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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Jung Ran Park and Houda El Mimouni

The purpose of this study is to examine how tweeters drawn from three different languages and cultural boundaries manage the lack of contextual cues through an analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how tweeters drawn from three different languages and cultural boundaries manage the lack of contextual cues through an analysis of Arabic, English and Korean tweets.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study is drawn from a corpus of tweets (n = 1,200) streamed using Python through Twitter API. Using the language information, the authors limited the number of tweets to 400 randomly selected tweets from each language, totaling 1,200 tweets. Final coding taxonomy was derived through interactive processes preceded by literature and a preliminary analysis based on a small subset (n = 150) by isolating nonverbal communication devices and emoticons.

Findings

The results of the study present that there is great commonality across these tweets in terms of strategies and creativity in compensating for the constraints imposed by the tweet platform. The language-specific characteristics are also shown in the form of different usage of devices.

Research limitations/implications

Emoticon usage indicates that the communication mode influences online social interaction; the restriction of 140 maximum characters seems to engender a frequent usage of emoticons across tweets regardless of language differences. The results of the study bring forth implications into the design of social media technologies that reflect affective aspects of communication and language-/culture-specific traits and characteristics.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no qualitative studies examining paralinguistic nonverbal communication cues in the Twitter platform across language boundaries.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 69 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Cheng-Yu Lin and Jiun-Sheng Chris Lin

Rapport between service employees and customers has been suggested to be an important determinant of customer relationship management, yet existing marketing literature…

Abstract

Purpose

Rapport between service employees and customers has been suggested to be an important determinant of customer relationship management, yet existing marketing literature still lacks a sufficient understanding of how service employees’ nonverbal communication affects customer-employee rapport development in service encounters. The purpose of this paper is to fill this research gap by proposing and testing a model that explores how service employees’ nonverbal communication (employee affective delivery and behavioral mimicry) influences customer positive emotions and customer-employee rapport. The mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere in the process of customer-employee rapport development were also assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an observational methodology in conjunction with a customer survey, multi-source survey data collected from 303 customer-employee pairs in the apparel retailing industry was examined through structural equation modeling and regression analysis.

Findings

Results showed that employee nonverbal communication positively influenced customer positive emotions and customer-employee rapport. The partial mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere in the process of rapport development were also confirmed.

Practical implications

Service firms should train and motivate employees to use nonverbal communication to develop and strengthen customer-employee rapport. The importance of customer positive emotions in the service process should be addressed in the customer-employee rapport development process. Moreover, service managers should also allocate firm resources to create a well-designed store atmosphere for target customers.

Originality/value

This research represents one of the earliest studies to explore and empirically test the influence of employee nonverbal communication on customer-employee rapport development in service encounters. The partial mediating role of customer positive emotions and the moderating role of store atmosphere on the relationship between employee nonverbal communication and customer-employee rapport were also proposed and confirmed.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Panagiotis Gkorezis, Victoria Bellou and Nikolaos Skemperis

Nonverbal communication comprises a core element of the interactions between leader and follower. Nevertheless, there is limited empirical attention regarding the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

Nonverbal communication comprises a core element of the interactions between leader and follower. Nevertheless, there is limited empirical attention regarding the impact of nonverbal cues on followers’ attitudinal outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this gap by linking a salient form of nonverbal communication, kinesics, to an under-researched leader-follower relationship outcome, that is relational identification (RI) with the supervisor. In doing so, the authors also highlight the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX) in the aforementioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two studies in different countries. Moreover, the authors examined the hypotheses using hierarchical regression and bootstrap analysis.

Findings

As hypothesized, the present results showed that kinesics have both a direct and an indirect effect, through LMX, on RI with the supervisor.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge this is the first study that links a form of nonverbal communication to both LMX and RI.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Amjad A. Abu‐ELSamen, Mamoun N. Akroush, Fayez M. Al‐Khawaldeh and Motteh S. Al‐Shibly

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between customer service skills and customers' loyalty through examining the mediation effect of customer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between customer service skills and customers' loyalty through examining the mediation effect of customer satisfaction dimensions in Jordan's mobile service operators.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the research objectives, data were collected from 1,350 subscribers in Jordan from which 1,007 were valid for the analysis. Utilizing structural equation modeling, and after a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the authors tested an integrated model of customer service skills and customer loyalty through examining the meditational effects of customer service satisfaction dimensions on the relationship between customer service skills and customer loyalty.

Findings

It was found that three of customer service skills components, namely; reputation building skills, nonverbal communication skills, and customer service culture have positive relationships with customer service satisfaction dimensions (overall, functional, and technical customer satisfaction). Also, overall customer service satisfaction and technical customer service satisfaction dimensions fully mediated the relationships between customer service skills and customer loyalty.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to investigate the relationship between customer service skills and customer loyalty through customer service satisfaction dimensions as mediators, either in Jordan or other developing countries. The authors' results also provide significant managerial implications on how to acquire and retain loyal customers in today's highly competitive telecommunications market, and the vital role of customer service satisfaction dimensions on the relationship between customer service skills and customer loyalty.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

D.S. Sundaram and Cynthia Webster

Although the verbal components of service encounters have been investigated, the nonverbal aspects of employee‐customer interactions have remained virtually unexplored in…

Abstract

Although the verbal components of service encounters have been investigated, the nonverbal aspects of employee‐customer interactions have remained virtually unexplored in the marketing literature. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of service employees’ nonverbal communication during service interactions. Specifically, a conceptual model is presented that links nonverbal communication (kinesics, paralanguage, proxemics, and physical appearance), customer affect, and consumers’ evaluations of service providers (with respect to credibility, friendliness, competence, empathy, courtesy, and trustworthiness). Further, the importance of nonverbal elements is discussed and managerial implications are given.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Drew Martin

Acculturation theory shows how foreign actors have evolved in Japanese television commercials. If advertising mirrors culture, foreign businesses trying to advertise…

Abstract

Purpose

Acculturation theory shows how foreign actors have evolved in Japanese television commercials. If advertising mirrors culture, foreign businesses trying to advertise products in Japan need to be aware of societal changes and tailor their messages to the preferences of the local population. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis explores the changing role of foreign female actors in Japanese television advertising for the years 1992 and 2002. Advertisements' setting, roles, appeals, and verbal and nonverbal communications are tested by chi‐square analysis.

Findings

Ads from the 2002 data set show increases in both traditional and modern themes in regards to the location of the ads, roles foreign females play, the advertising appeals, and the use of Japanese communication modalities. The findings suggest that advertisers are consciously or unconsciously incorporating cultural assimilation when ads include foreign actors.

Research limitations/implications

Acculturation theory is useful for explaining cultural shifts to develop more effective advertising messages. Differences in portrayals of foreign people in advertising reflect changes in cultural values that appear to be changing more rapidly due to global trade and communication technology innovations.

Practical implications

Recognizing shifts in cultural norms allows marketers to more effectively communicate with target audiences. Advertisers employing foreign actors may find their messages more effective if local cultural assimilation is used.

Originality/value

This paper identifies and examines changes in communication modalities to show foreign actors displaying Japanese mannerisms. The evidence suggests cultural norms evolve sometimes quickly over time. Even advertisers using a localized approach must carefully monitor changes in cultural norms to assure message effectiveness.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2020

Monica K. Miller

Affirmative consent (AC) policies require potential sexual partners to clearly and positively confirm that they want to engage in sexual behavior – in contrast to standard…

Abstract

Purpose

Affirmative consent (AC) policies require potential sexual partners to clearly and positively confirm that they want to engage in sexual behavior – in contrast to standard “no means no” policies, which typically define consent through resistance. AC policies might not be effective because they do not align well with typical scripts of how consent is given in practice. This study aims to compare participants’ judgments as to what constitutes sexual assault, using either an AC policy or a standard “no means no” policy.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants read 16 scenarios depicting various male-female sexual encounters and applied either an AC or a standard “no means no” policy to determine whether the encounter was consensual.

Findings

When an AC policy was used, participants were more likely to judge the scenario as sexual assault. Aspects of the scenario (which reflect AC policy criteria), such as the type of communication (verbal or nonverbal), clarity of communication (clear or unclear) and resistance (high or low) also affected judgments of the scenario. Relationship type (stranger vs acquaintance) did not affect judgments. Students were more likely to perceive the scenarios as sexual assault than community members; they also perceived differences between scenarios based on verbal communication and clarity more than community members. Finally, there was no main effect of participant gender, however, men perceived differences between scenarios based on verbal communication type, whereas women did not.

Research limitations/implications

Findings indicate that participants are generally able to apply AC policies correctly, even though AC criteria do not generally align with common sexual scripts.

Originality/value

This is the first study known to test whether decision-makers can properly apply criteria outlined in AC policies and whether the application of these policies affect decisions-makers judgments as to whether a sexual encounter is consensual or assault.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

D.L. Roter, L.H. Erby, J.A. Hall, S. Larson, L. Ellington and W. Dudley

This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic counselors and nine simulated clients. The videotapes were shown to 559 subjects recruited to act as analogue clients (ACs) with the instruction to imagine themselves as the client in the simulation. The profile of nonverbal sensitivity (PONS), a video and audio test of accuracy in the interpretation of nonverbal cues, was administered to both the genetic counselors and ACs. In addition, the ACs completed a literacy screen and post session measures of learning and session satisfaction.

Findings

The study finds that ACs' post‐session knowledge score was positively associated with both their own and the counselors' audio PONS scores. Also related to knowledge were clients' literacy, younger age and non‐minority ethnicity. Ratings of session satisfaction were inversely related to ACs' and counselors' video PONS scores and ACs' literacy and anxiety.

Research limitations/implications

While based on the performance of a large number of practicing genetic counselors, simulated and analogue clients are used to explore study questions.

Practical implications

The nonverbal sensitivity of both providers and ACs plays a role in medical communication and its cognitive and affective consequences. These findings warrant greater attention to nonverbal dynamics in future research and interventions.

Originality/value

No similar studies have investigated the role of nonverbal sensitivity in predicting learning and satisfaction for users of health care services.

Details

Health Education, vol. 108 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Linda Talley and Samuel Temple

The purpose of this paper is to address the relationship between a leader’s use of nonverbal immediacy (specific hand gestures) and followers’ attraction to the leader…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the relationship between a leader’s use of nonverbal immediacy (specific hand gestures) and followers’ attraction to the leader. This study provides initial evidence that certain hand gestures are more effective than others at creating immediacy between leaders and followers.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental study, participants (male=89; female=121) were shown one of three videos of an actor, as leader, using three positive hand gestures, three defensive hand gestures, and no hand gestures, which have not been previously operationalized (and were grouped arbitrarily by the experimenter). Three hypotheses were tested using a 3×2 ANOVA (by group and gender) for main and interactional effects.

Findings

The independent variable, positive hand gestures (M=2.4), was perceived by participants as more immediate than the other two independent variables, defensive hand gestures (M=−19.2) or no hand gestures (M=−21.6). Analysis of data indicate that participants perceived leaders with no hand gestures and defensive hand gestures to be distant or non-immediate and the leader with positive hand gestures to be more immediate or attractive.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited as a pilot study establishing differences between specific hand gestures for the first time.

Practical implications

The research provides initial evidence that the hand gestures arbitrarily defined as “positive” create more immediacy between the followers and the leader than usage of “negative” gestures and no gestures.

Social implications

The current research can act as a motivator for leaders to fast forward relationships with followers through the use of specific hand gestures.

Originality/value

The results suggest the possibility that some hand gestures are more effective than others.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

Dawn Owens and Deepak Khazanchi

In an environment of constant technological change, the use of virtual teams (VTs) has become commonplace for many organizations. VTs bring together dispersed individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

In an environment of constant technological change, the use of virtual teams (VTs) has become commonplace for many organizations. VTs bring together dispersed individuals with varying knowledge and skill sets to accomplish tasks. VTs rely heavily on information technology (IT) as the medium for communication and coordination of work. The issue of establishing and maintaining trust in VTs poses challenges for these dispersed workers. Previous research has established that higher trusting teams have better cooperation and experience improved outcomes. The authors hope to contribute to the literature on trust in VTs by exploring how technology can facilitate high trusting teams. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to report the results of the research addressing the following question: how does the use of technology capabilities (TCs) afforded by virtual worlds (VWs) affect the development of trust in VTs?

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case-study approach was used as the primary research design. Each case spanned a two-week period allowing for longitudinal data collection. The research was conducted within a VW setting with an emphasis on IT capabilities that are unique to three-dimensional VWs. Both qualitative and quantitative data collected during this process were analyzed at the group level.

Findings

The authors found that communication, rendering and interaction TCs allowed participants to use the technology to assess individual capabilities. While this paper answers some questions about how TCs can help develop trust in VTs, it also raises many questions. This study offers a model and framework for further work on this topic and encourages researchers to investigate other social and behavioral issues faced by VTs in a VW setting.

Research limitations/implications

While this paper answers some questions about how various TCs can help develop trust in VTs, it also raises many questions. The study results may not be generalizable if the respondents who visit an immersive VW are different from those who do not have sufficient VW experience. However, the authors believe that the relationships between the constructs would remain. Another potential limitation has to do with how often trustfulness/trustworthiness were measured in the study. Measuring trustfulness/trustworthiness at additional points in the study would help determine specific points where these constructs changed. Finally, the study suffers from the common criticisms of case study research. Case research requires direct observation which includes cost, time and access hurdles. However, many of these challenges were addressed by using various data collection methods. Another difficulty is the need for multiple methods for triangulation and lack of controls. Again, the study addressed these difficulties by combining qualitative and quantitative data sources.

Practical implications

This research provides deeper insight for organizations using VTs in terms of how TCs can be used to engender trust. This has implications for how we design collaboration technologies.

Social implications

The fundamental societal implication of this research is the conclusion that human behavior in the present world can potentially carry over in the VW and that TCs can be adapted and used to influence trust in VTs. This has implications for how we design collaboration technologies.

Originality/value

This paper offers practical implications for developing trust in VTs, specifically, how the use of TCs can facilitate trust development. The goal was not to recommend a specific technology platform, but rather explore how unique TCs impact behaviors in VTs. The study identified interesting findings relating to how people use TCs to complete tasks and collaborate on a team. These findings may be used to help develop guidelines and recommendations for using technology to enhance work practices in VTs.

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