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Article

Ellinor Tengelin, Christina Cliffordson, Elisabeth Dahlborg and Ina Berndtsson

Healthcare professionals’ conscious or unconscious norms, values and attitudes have been identified as partial explanations of healthcare inequity. Norm criticism is an…

Abstract

Purpose

Healthcare professionals’ conscious or unconscious norms, values and attitudes have been identified as partial explanations of healthcare inequity. Norm criticism is an approach that questions what is generally accepted as “normal” in society, and it enables professionals to identify norms that might cause prejudice, discrimination and marginalisation. In order to assess norm-critical awareness, a measurement scale is needed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for measuring norm-critical awareness.

Design/methodology/approach

The scale-development process comprised a qualitative item-generating phase and a statistical reduction phase. The item pool was generated from key literature on norm criticism and was revised according to an expert panel, pilot studies and one “think aloud” session. To investigate the dimensionality and to reduce the number of items of the scale, confirmatory factor analysis was performed.

Findings

The item-generation phase resulted in a 46-item scale comprising five theoretically derived dimensions revolving around function, consequences, identity, resistance and learning related to norms. The item-reduction phase resulted in an instrument consisting of five dimensions and 20 items. The analyses indicated that a summary score on the scale could be used to reflect the broad dimension of norm-critical awareness.

Originality/value

The Norm-critical awareness scale comprises five theoretically derived dimensions and can be used as a summary score to indicate the level of norm-critical awareness in educational contexts. This knowledge is valuable for identifying areas in greater need of attention.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part

Katarzyna Wodniak and Anne Holohan

The goal of this chapter was to provide an insight into rules and norms behind generation Y social media presence and inform future research through an exploration of the…

Abstract

The goal of this chapter was to provide an insight into rules and norms behind generation Y social media presence and inform future research through an exploration of the norms underpinning digitally mediated interaction and behavior among college-age students in Ireland.

The authors administered a questionnaire containing both closed- and open-ended questions among 131 first-year college students in Ireland, asking them to identify online behaviors and actions with a purpose of recognizing rules and norms that guided how they handled sharing, interaction, and mediated aspects of relationships in their use of mobile devices and social media platforms.

This study reveals that the driving force is the desire for and implementation of what can be called the norm of “Do No Harm Lest Others Do Harm to You.” This norm, rather than being driven by the Hippocratic Code of principled awareness is an expression of an acute consciousness of audience segregation and the need for self-protection in online interaction. The respondents were asked about the rules and norms that guided how they handled sharing, interaction, and mediated aspects of relationships in their use of mobile devices and social media platforms. Their responses demonstrated that millennials, in their everyday and intensive use of digitally mediated technologies, have begun to observe a new social contract of “Do No Harm Lest Others Do Harm to You” where internet becomes a space of entertainment and private messaging devoid of conflict and exchanges of opinion with others. Millennials seem to be closing down the scope of online interaction which in the long run can limit the function of internet as a social sphere where various issues, including political views, are exchanged and discussed.

The research is exploratory in nature and relied up on a relatively small sample size. For this reason, while the study produces new analytic frameworks, the findings could not be generalized. Additionally, there are certain features that appear to be specifically Irish such as a blurred line between perception of bullying and harmless having the “craic.”

This research makes explicit the harm mitigation and conflict avoidance strategies underpinning the use of social and digital media as it has been deployed and shaped by Irish millennials and discusses the consequences of their reluctance to engage in the public realm of the internet.

Details

Mediated Millennials
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-078-3

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Book part

Erik Lundmark and Alf Westelius

Purpose – To explore the links between entrepreneurship and misbehavior.Approach – Conceptual development using cases as illustrative examples.Findings – The chapter finds…

Abstract

Purpose – To explore the links between entrepreneurship and misbehavior.

Approach – Conceptual development using cases as illustrative examples.

Findings – The chapter finds that there is an overlap between the way misbehavior is defined and the way entrepreneurship is conceptualized in the literature. It also finds previous research, distinguishing between desirable and undesirable misbehavior based on the intentions or the outcomes of behavior, insufficient in relation to entrepreneurship as misbehavior. The reason is that for entrepreneurial ventures, the underlying intentions are often good, but the outcomes often not; and that making assessments of the outcomes of entrepreneurial ventures a priori is notoriously difficult. Assessing misbehavior based only on organizational level evaluations is likewise insufficient in relation to entrepreneurship. The reason for this is that support for the venture may be needed also from actors outside of the organization. Furthermore, what constitutes the organization is not always clear. Therefore, we argue that it is necessary to broaden the view of what institutions determine whether a venture classifies as misbehavior when analyzing entrepreneurship.

Research limitations – The cases used to illustrate the overlap between entrepreneurship and misbehavior are conspicuous and not necessarily representative of entrepreneurship and misbehavior in general.

Originality – This is a first attempt at merging the misbehavior and entrepreneurship literatures, which highlights an important niche with a great promise for future research.

Details

Rethinking Misbehavior and Resistance in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-662-1

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Article

R.J.S. Macpherson and Barbara Vann

Suggests bereavement strategies for educative leaders. Reports action research that helped a school community come to terms with the effects of a staff member committing…

Abstract

Suggests bereavement strategies for educative leaders. Reports action research that helped a school community come to terms with the effects of a staff member committing suicide. Summarizes the advice to the principal from an external counsellor; the stages that people go through in learning how to cope with trauma, coming to terms with loss and negotiating a new stable state. Shows that the school community experienced extremes of emotion and a collapse of confidence and professional legitimacy. Argues that bereavement processes and particular strategies at each stage should be justified in terms of consequences. Finds the principal was central to the politics of grief. Examines different micro‐political leadership styles and suggests a fifth, more educative approach.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Shaomin Li and Ajai Gaur

How should a multinational corporation (MNC) from a mature democracy deal with the human rights issues in a country with a poor human rights standard? The paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

How should a multinational corporation (MNC) from a mature democracy deal with the human rights issues in a country with a poor human rights standard? The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a mathematical model to depict MNC's behavior in response to human rights violations in the host country.

Findings

The authors show that, first, in a country with a high level of human rights abuses, a firm will have to lower its human rights standards to survive; but, second, a collective effort by all firms is essential to improve the human rights conditions in the host environment; and third, a firm's human rights practices may have a multiplicative effect that can significantly affect the momentum of human rights development in a host country.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to provide a theoretical framework on the issue of MNCs and human rights in host countries.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Chimezie A.B. Osigweh and Yg

The use of cases to develop management skills is generally known asthe “case approach”. This approach is reviewed from anhistorical perspective and its utility in…

Abstract

The use of cases to develop management skills is generally known as the “case approach”. This approach is reviewed from an historical perspective and its utility in management development is examined. It is concluded that it is not a management training panacea regardless of its numerous appeals; that its effective use places a major set of requirements on the instructor; that there is still a general paucity of well‐designed studies on the merits or demerits of the approach, and finally, that a wide range of instructor roles and pedagogic techniques or practices exist for implementing it.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

Georgios Makrygiannakis and Lisa Jack

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a strong structuration-based framework for the study of management accounting change.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a strong structuration-based framework for the study of management accounting change.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective field study was designed to investigate the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on budgeting and control practices of Greek hospitality organisations. Conduct analysis addresses agents’ perceptions of the changes upon themselves. Context analysis explores the changing context, and how the agents modified their in-situ control structures accordingly. The framework is demonstrated through one case study.

Findings

The agents in the case, triggered by the crisis, gradually come to criticise the way they practice budgeting. The first response is to practice budgeting more normatively, but later they criticise and modify these norms. As their formal mentalities co-mediated action, variance management became proactive rather than reactive. Variations in the ways agents draw upon structures – unreflectively or critically – and on how they act to reproduce structures – routinely or strategically – characterise change in management accounting practice. Agents’ reasoning and conduct leading to action is local, and these local changes in conduct and context are significant in understanding management accounting change.

Originality/value

This framework for studying management accounting change balances structural conditions of action, with action and interaction. It can be used to study how, why, and by whom institutionalised management accounting practices may change.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Evgeny Popov, Jol Stoffers and Victoria Simonova

The purpose of this study is to specify cultural properties that influence inter-firm cooperation, advancing a conventional theoretical economic-based framework.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to specify cultural properties that influence inter-firm cooperation, advancing a conventional theoretical economic-based framework.

Design/methodology/approach

An evaluation of concepts related to parametric cultural assessment was the theoretical foundation for structural aspects of inter-firm collaboration, documented in an empirical study that investigates cross-cultural analysis. This study was based on research at a cross-national level, allowing cultural disparities to be captured. Therefore, the empirical basis was the sixth World Values Survey, which is the largest cross-national project for assessment of cultural values.

Findings

It was found that cultural properties, as freedom of choice; advancement of norms for equal dissemination of power; low perceived uncertainty; strategic orientation on the future; and spread norms of humanistic orientation would further develop inter-firm cooperation.

Practical implications

The current study specifies a systematic and practical definition of attributes in the culture of inter-firm collaboration. Advantages of such advanced frameworks are more sustainable collaboration models, decreased expenses of inter-firm coordination methods and possibilities for establishing network knowledge among collaborating firms – a necessity for competitive advantage in today’s global economy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous research has been undertaken that specifies cultural properties influencing inter-firm cooperation, advancing a conventional theoretical economic-based framework.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article

Marcelo D. Varella

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the performance of the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) of World Trade Organization (WTO) performance, between 1995 and 2007, as well…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the performance of the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) of World Trade Organization (WTO) performance, between 1995 and 2007, as well as to discuss the main proposals for its improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the paper presents the legal predictability of the system; compliance with its procedural stipulations in regard to its proposed timeframes; and the participation of different groups of States within this system. The timeframes are compared with those that really happened. Thus, there is an analysis of the effectiveness of its decisions and the necessity to induce compliance and retaliation. Finally, the main proposals to change the system are discussed.

Findings

It is concluded that most of legal procedures are accomplished as previewed by DSB, but the system itself is highly dependent of the action of States, who need time to negotiate. It is also possible to conclude that there is a high level of effectiveness and States prefer to respect the decisions of DSB and maintain the legitimacy of the system as a whole than keep advantages in specific matters.

Originality/value

When the WTO was founded, there was an effort to generate a system guided by legal rules. The DSB has made efforts to maintain a high level of legal preciosity. However, it is clear that this system is still very limited by the traditional method of negotiation among States. The implementation of a rule‐oriented system contributes to greater democratization of access to justice and, of course, in a limited way, the principle of sovereign equality of States. Finally, the majority of proposed changes attempt to apply the logic of domestic courts to an international body, assuming a level of organization of the international community as a whole that still does not exist. Others proposals suggest increasing the politicization of the system, which is also not appropriate.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article

Reza Saleki, Farzana Quoquab and Jihad Mohammad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that may affect consumer intention and behaviour to purchase organic food in a non-western context.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that may affect consumer intention and behaviour to purchase organic food in a non-western context.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses were obtained from 246 organic food consumers using judgemental sampling. Data were analysed using partial least squares–structural equation modelling to examine the strength of the relationships among the constructs.

Findings

The findings reveal that attitude, subjective norm (SN), perceived behavioural control, moral norm (MN), self-identity (SI) and environmental concern (EC) exert significant positive effect on purchase intention (PI). Furthermore, PI is found to mediate the relationship among attitude, SN, perceived behavioural control, MN, SI and EC with purchase behaviour (PB). Moreover, the findings indicate that price consciousness moderates the relationship between PI and PB.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study emphasised that marketers need to implement various marketing strategies including discount, advertisements and new product development to bring positive change in consumers’ intention and to attract them towards purchasing organic food. Moreover, marketers may take some initiatives to reduce the price of organic food through various strategies which eventually can reduce the cost of organic foods for local consumers.

Originality/value

This study extends the theory of planned behaviour (TBP) by incorporating MN, SI and EC. The expanded theoretical framework improved the predictive ability of the TBP.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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