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Book part

Juan Jose Barrios and Mieke Meurs

Literature on nontraditional firms has focused on behavioral differences with for-profit firms. Less attention has been given to the variations in behavior among…

Abstract

Literature on nontraditional firms has focused on behavioral differences with for-profit firms. Less attention has been given to the variations in behavior among nontraditional firms. This chapter examines differences across three types of Uruguayan nonprofit health care organizations.

This chapter draws on a unique dataset of Uruguayan health care organizations during the period 1982–1990, as well as interviews with doctors working in the three types of nonprofits during spring 2010. We use a simple OLS regression to identify differences in average behavior, and differences in reaction to a regulatory change.

The chapter shows that structure of stake holding and governance significantly affect behavior, even where many behaviors are highly regulated.

These findings highlight the importance of specifying governance structure when predicting behavior of nontraditional firms. Empirical tests of behavioral differences between traditional and nontraditional firms will be more meaningful if the governance structure of nontraditional firms is common and specified. A limitation of our study is our inability to control for the timing of degeneration of producer cooperatives. This would be one element of governance structure to consider in future data collection.

These findings highlight the need to avoid drawing broad policy conclusions from the behavior of a specific subset of nontraditional firms.

This chapter highlights the importance of carefully specifying stakeholder and governance structure when predicting behavior of nontraditional firms. It is of interest to anyone using a sample of nontraditional firms to test general hypotheses about their behavior.

Details

Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory and Labor-Managed Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-760-5

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Article

Mirae Kim and Dyana P. Mason

Many empirical studies have focused on whether public funding leverages (crowds in) or discourages (crowds out) private giving behavior, finding mixed results. Recent…

Abstract

Purpose

Many empirical studies have focused on whether public funding leverages (crowds in) or discourages (crowds out) private giving behavior, finding mixed results. Recent studies suggest the need to examine how nonprofits adjust their fundraising efforts after experiencing cuts or increases in government funding, which can then influence donor behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors conduct an online survey experiment with nonprofit managers to test how nonprofits respond to changes in government funding.

Findings

The authors find some evidence that nonprofit organizations would change their fundraising expenses when facing cuts in government funding, yet the authors also find that the change could be either to increase or decrease fundraising spending. Since decisions are made by executive directors, the study also considered how executive personality type as maximizers or satisficers may interact with institutional and environmental constraints in decision-making. When funding goals are met, executives tend to behave as “satisficers” and are unlikely to make significant changes, even when their individual personality is more consistent with being a “maximizer.”

Research limitations/implications

The authors find these results to be the reflection of the current environment in which many nonprofits operate, characterized by pressures to keep operating costs low. The results of the experiment have implications for both funding agencies and nonprofits that strive to enhance the capacity of nonprofit services.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to untangle the multilayered relationships between government funding, fundraising, leader preferences and personalities, and donations using an experimental approach with current nonprofit leaders.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article

Nina Michaelidou, Milena Micevski and Nikoletta Theofania Siamagka

– This paper aims to examine consumers’ non-profit brand image, brand typicality and past behaviour as determinants of intention to donate to two children charity brands.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine consumers’ non-profit brand image, brand typicality and past behaviour as determinants of intention to donate to two children charity brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were obtained from two separate studies via a questionnaire, both in the context of two children charities, one for Barnardo’s and the other for BBC Children in Need charity. A theoretical model is developed, tested and compared across the two charity brands.

Findings

Findings highlight that different factors influence intentions to donate time and money according to the charity brand. Brand typicality is a key determinant of time donations, while the impact of non-profit brand image dimensions on time and money donations differs across the two charities. Past behaviour affects intentions to donate money in both charities but impacts time donations in only one of the two charities investigated.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines specific dimensions of non-profit brand image across two different charity brands and offers theoretical insights about the value of brand image in a non-for profit context in shaping consumer outcomes (i.e. consumer intentions to donate).

Originality/value

The study sheds further light into the notion of typicality put forward by Michel and Rieunier (2012) for two children’s charity brands that differ in terms of their strength and income levels and examined past behaviour as a determinant to donate to charity brands.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article

Gary Gregory, Liem Ngo and Ryan Miller

The purpose of this study develops and validates a model of new donor decision-making in the charity sector. Drawing upon dual process theory, the model incorporates brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study develops and validates a model of new donor decision-making in the charity sector. Drawing upon dual process theory, the model incorporates brand salience and brand attitude as antecedents of brand choice intention, moderated by donor decision involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 generates measures using interviews with marketing, media and research managers, and new donors from two international aid and relief organizations. Study 2 uses an experimental design to first test scenarios of disaster relief, and then validate and confirm a new donor decision model using large-scale consumer panels for the international aid and relief sector in Australia.

Findings

The results replicated across four leading international aid-related charities reveal that brand salience is positively related to brand choice intention through the mediating effect of brand attitude. Furthermore, the effect of brand salience on brand choice intention is significantly stronger when donor decision involvement is low. Conversely, the effect of brand attitude on brand choice intention is stronger for higher levels of donor decision involvement.

Practical implications

Managers should understand the importance of brand salience/attitudes and the implications for the communication strategy. Managers should also strive to understand the level of decision involvement and the relative influence of brand attitude/salience on brand choice intention.

Originality/value

This study advances the literature on charitable giving by proposing and testing a moderated mediation model of donor choice when selecting a charity for donation. Findings provide new insights into the extent to which brand salience, brand attitude and donor decision-making influence how new donors choose between charities for donation.

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Article

Murtala Oladimeji Abioye Mustafa, Muslim Har Sani Mohamad and Muhammad Akhyar Adnan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and explain the factors underlying the inclination of zakat payers to trust a particular zakat institution.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and explain the factors underlying the inclination of zakat payers to trust a particular zakat institution.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature review and experience survey, a context specific questionnaire was developed as the main method of quantitative data collection. The instrument was administered to a sample of Muslim professionals who observe religious seclusion in the last ten days of the Islamic fasting month (itqaf) in 12 purposely selected mosques across four states and the federal capital territory.

Findings

Drawn from the resource dependence and legitimacy theories, the study finds that board capital, disclosure practices, governmental model of zakat institution, and stakeholder management were identified through the use of structural equation modeling as being the antecedents of zakat payers' trust.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to report an empirically based model of zakat payers' trust.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article

Dipankar Rai, Chien-Wei (Wilson) Lin and Chun-Ming Yang

This paper aims to investigate how the perception of physical coldness (vs warmth) influences consumers to make charitable donations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how the perception of physical coldness (vs warmth) influences consumers to make charitable donations.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were conducted involving charitable donation scenarios.

Findings

Studies demonstrate that cold (vs warm) temperature cues result in greater intentions to donate to charities. Specifically, cold (vs warmth) cues activate the need for social connection which, in turn, motivate consumers to donate more money to charities. Furthermore, this effect holds even when the actual temperature instead of temperature cues is changed, and participants’ actual donation behavior instead of donation intentions is measured, thereby, strengthening the findings of this paper.

Research limitations/implications

Boundary conditions associated with the effect of temperature cues need empirical investigation. Future research needs to investigate if the effect holds with variability of coldness. Future research also needs to determine whether the documented effect occur across various pro-social contexts.

Practical implications

The results suggest that non-profit organizations incorporate “cold” cues into advertisements (people feeling cold or cold landscapes) to increase monetary donations and that these organizations should focus on targeting donors during wintertime (vs summer time) to get more donations.

Originality/value

This is the first research to demonstrate the effects of temperature cues on charitable donations. The added value of this paper is the use of physical temperature change to highlight the phenomenon, and the link between cold (vs warm) temperature cue and the need of social connection.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Carmen Camarero and Ma José Garrido

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between museums and their donor clients (“friends”) by analysing the relative importance of the benefits (material…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between museums and their donor clients (“friends”) by analysing the relative importance of the benefits (material and non‐material) that such friends of the organisation receive, their organisational identification with the museum: and their perceptions of satisfaction, trust, and future commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the tenets of both relationship marketing and social identity theory, the study develops and proposes a model of the relationships among the relevant constructs. This is empirically tested using survey data collected from 231 friends of Spanish museums of fine arts.

Findings

The study finds that positive and significant links exist between: the benefits (material and non‐material) that members receive and their degree of organisational identification with the museum, and organisational identification and certain relational constructs (satisfaction with products and services, trust in the organisation and the intention to maintain a long‐lasting relationship).

Research limitations/implications

The sample is restricted to members of Spanish fine arts museums, thus limiting the generalisability of the findings.

Practical implications

Museums must manage their relationships with members and donors effectively by providing incentives that provide true value. Such benefits generate organisational identification, thus reinforcing the relationship between the museum and its important donors.

Originality/value

From a theoretical perspective, the paper is the first to posit “organisational identification” as the nexus between customer perceptions of non‐profit organisations and the quality of the ongoing relationship between the organisation and its members. From a practical perspective, the study demonstrates the importance of relational policies that promote organisational identification as a means of consolidating relationships with important donors and other members.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article

Lise Anne D. Slatten

Several nonprofit associations have implemented assessment and certification programs intending to produce institutional improvement for member organizations. Using the…

Abstract

Several nonprofit associations have implemented assessment and certification programs intending to produce institutional improvement for member organizations. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a foundation, this study develops and tests an extension of TAM with organizations that chose to participate in one such program, (the Louisiana Standards for Excellence organizational assessment), and with those that did not. The results of this quantitative study largely validate TAM and indicate that dimensions such as usefulness, access barriers related to resources, attitudes, executive director pro-activity and behavioral intent all influence the decision to pursue voluntary certification. These findings advance current theory and contribute to the foundation for future research aimed at understanding user-adoption behavior in a general sense, and more specifically, in the nonprofit sector.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Book part

Sonia Moi, Fabio Monteduro and Luca Gnan

Recent literature on nonprofit boards of directors has extensively investigated the composition, role, responsibilities, and characteristics of boards. Given the growing…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent literature on nonprofit boards of directors has extensively investigated the composition, role, responsibilities, and characteristics of boards. Given the growing number of studies on nonprofit boards, which added new impulse to the debate on the role and characteristics of these players, it is time to analyze the state of the art and systematize the current knowledge. On the other hand, despite the presence of some literature reviews, a research comparing the debate among the nonprofit, private, and public sectors is still lacking. Using Gabrielsson and Huse’s (2004) framework, we wanted to identify factors that can influence research on nonprofit boards and compare our results with existing studies on private and public sector.

Methodology/Approach

We conduct a systematic literature review, selecting empirical articles published in international scientific journals from 1992 to 2012.

Findings

We found similarities and differences in relation to research on boards among sectors. As a common result, we found that evolutionary studies still remains a neglected area in all of three realms. Finally, whereas input–output studies prevail in the private sector and contingency studies prevail in the public sector, behavioral studies prevail in the nonprofit sector, demonstrating, also, that the sector itself can make a difference in the board’s research.

Research Limitations/Implications

This literature review provides some suggestion for further research on boards for all of three sectors. For example, we suggest complementing research on boards on all three sectors, especially in relation to evolutionary studies.

Originality/Value of Paper

This paper fills the need to clarify the status of research on nonprofit boards, in order to address scholars in the understanding of the phenomenon.

Details

Mechanisms, Roles and Consequences of Governance: Emerging Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-706-1

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Article

Sarah-Louise Mitchell and Moira Clark

This paper aims to explore how volunteers choose one nonprofit organisation (NPO) rather than another. It identifies the drivers of choice, and the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how volunteers choose one nonprofit organisation (NPO) rather than another. It identifies the drivers of choice, and the relationship between them, to enable NPOs to strengthen their volunteer recruitment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 51 service-delivery volunteers were interviewed, drawn from 5 leading NPOs. A laddering technique was used to understand the context in which the choice of organisation was made and the underlying personal needs and goals. The data was analysed using means-end chain (MEC) methodology to uncover the relationships between, and hierarchy of, the decision drivers.

Findings

Brand, cause, and role were found to be important in meeting personal needs and goals through volunteering. The paper makes three contributions. Firstly, it presents a clearer understanding of NPO choice through adopting an integrated theoretical perspective. Secondly, it identifies the decision-making process and key relationships between the attributes of the NPO, the consequences for the volunteer, and the connection to their personal needs. Finally, the study makes an important contribution to literature through presenting a new conceptual framework of volunteer decision-making in the nonprofit context to act as a catalyst for future research.

Research limitations/implications

This research is both impactful through, and limited by, its context selection: regular service-delivery volunteers from five NPOs within two causes. The paper presents a rich research stream to extend this understanding to other nonprofit stakeholders, other causes including medical volunteer, and smaller NPOs.

Practical implications

In an increasingly competitive nonprofit environment with a growing need to support the vulnerable in society, NPO sustainability is dependent on their ability to recruit new volunteers. NPOs compete not only with other organisations with similar causes but also those offering similar volunteering roles, and other uses of time to meet personal needs such as sport, career, or community. Understanding how volunteers make their choice of NPO rather than other uses of their time is of vital importance to make the most effective use of scarce marketing resources. This paper contributes to that practitioner understanding.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to extend the understanding of generic motivations of volunteers to consider specific choice of NPO. Unlike previous literature, the authors bring together theory on brand, cause, and role with personal needs. The authors are also the first to apply MEC methodology to the nonprofit context to uncover the personal underlying, less salient reasons behind NPO choice and the relationship between them.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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