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Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

David Dryden Henningsen and Mary Lynn Miller Henningsen

In this chapter, we examine social influence in groups by considering three distinct aspects of the complex process: the force, the source, and the message. The force…

Abstract

In this chapter, we examine social influence in groups by considering three distinct aspects of the complex process: the force, the source, and the message. The force instantiates the internal drivers that are activated to change group members' public and private positions. These drivers relate to a desire for accuracy (i.e., informational influence) or a desire for group harmony (i.e., normative influence). The source of social influence includes influence attempts from a majority or a minority of group members. Finally, influence messages can contain evidence in support of a position (i.e., informational statements) or group member preferences (i.e., normative statements). These aspects are frequently conflated with informational influence strongly linked to minorities and informational statements and normative influence similarly linked to majorities and normative statements. We review research consistent with this position. However, we argue that each aspect should be considered separately. Thus, we also explore how majorities and normative statements generate informational influence and how minorities and informational statements lead to normative influence.

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The Emerald Handbook of Group and Team Communication Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-501-8

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Kelly L. Markowski and Richard T. Serpe

The purpose of this paper was to empirically integrate the structural and perceptual control programs in the identity theory. This integration involved examining how the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to empirically integrate the structural and perceptual control programs in the identity theory. This integration involved examining how the structural concepts of prominence and salience moderate the impact that the perceptual control process of nonverification has role-specific self-esteem.

Methodology/approach

We use survey data from normative and counter-normative conditions in the parent and spouse identities to test a series of structural equation models. In each model, we test the direct impacts of prominence, salience, and nonverification on worth, efficacy, and authenticity. We also test interaction effects between prominence and nonverification as well as salience and nonverification on the three self-esteem outcomes.

Findings

Out of the 24 possible interaction effects, only three were significant. By contrast, the expected positive effects of prominence on worth were supported among all identities, while the expected positive effects of salience on self-esteem were supported only among normative identities. Also as expected, the negative effects of nonverification on self-esteem were supported, though most strongly among counter-normative identities.

Practical Implications

Our findings indicate that the structural and perceptual control concepts have independent effects on self-esteem. Thus, future research should incorporate both programs when examining identity processes on self-esteem. However, depending on the normativity or counter-normativity of the identities of interest, research may find it useful to focus on concepts from one program over the other.

Originality/value of Paper

This paper is a test of integration of the two research paradigms in the identity theory, which addresses the micro–macro problem in a unique way.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-013-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2017

Abe Zakhem and Daniel E. Palmer

Theories of management require normative justification; that is, they rely on some conception of what is morally good, right, and just. This chapter examines some of the…

Abstract

Theories of management require normative justification; that is, they rely on some conception of what is morally good, right, and just. This chapter examines some of the normative reasons for adopting a stakeholder theory of management and for rejecting the once, and perhaps still, “dominant” shareholder-centric approach. This chapter then surveys some of the prominent “normative cores” that are used to ground stakeholder theory, that is, Kantian, contractarian, feminist ethics, and ethical pragmatism, and the moral obligations that each normative approach generates. Some pressing questions are raised with respect to each normative approach. To what extent ought we to recognize imperfect obligations to shareholders? Are contractarian hypernorms morally substantive? How exactly should we care about stakeholders, and is care even an appropriate attitudinal response? Without some commitment to objective ethical standards, how can pragmatists resolve stakeholder conflict?

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Reha Kadakal

Allen’s critique of current Frankfurt School theory presents the joint methods of “problematizing genealogy” and “metanormative contextualism” as alternative for the…

Abstract

Allen’s critique of current Frankfurt School theory presents the joint methods of “problematizing genealogy” and “metanormative contextualism” as alternative for the normative grounding of critical theory. Through a close reading of Allen’s critique, I investigate whether Allen’s identification of philosophy of history is an accurate diagnosis of the problems of the normative grounding of current Frankfurt School theory, whether Allen’s distinction between metanormative and normative levels is tenable for critical theory, and whether Allen’s methodology constitutes a viable alternative for the normative grounding of critical theory. As an alternative, I suggest scrutinizing the grounding strategies of current Frankfurt School theory to expand beyond their genealogy in Enlightenment thought, and address the question of what made the affirmative form of thought underlying current Frankfurt School theory a historical possibility. Expanding on Allen’s reiteration of the mediated nature of categories, I suggest that the stark contrast between forms of thought underlying first- and second-generation Frankfurt School critical theory needs to be understood not in relation to philosophy of history but against the backdrop of the specific context of the European historical present that informs its normative universe.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2016

Andrew Buchwalter

An assessment of Axel Honneth’s reception and appropriation of Hegel’s theory of normative reconstruction as presented in his Freedom’s Right (Columbia University Press, 2014).

Abstract

Purpose

An assessment of Axel Honneth’s reception and appropriation of Hegel’s theory of normative reconstruction as presented in his Freedom’s Right (Columbia University Press, 2014).

Methodology/approach

A comparative assessment of Honneth’s and Hegel’s approach to normative reconstruction focusing on three basic issues: general methodology, understandings of the logic and program of the Philosophy of Right, and analyses and assessments of modern market societies as detailed in Hegel’s account of civil society (bürgerliche Gesellschaft).

Findings

For Honneth, normative reconstruction consists in reworking modes of social rationality already realized in modern institutions. By contrast, Hegel is shown to advance an approach to reconstruction in which an account of social rationality is properly fashioned only in the reconstruction process itself. In this way Hegel is also shown to proffer an approach to normative reconstruction that is at once more robustly reconstructive and more robustly normative than is the case with Honneth.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the ongoing value of Hegel’s thought for social and political theory. It illuminates Hegel’s uniquely dialectical approach to immanent social critique, dedicated not only to explicating existing tensions and “bifurcations” (Entzweiungen) but – with the help of a distinctive account of Bildung (cultivation or formation) – to engaging those tensions and bifurcations in order to delineate the conditions for their constructive supersession. It also elucidates different ways in which critical social theorists, committed to notions of “immanent transcendence,” draw on the resources of market societies to mount normative challenges to the aporias of those societies.

Details

Reconstructing Social Theory, History and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-469-3

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2020

Maude Brunet, Sofiane Baba, Monique Aubry, Sanaa El Boukri, Marie-Douce Primeau and Debra Dollard

This study focuses on the dynamic relationship between organizational actors and engaged scholars involved in a normative assessment conducted in a public organization…

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on the dynamic relationship between organizational actors and engaged scholars involved in a normative assessment conducted in a public organization managing major projects.

Design/methodology/approach

We build on a 15-month engaged scholarship experience carried out in the Ministry of Transport of Quebec. We explain and analyze the normative assessment process, using a storytelling approach and vignettes to explore four situated learning moments.

Findings

This study offers a deeper understanding of how normative assessment is conducted, and how situated and collective learning occur throughout. We find that both organizational actors and researchers learn through this process and synchronize their mutual learning such that researchers actually participate in a larger organizational transformation.

Research limitations/implications

Like any qualitative endeavor, this research is context-specific. We offer several research avenues to extend the applicability of findings.

Practical implications

This article could inspire organizations and scholars to collaborate on normative assessment during organizational transformation. This approach is of particular interest in the context of a worldwide pandemic where public and private organizations all have to adapt to new sanitary, economic, technological and social realities.

Social implications

In a context marked by growing concern for the research-practice gap and the relevance of scholarship, our study illustrates the development of a mutually beneficial collaboration between practitioners and researchers that enhances understanding of complex organizational phenomena and issues.

Originality/value

This research highlights the relevance of engaged scholarship and supports normative assessment as a social process to generate mutual learning.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Edward Howlett Spence

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how some of the information and communication practices of the Tech Media and specifically of Facebook, constitute media…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how some of the information and communication practices of the Tech Media and specifically of Facebook, constitute media corruption. The paper will examine what the professional role of Facebook is regarding its information/communication practices and then demonstrate that Facebook is essentially a media company and not merely a “platform,” therefore liable to the same normative responsibilities as other media companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying the dual obligation information theory (DOIT), a normative information and communication theory that applies generally to all media companies that disseminate and share information, the paper demonstrates that Facebook’s role of mediating and curating the information of its users places upon it a normative editing responsibility, to ensure both the preventive detection and corrective editing of fake news, as well as other forms of misinformation disseminated on its platform. Finally, applying a philosophical model of media corruption the paper will demonstrate that Facebook’s role in the Cambridge Analytica case was not only unethical but moreover, constituted media corruption.

Findings

The paper concludes that Facebook’s media corruption illustrated in the Cambridge Analytica case is not a one-off case but the result of a systemic and inherent conflict of interest between its business model of selling users’ information to advertisers and its normative media role rendering the conflict of interest between those two roles conducive to media corruption.

Originality/value

The paper's originality is twofold. It demonstrates that Facebook is a media company normatively accountable on the basis of an original theory the DOIT and moreover, on the basis of an original media corruption theory its actions in the Cambridge Analytica case constituted media corruption.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Nita G. Brooks, Melinda L. Korzaan and Stoney Brooks

This paper builds on previous research in information systems (IS) project management by focusing on key antecedents proposed to play important roles in influencing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper builds on previous research in information systems (IS) project management by focusing on key antecedents proposed to play important roles in influencing normative commitment within the IS project environment. The study also further investigates the influence of normative commitment on intentions to continue.

Design/methodology/approach

To collect data for this study, a field survey was administered online, and individuals were selected for participation by a member of upper management from Fortune 500 companies located in the United States. Two-hundred and thirty two (232) survey responses were collected. The model was analyzed using PLS-SEM.

Findings

The results indicated that personal investment, personal responsibility, voluntariness, project-specific self-efficacy and problem-solving competency were all significantly related to normative commitment. Project-specific self-efficacy, problem-solving competency and normative commitment directly influenced intention to continue. Additionally, problem-solving competency moderated both the relationships of project-specific self-efficacy to normative commitment and project-specific self-efficacy to intention to continue. The resulting model explains 63% of intention to continue and 58% of normative commitment.

Originality/value

The findings from this study contribute to commitment theory and enhance one’s understanding of IS project environments by exploring specific antecedents related to developing normative commitment. Additionally, the impact of normative commitment on intention to continue was enhanced by examining key moderating relationships to the model.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Mark Ojeme and Julie Robson

This study examines the mediating effect of normative commitment, that is, a customer's feeling of moral obligation to stay in a relationship based on the psychological…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the mediating effect of normative commitment, that is, a customer's feeling of moral obligation to stay in a relationship based on the psychological feeling that it is the right thing to do. Previous studies have neglected normative commitment due to its complexity and poor fit with predominantly Western individualistic cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted in the collectivist culture of Nigeria, West Africa. The unit of analysis was the business-to-business (B2B) relationship between small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their bank.

Findings

This study arrived at two key findings. First, normative commitment is insignificant in acting as the mediator of a relationship in both overall satisfaction and social bonding on advocacy. Second, overall satisfaction and social bonding are positively significant in predicting normative commitment and advocacy.

Research limitations/implications

This study focussed solely on an SME's perception of their relationship with their bank and does not consider the dyadic nature of such relationships, that is, the bank's perception of this relationship.

Practical implications

This research demonstrates that the SME/bank relationship can be developed based on satisfaction and social bonding as background variables. Caution should be exercised for relationships developed on the basis of a moral obligatory commitment.

Originality/value

Regardless of a collectivist cultural setting, normative commitment was found to be ineffective in enhancing relationships in a business-oriented setting in Nigeria, contrary to emerging propositions within the literature.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2020

Yolanda Estreder, Thomas Rigotti, Inés Tomás and José Ramos

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of the psychological contract (PC) simultaneously at the individual level (fulfillment of obligations by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of the psychological contract (PC) simultaneously at the individual level (fulfillment of obligations by the organization and PC violation) and the organizational level (normative contract), and their relationship with employees’ evaluations of organizational justice. Based on justice and information processing approaches, the hypothesis is that normative contract has an effect on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice, and also moderates the relationship between PC violation and organizational justice.

Design/methodology/approach

Multilevel modeling was employed with a multinational sample of 5,338 employees nested in 214 companies.

Findings

Findings showed that beyond the positive effect of fulfillment of obligations by the organization, PC violation has a strong negative effect on organizational justice. In addition, normative contract has a positive effect on organizational justice, showing that when shared perceptions of normative contract are higher, then the organizational justice perceptions of employees are also higher. Furthermore, the normative contract moderated the relationship between PC violation and organizational justice, showing that the negative relationship of PC violation with organizational justice was stronger when the normative contract was higher.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that normative contract has effects on organizational justice, and that PC violation had more negative effects on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice perceptions when colleagues’ shared perceptions of fulfillment were higher. This means that social context (shared perceptions in an organization about the PC) has effects on individual perceptions of organizational justice. Companies need to pay attention to detrimental effects on employees who perceive a worse PC than their colleagues do.

Originality/value

The study extends the current research by demonstrating that employee–employer exchanges are not limited to individual level effects because shared perceptions of PC fulfillment (normative contract) also have relevant effects on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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