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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Nasir Sultan and Norazida Mohamed

This study aims to determine the applicability of the placement-layering-integration model of money laundering (ML) in the South Asian context with emphasis on Pakistan by…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the applicability of the placement-layering-integration model of money laundering (ML) in the South Asian context with emphasis on Pakistan by analysing different ML typologies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied content analysis in the first step. It explored three primary documents concerning ML typologies: Asia Pacific Group’s yearly reports on ML typologies from 2010 to 2021, the mutual evaluation reports and the National Risk Assessment of Pakistan. In the second step, expert interviews were recorded, and NVivo was used for data management and analysis.

Findings

This study found primary predicate offences: corruption, tax crimes, smuggling and drug and human trafficking. Pakistani launderers often use traditional typologies, including cash smuggling, round-tripping, multiple bank accounts, investment in real estate (in Pakistan and Dubai) and hawala. However, cybercrimes, cyber laundering and trade-based ML are rising. The politically exposed persons are involved in most of the laundering cases.

Originality/value

Rare studies specifically address the south Asian typologies and the limitations of the placement, layering and integration model. Therefore, there is a need to understand the current typologies used in developing, less regulated and undocumented jurisdictions like Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Haniza Hanim Mustafa Bakri, Norazida Mohamed and Jamaliah Said

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of fraud risk elements and integrity on asset misappropriation in the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP). In addition, this research also…

1981

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effects of fraud risk elements and integrity on asset misappropriation in the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP). In addition, this research also examines whether integrity moderates the relationship between fraud risk elements and asset misappropriation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are gathered from the responses of the questionnaires distributed to the RMP. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed based on simple random selection from five RMP centres in the capital city. Out of 200 questionnaires distributed, only 189 were returned.

Findings

The findings indicate that the existence of fraud risk elements significantly affects the incident of asset misappropriation. An interesting finding was made that integrity is negatively related to asset misappropriation. This implies that integrity is an important value in minimising the occurrence of asset misappropriation. The results also indicate that minimising fraud risk elements is crucial in reducing the incident of asset misappropriation.

Originality/value

This present paper contributes to the literature by investigating a commonly proposed but underexplored elements of integrity in mitigating fraud. Incorporating integrity and fraud risk elements simultaneously in a single framework in context of RMP would enhance the understanding and will be able to provide a framework for practitioners on how to mitigate the incident of fraud.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2022

Hafizah Mohd Latif, Norazida Mohamed, Morrison Handley-Schachler and Azhan Jalaludin

Money laundering weakens the role of the construction industry in stimulating economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between money…

Abstract

Purpose

Money laundering weakens the role of the construction industry in stimulating economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between money laundering on the construction sites and undocumented foreign workers, based on a narrative drawn from a qualitative research.

Design/methodology/approach

Throughout the study, qualitative methods, i.e. interviews, site visits and document analysis, were used. However, the data for this paper was primarily derived from an interview. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.

Findings

The findings show that construction personnel who have access to the business’s financial affairs are the most likely to engage in illicit transactions. The size of the project as well as the multiple layers of organisations involved made it easy for launderers to operate. The appealing commission provided incentives to opportunistic personnel. In this regard, the wages for undocumented workers, which were primarily paid in cash, provided a considerable opportunity for the subcontracting organisations to engage in money laundering.

Research limitations/implications

While the single narrative method with an omniscient narrator allows for the conceptualisation of a human experience with money laundering, the depth of information and interpretations is limited. Emerging qualitative research methods may be incorporated in the future to provide a more extensive information due to the fact that money laundering data is complex and sensitive that few people want to discuss.

Originality/value

The multidisciplinary approach of this research provides a pedagogical way that focuses primarily on the disciplines of construction management and business ethics to demonstrate real-world money laundering practice. Understanding such phenomenon on sites opens up key avenues for future research into developing an anti-money laundering regime for the construction industry.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

Nasir Sultan and Norazida Mohamed

This study aims to investigates the challenges faced by Pakistani financial institutes (FIs) and regulators in implementing robust customer due diligence measures.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigates the challenges faced by Pakistani financial institutes (FIs) and regulators in implementing robust customer due diligence measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a qualitative technique. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews with chief compliance officers and regulators were conducted.

Findings

The study concluded that the main challenges are name screening, obsolete nature and quality of databases and undocumented, unregistered and unregulated portions of the economy and society. In addition, identification and verification of high-profile customers and beneficial owners, lack of specialised staff and cost of compliance are the significant challenges faced by FIs in Pakistan.

Originality/value

The Pakistani financial sector is less researched on anti-money laundering front, especially concerning customer due diligence. Further, the social, cultural and economic norms of the Indian sub-continent are more or less the same. Therefore, the study findings could be generalised to the region.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2022

Nasir Sultan and Norazida Mohamed

This study aims to evaluate and investigate the existing process of establishing a banking relationship with politically exposed persons.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate and investigate the existing process of establishing a banking relationship with politically exposed persons.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used qualitative techniques of semi-structured interviews with senior compliance officers of financial institutes in Pakistan.

Findings

This study found that the existing mechanism of identification and verification of politically exposed persons (PEPs) is ineffective. Financial institutes face challenges like the quality of name screening data sets, cost of identification and verification, role and control of the regulator, the influence of politically exposed persons, the opaqueness of laws and international connections of the politically exposed persons. Further, financial Institutes are burdened by regulators to perform robust PEP customer due diligence but do not guide and provide the right tools.

Originality/value

This paper aims to find challenges faced by financial institutes before onboarding the PEPs. Further, very limited studies on this topic have been conducted in Pakistani context.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2022

Nasir Sultan and Norazida Mohamed

This study aims to determine the performance of the Pakistani financial intelligence unit in combating money laundering/terrorist financing in local and global contexts.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the performance of the Pakistani financial intelligence unit in combating money laundering/terrorist financing in local and global contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a qualitative research design. The objective is achieved by critically examining the Anti-money Laundering Act and its relevant clauses concerning the financial monitoring unit and other related legislation. Further, empirical data was collected through semi-structured interviews with chief compliance officers from regulated entities, regulators and premier law enforcer.

Findings

The performance of the financial monitoring unit has severe issues concerning the dissemination of financial intelligence due to its time taking behaviour, non-sharing of feedback with reporting agencies, dearth of international cooperation, lack of trained and relevant personnel and financial constraints.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is a maiden study concerning financial monitoring unit in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Silambarasi Kuralneethi, Sarina Sariman and Vaidehi Ulaganathan

This study aimed to determine the relationship between calorie and macronutrients intake and the growth status of Aboriginal children based on gender and age group.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to determine the relationship between calorie and macronutrients intake and the growth status of Aboriginal children based on gender and age group.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional study participated by 85 school-aged Aboriginal children at Labu, Negeri Sembilan. The dietary intake and socioeconomic status data were collected from the parents using an interviewer administrated structured-questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall. WHO AnthroPlus software was used to determine the z-score of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMI) for age (BAZ).

Findings

The mean fat intake was significantly higher among younger children (i.e. 7–9 years old) as compared to elder children (i.e. 10–12 years old) (40.7 ± 17.3 g vs 32.0 ± 13.8 g; t = 2.496, p = 0.015) but not for the mean intake of calorie (1816.1 ± 979.9 kcal vs 1566.3 ± 808.7 kcal; t = 1.248, p = 0.216), protein (50.13 ± 20.08 g vs 44.94 ± 16.45 g; t = 1.269, p = 0.208) and carbohydrates (198.0 ± 63.0 g vs 190.8 ± 66.1 g; t = 0.513, p = 0.609). The majority of the respondents did not meet recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for the calorie (65.9%) and fat (75.3%). A significantly higher proportion of elder children did not meet RNI for fat as compared to younger children (88.8% vs 65.3%; X2 = 6.21, p = 0.021). The HAZ showed that 28.2% (n = 24) of the Aboriginal children were stunted, while WAZ showed that 14.8% (n = 9) of the Aboriginal students were underweight, and 8.2% of them were overweight. Based on BAZ classification, 15.4% (n = 6) of boys and 2.2% (n = 1) of girls were overweight. There is no significant correlation between calories and macronutrients and growth status of the children.

Originality/value

Although the under-nutrition status among Aboriginal children is still a highlighted issue, the few over-nutrition statuses among Aborigines should be taken into count, especially in term of energy and macronutrient intake.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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