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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Sharifah Alwi, Norbani Che-Ha, Bang Nguyen, Ezlika M. Ghazali, Dilip M. Mutum and Philip J. Kitchen

This study attempts to ascertain the essential dimensions and components of university brand image, including the cognitive attributes (service/educational quality) and affective…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study attempts to ascertain the essential dimensions and components of university brand image, including the cognitive attributes (service/educational quality) and affective attributes (corporate brand image) of the university.

Design/methodology/approach

The study develops, explores and presents a student-consumer behavioral response model based on students’ experiences at university, exploring the relationship between these attributes with satisfaction and behavioral response [word-of-mouth (WOM)].

Findings

Findings reveal that both branding aspects – brand experience and corporate brand image – follow a rational thought process first before an affective component is then taken into account, resulting in brand promise and loyalty. The study identifies several important cognitive brand image attributes and experiences that guide brand positioning for the Malaysian market, linking these to satisfaction and WOM.

Research limitations/implications

It was conducted in a single case-university and future research could replicate this in other schools/institutions. Cross-validation to other private institutions lies outside the scope of this study. Furthermore, although the study has identified specific attributes of university brands, they tend to be seen or interpreted as overall for both brand experiences and corporate brand image attributes because of the reflective nature of the construct, and also they tend to be seen as higher order rather than at individual levels. Further research is needed to analyze these dimensions using a quantitative approach at individual levels and testing the conceptual model as presented in the conceptual model. The study is focused on one Asian market (Malaysian students in X University) chosen for its potential growth in the future.

Practical implications

The present study contributes to the identification of specific students’ needs and attributes including courses and modules, reputable schools, the environment (e.g. campus – near to lecturer, international), helpful lecturers and the university location. Addressing the right brand attributes enhance and clarify the positioning aspect of the university brand, while simultaneously addressing the needs and wants of consumers. For example, by understanding the culture – consumer buying behavior within this setting, marketers or school administrators can identify exactly, which behaviors could be changed and by which mechanism i.e. talking to sponsors, and introducing activities to increase visibility/image in Malaysia. Interacting with sponsors can influence them toward sending students to X instead of to other universities in the UK.

Originality/value

The study contributes to theoretical knowledge in at least two different ways: by identifying possible corporate brand image attributes and experience that guide brand positioning (for the Malaysian market), and by exploring the relationship between these attributes and satisfaction and behavioral response (WOM) as proposed in the study’s conceptual framework. The study has identified the specific attributes that influence Malaysian students’ early interest in selecting X University via, for example, a recommendation from existing students at X, their sponsors, employers, the courses or modules X offers and location – in London. The study further revealed that corporate brand image attributes of business schools (cognitively and effectively) enhance corporate brand differentiation and positioning (Rauschnabel et al., 2016).

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Nadzirah Rosli, Norbani Che Ha and Ezlika M. Ghazali

This paper aims to investigate the effects of hotels’ brand attributes on consumers’ (patrons’ and guests’) by fostering brand credibility and brand attachment towards the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effects of hotels’ brand attributes on consumers’ (patrons’ and guests’) by fostering brand credibility and brand attachment towards the propensity of word-of-mouth. The study uses the signaling theory to assess the relationships among the constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach to validate the research model and the research hypotheses. To test the hypotheses, 474 travellers in Malaysia were recruited.

Findings

The empirical results reveal that hotel attributes have direct influence on brand credibility and brand attachment. Similarly, brand credibility has direct influence on brand attachment, while brand attachment also has direct influence on word-of-mouth. Consumers’ brand credibility partially mediates the relationship between hotel attributes and brand attachment. Likewise, consumer’s brand attachment also partially mediates the relationship between hotel attributes and word-of-mouth. Last but not least, brand credibility and brand attachment sequentially mediate the relationship between hotel attributes and word-of-mouth. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed together with its limitation and future research direction.

Originality/value

First, in terms of measures, brand attachment construct is operationalised as a formative second-order construct, with three reflective variables (brand passion, self-brand connection and brand affection) as the first-order constructs. In addition, brand credibility is also operationalised as a formative second-order construct, with three reflective variables (expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness) as the first-order constructs. On the other hand, hotel attributes construct is operationalised formatively as a higher-order abstraction of three categories of hotel facilities, which were also operationalised formatively (essential, culture compliant and in-room facilities). Second, this paper offers new insight into how brand credibility and brand attachment influence the relationship between hotel attributes and word-of-mouth. In a sustainability era, dissemination of complete and correct information is vital, to ensure consumers’ acceptance (e.g. likelihood to recommend to others). Thus, it is suggested that hotel managers to pay close attention to the role of brand credibility and brand attachment in tourists’ hotel choice, to secure sustainable brand.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Hasliza Abdul‐Halim and Norbani Che‐Ha

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trend of human resource (HR) outsourcing among manufacturing companies in Malaysia.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trend of human resource (HR) outsourcing among manufacturing companies in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the study were obtained from survey responses from 232 manufacturing companies in Malaysia, of which were engaged in HR outsourcing. Descriptive analyses were performed to obtain the information on the practices of HR outsourcing among these companies. The practices to be explored include the types of HR functions outsourced, and the reasons for and for not engaging HR outsourcing.

Findings

The findings suggest that only 49 percent of manufacturing companies engage HR outsourcing. This implies that the trend of HR outsourcing is still a relatively new practice, but is increasing considerably. Many companies tend to outsource recruitment functions because they want to get access to expert services. However, many companies also refuse to outsource HR functions because it is not appropriate for their business operations.

Research limitations/implications

This study is merely descriptive. Therefore, it does not test the relationship on the factors that induce the companies to engage HR outsourcing. In fact, it would be interesting for future studies to analyze the antecedents and consequences of HR outsourcing.

Practical implications

Manufacturing companies are aware of which HR functions are frequently outsourced. It guides them on the conditions in which HR outsourcing is most desired, such as the reasons for engaging with HR outsourcing and the reasons for not outsourcing HR functions. From this information, companies should be attentive to the potential HR functions to be outsourced.

Originality/value

As HR outsourcing is expected to boom in Malaysia in the next few years, this study provides an input for manufacturing companies to determine their HR deliveries in future.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Norbani Che-Ha, Zalfa Laili Hamzah, Mohd Edil Abd Sukor, Saad Mohd Said and Komala Veeriah

Islamic banking contributes significantly to the total assets of Malaysian banking sector. Yet, many argue that Islamic banking in Malaysia does not receive satisfactory support…

Abstract

Purpose

Islamic banking contributes significantly to the total assets of Malaysian banking sector. Yet, many argue that Islamic banking in Malaysia does not receive satisfactory support and participation from the public mainly due to poor awareness of its products and services and misconception about the Islamic banking system. It is timely to study consumers’ awareness of Islamic banking in the hopes of providing useful strategies for and assistance with marketing plans. This study is to explore consumer awareness towards Islamic banking products and services across a diverse set of demographic variables.

Methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was used in this study. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were distributed via convenience and snowballing sampling method to bank customers in a public university in Malaysia, and 817 responses from the survey were used for the analysis. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were employed to answer objectives of this study.

Findings

The findings of this study are anticipated to provide a holistic and comprehensive marketing insight to improve and strengthen Islamic banking in Malaysia.

Originality/value

This study examines the role of demographics such age, gender, race/religion, education level, occupation and income level in trying to understand the issues of Islamic banks’ product awareness. It is well accepted that the consumer’s attitude or behaviour should be studied among others through understanding customers’ demographics.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Cheah Chee Wei, Norbani Che-Ha and Suhana Mohezar

This study discusses the evolution of supply chain and the growing importance of dual marketing strategies. To understand the concept of dual marketing, we present a scenario…

Abstract

This study discusses the evolution of supply chain and the growing importance of dual marketing strategies. To understand the concept of dual marketing, we present a scenario faced by property developers in Malaysia on the impact of public policy on dual marketing strategy. This study is to uncover (1) the reasons why and how property developers adopt dual marketing strategy, (2) the impact of housing policy on the developers' dual marketing strategy and how they strategise to cope with the policy.

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Philip J. Kitchen, Sharifah Faridah Syed Alwi, Norbani Che-Ha and Pei Yee Lim

The purpose of this paper is to examine differing attitudinal characteristics (attitude and subjective norms) and perceptions of coupon characteristics (coupon value and coupon…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine differing attitudinal characteristics (attitude and subjective norms) and perceptions of coupon characteristics (coupon value and coupon expiration date) towards coupon redemption based on psychological and demographic segments of consumers who may well differ in their purchase motivations and accompanying decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a detailed literature review, the characteristics are examined by means of a structured questionnaire administered via “mall intercept” to a convenience sample in major shopping areas in Malaysia.

Findings

Following a variety of statistical tests, the findings support the use of coupon proneness, value consciousness, price consciousness and brand involvement as separate variables underpinning coupon usage propensity and indicated the value of coupons if used judiciously in relation to pre-identified segments.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations associated with convenience sampling apply here, that is the findings cannot be generalised.

Practical implications

The basis for sound parameters for the use of coupons are of value to marketing management.

Originality/value

The paper offers an unique insight into coupon propensity and usage from a little-known economy. Its value lies in the degrees of support offered to findings from more advanced economies and a basis for differentiation in the Malaysian context.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2009

Hasliza Abdul‐Halim, Norbani Che‐Ha and Alan Geare

This paper seeks to examine whether the decision to outsource human resource (HR) activities and the performance of the HR department are influenced by the particular business…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine whether the decision to outsource human resource (HR) activities and the performance of the HR department are influenced by the particular business strategy espoused by the organisation. Four distinct strategies are considered: quality‐based, proactive, breadth, and reactive.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the study were obtained from survey responses from 232 organisations, of which 113 were engaged in HR outsourcing.

Findings

The findings suggest that there is a significant relationship between organisations with proactive strategies and the decision to outsource both traditional and transactional HR functions. Breadth strategies demonstrate a negative significant relationship with outsourcing of traditional functions. Outsourcing of both functions has a significant relationship with HR performance – traditional with a positive impact and transactional with a negative impact.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focuses on the perceptions, knowledge and experience of senior HR managers. Therefore there are understandable limitations in respect of generalisation. In addition, the impact of HR outsourcing on the performance of the HR department focuses only on the reduction of the number of HR employees from the department.

Practical implications

The results indicate that HR outsourcing has the potential to empower HR managers, allowing them to focus on strategic activities that add more value to their organisation. Also, the results show that HR reduces actual HR labour costs.

Originality/value

The study applies to a very under‐researched area.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Beyond Multi-channel Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-686-5

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Abstract

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Abstract

Details

Beyond Multi-channel Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-686-5

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