Consistent calls for command-and-control style regulation may be misguided; high-quality care requires high-public investment and a professional workforce with the freedom to focus on quality improvement mechanisms.

Originality/value

The paper provides a framework for analysing outcomes associated with different types of regulation. While a self-regulatory model is linked with the best outcomes, financial investment and the philosophy of care may be more important factors influencing the quality of care.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

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Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 13 April 2020

William Outhwaite

Abstract

Details

Transregional Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-494-1

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