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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2013

Karina A. Branum, Laura E. Cepeda, Cody Howsmon and Anatoly Zhuplev

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to compare trends, drivers, and best sustainable development (SD) practices in the Nordic region and California…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to compare trends, drivers, and best sustainable development (SD) practices in the Nordic region and California, USA.Design/methodology/approach – Four research propositions are explored: (1) SD is driven by governmental, economic, and social/cultural influences. (2) Social democracy and mixed economies in the Nordic region influence SD differently than the free market system of the United States. (3) The profit-centered, short-term view in the United States impacts SD differently than the longer-term approach in the Nordic region. (4) The egalitarian culture in the Nordic region influences SD differently than the entrepreneurial culture in the United States. The study incorporates a comprehensive literature review, 34 field interviews and research observations in the United States and the Nordic region.Findings – California and the Nordics have similar market economies where SD is largely driven by private sector; however, the role of government more directly influences SD in the Nordic region. Also, the profit-centered, entrepreneurial view of the United States drives innovation in SD based on short-term profitability gains, which ultimately hinders long-term solutions. Alternatively, the egalitarian culture in the Nordic region manifests in more focused and quicker adoption of SD policies. Lastly, the Nordics have a broad range of SD goals and a competitive advantage in key SD technologies. Conversely, California pursues a large variety of technologies without clearly defined goals that tend to be less effective than the Nordic countries.Originality/value of chapter – The chapter identified similarities and differences in SD trends, best practices, policies, and attitudes: California compared to Nordic countries.

Details

Principles and Strategies to Balance Ethical, Social and Environmental Concerns with Corporate Requirements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-627-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Jarkko Saarinen

Travel and tourism have had a long history in the Nordic countries, but research on tourism has a relatively short tradition in the region. Recently, academic interest in…

Abstract

Travel and tourism have had a long history in the Nordic countries, but research on tourism has a relatively short tradition in the region. Recently, academic interest in the Nordic tourism space has grown and diversified especially as a result of increasing numbers of academics and institutions involved with tourism geographies and studies and education in the region. The Nordic context has provided thematic focus areas for empirical studies that characterize tourism geographies in the region, with topics including nature-based tourism, utilization of wilderness areas, second-home and rural developments, impacts in peripheries, and tourism as a tool for regional development. In addition, there are emerging research themes outside of the traditional core topics, such as urban, events, and heritage tourism.

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Geographies of Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-212-7

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2018

GuÐný Björk Eydal and Tine Rostgaard

The Nordic welfare model is known in the literature for its explicit support of the equal treatment of men and women in both family and gender equality policies as well as…

Abstract

The Nordic welfare model is known in the literature for its explicit support of the equal treatment of men and women in both family and gender equality policies as well as its achievements in these policy areas. Policy arguments have to promote gender equality and act in the best interest of the child, ensuring that the child access to care from both parents as well as to early childhood education and care. However, the knowledge of how the Nordic welfare states frame and promote active fatherhood remains fragmented.

The chapter asks whether the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have developed similar policies on fatherhood or have taken different paths. Hence, the chapter examines three main policy areas affecting fatherhood: family law, family cash benefits and paid parental leave. Comparative perspective is applied and the chapter asks how the policies frame and promote active fatherhood while also looking into how fatherhood is shaped in interaction between policies, cultures and the daily practices of fathers.

Results show that while all Nordic governments promote a dual-earner/dual-carer social democratic welfare state model emphasizing the active participation of fathers in the care of their children, variations exist in policy and practices. Care policies and entitlements to a father quota of paid parental leave are a defining factor for enhancing fathers’ role in care of their children and the findings show that Nordic fathers are making use of their quota and gradually increasing their share in taking leave for the care of young children.

Details

Fathers, Childcare and Work: Cultures, Practices and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-042-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Carsten Greve, Per Lægreid and Lise H. Rykkja

The chapter summarises findings from a study on administrative reforms covering all central government ministries and agencies in 19 countries, examining reform…

Abstract

The chapter summarises findings from a study on administrative reforms covering all central government ministries and agencies in 19 countries, examining reform trajectories seen from the top of the central administrative apparatus. Core structural features of the central bureaucracy are described, along with role perceptions, values and motivation of administrative executives. Reform processes, trends, content and management tools are addressed, leading up to similarities and differences between the Nordic countries and between them and other European families of countries. A main finding is that the Nordic bureaucracy represents a layered, complex and hybrid system combining different reform trends and that there is a clear North–South divide in Europe when it comes to administrative reforms.

Details

Bureaucracy and Society in Transition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-283-3

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2022

Per Tryding

The purpose of this study is to explore how current trends in organization – government regulation, authoritarian governance and digitalization acts specifically to stop…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how current trends in organization – government regulation, authoritarian governance and digitalization acts specifically to stop relevant change of a Nordic model. These trends unfold in organizational contexts by revoking mandates, stopping information sharing and eroding trust. When these elements of what is often seen as core characteristics of different Nordic models are hindered, this also means that change is stoked, such as it is understood by organizational learning theory. Hopefully, this more conceptual analysis can inspire fieldwork.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint article investigates how recent trends may act in the ability of a Nordic model to change and remain relevant. Core elements of the abstract concept of a Nordic model are defined. These elements are related to organizational learning. In as far as the Nordic model can be seen as capable of organizational learning, it may be able to develop and change in response to external influence. Examples of current trends in society are presented. It is found that these new current trends act on the ability of the Nordic model to change. This poses an existential threat to the longevity of that model. Suggestions for further work is included.

Findings

The paper finds that core elements of the Nordic model are influenced in such a way that the ability of the model to work as learning organizations (at least in the sense of Senge’s theory) is inhibited or even prohibited. The way this unfolds in principle may inform choices for fieldwork.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this topic is that it discusses emerging changes that have only recently become apparent in the Nordic countries. The number of cases is yet limited and recent. This is why more conceptional approaches might be useful.

Practical implications

The digital realm is changing society, and this change has been catapulted by the pandemic. This may impact on how Nordic organizations are able to deliver on the purposes of co-decision legislation, how organizational culture based on “Nordic” values such as trust (as defined by the WVS), information sharing and mandate can develop, how organizations that abstain distributed information and mandates are able to adapt.

Social implications

Recent (2020) estimates indicate that between one in three and one in two jobs will be directly impacted in the Nordic countries. This is likely to have implications, but the nature of these is still under debate. This paper points to the possibility that core values and ways to deliver productivity may be challenged.

Originality/value

The originality lies in linking some core elements of different versions of a very abstract construct (“a Nordic” model) to one specific theory of organizational learning (in this example, Senge). This allows for a discussion about how societal change may be relevant specifically for the ability of Nordic model(s) to change. The discussion is current as the chosen trends are all recent phenomena in Nordic society.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Hogne Lerøy Sataøen

Ideas related to “the Nordic” are important in the reconstruction of national identities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and these countries’ modern…

1020

Abstract

Purpose

Ideas related to “the Nordic” are important in the reconstruction of national identities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and these countries’ modern national narratives are structurally highly similar. At the same time, there are clear differences between the Nordic countries regarding their national images. The purpose of this study is to a examine the relationship between ideas of the Nordic and national images through a qualitative study of brand manifestations on Nordic web portals for foreign visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

The two guiding research questions are: How do Nordic branding strategies and national stereotypes impact on nation-branding content toward visitors in the Nordic region? What traces of the Nordic as a supranational concept can be found when the Nordic is translated into concrete national brand manifestations? The analysis focuses on brand manifestations such as brand visions, codes of expression, differentiation, narrative identity and ideologies.

Findings

The analysis shows that clichés about the nations prevail in contemporary brand material and that Nordic branding strategies impact on the portals in diffuse and implicit ways. There are, however, some important common denominators, pointing toward a new Nordic brand related to exotic, untouched yet easily accessible nature, with a focus on pure, fresh and clean food with new tastes, in combination with happy and welcoming people.

Originality/value

The results from the study contribute with insight in how ideas of the Nordic on a supranational level transform when used in concrete and practical branding material. Further, this paper proposes a new Nordic branding focus, which contests traditional Nordic ideas.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Lars Pynt Andersen, Frank Lindberg and Jacob Ostberg

This paper aims to develop place branding theory toward the accommodation of a multifaceted understanding of value and value negotiation by Nordic branding actors by way…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop place branding theory toward the accommodation of a multifaceted understanding of value and value negotiation by Nordic branding actors by way of answering the following question: How is Nordicness appropriated by Nordic branding actors and what value regimes are drawn on in the process?

Design/methodology/approach

Using field data from a selection of branding actors and sectors in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, a qualitative analysis of Nordic branding performances is used to unpack the negotiations of valuation of worth.

Findings

The analysis identified three principle orders of worth behind Nordicness (civic, green and inspired) that are negotiated through compromises between orders of industry and domestic and by contesting the orders of fame and market. The findings indicate how Nordicness is performed as principle worths and tensions and how these are rendered meaningful as propositions of “value as difference” as they are performed in practice by brand actors.

Originality/value

Several studies focus on how place branding “adds value;” however, few studies have been aimed at unpacking how a “value universe” is negotiated as a more complex understanding of worth or “value.” This study thus opens up for branding heterogeneity, which signifies awareness of competing notions and orders of worth among small- and medium-sized enterprises and other central stakeholders; this could further inspire interdisciplinary, value-based research into the potential contingencies of (product) branding and place branding in other contexts and regions.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Markku Sippola

This research seeks to ask to what extent model transfer in employee relations (in terms of employee representation, participation and workplace bargaining) occurs between…

Abstract

Purpose

This research seeks to ask to what extent model transfer in employee relations (in terms of employee representation, participation and workplace bargaining) occurs between Nordic and Baltic countries from the principal firm to the subsidiary. It also looks into explanations as to why model transfer occurs – or does not occur – from the perspective of the Nordic industrialist's labour management strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study comprising three clothing manufacturers and three engineering shops in different Baltic States: Estonia (population 1.4 million), Latvia (2.3 million) and Lithuania (3.4 million). These production sites have headquarters in three Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Semi‐structured (thematic) interviews are carried out among managers, shop stewards and employees of the subsidiaries.

Findings

There is little model transfer between the Nordic principal firm and the Baltic subsidiary, whereas the Nordic employer prefers local forms of employee relations. Modest model transfer derives from the desire for controlling the labour process, where the Nordic investor seeks to utilise differences between the regimes.

Social implications

The Nordic industrialists' search for the distinction between different regimes and the Baltic drive at liberal market economy (LME) together may prove fatal for labour conditions. Such production policy will not improve the position of the Baltic worker.

Originality/value

The findings question the very idea of model transfer: where any labour management strategy existed, there was either an unambiguous assertion of indigenous solutions or adoption of “best practices” not peculiar to the Nordic labour relations regime.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Suvi Päivikki Nenonen and Goran Lindahl

The purpose of this paper is to describe, discuss and analyze forerunner cases from three different decades in workplace concept development in Sweden and Finland and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe, discuss and analyze forerunner cases from three different decades in workplace concept development in Sweden and Finland and discuss the transformation over time to better facilitate management of office development and disseminate Nordic experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

The reflecting paper is discussing the development of workplace concepts. It is based on case studies collected from 1980s to the new millennium. The reflection is based on the perspective of Nordic culture. The characteristics of the Nordic culture used in the paper are low power distance and individualism.

Findings

The evolution from “office as a city” to “city as an office” has taken place in both countries and Nordic cultural values have provided fruitful platform for them. However, the layer of organizational culture in the studied workplaces also has an impact on the development and implication of the concepts.

Research limitations/implications

The selection of case studies is limited to two Nordic countries only. The comparison of all five Nordic countries could increase the understanding of Nordic culture and similarities and differences between the countries. The study could be deepened by a more thorough literature review including not only Nordic but also European cases.

Practical implications

The dilemma of management when designing workspaces for the changing world is in that individuals increasingly choose where to work, when, with whom and how. Facilitating that freedom of choice is a balancing act in modern workspace design where people is a scarcer resource than space. It requires an active management that sees their facilities as a part of their system not as a costly box top put it in.

Social implications

Easy access seems to be the key to the workspace of the future when decision power shifts from organizations to individuals. Simultaneously, individuals need to take more and more responsibility and action to get their job done: the cases illustrate how this has been done and that the integration and interaction between office concepts and office work will need to be on business agendas.

Originality/value

The perspective of Nordic workplace concept development from 1980s provide the material for future development, without an understanding of the past one cannot understand the future.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Sigrún Klara Hannesdóttir

Abstract: The Nordic Electronic Research Library is a concept which NORDINFO, the Nordic Council for Scientific Information, will use as an umbrella for its activities…

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Abstract

Abstract: The Nordic Electronic Research Library is a concept which NORDINFO, the Nordic Council for Scientific Information, will use as an umbrella for its activities during the coming years. The concept is based on national developments within the research library sector in each of the five Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The goals of the Nordic Electronic Research Library are built on national goals, which in general terms are to make scientific and technical information easily available in all the Nordic region, independent of subject area, publication form and location of the user. This paper explores briefly the developments of the electronic research library in the Nordic region and how the concept is carried out. NORDINFO provides grants and project money to support coordination and cooperation within the field and the question is raised as to how NORDINFO can assist this development and increase cooperative efforts.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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